Weaver’s Wisdom




Aadheenam: ஆதீனம் “Ownership, possession, dependence; endowment, foundation, institution;” Saiva monastery. A Saivite Hindu monastery-temple complex in the South Indian, Saiva Siddhanta tradition. The aadheenam head, or pontiff, is called the Guru Mahasannidhanam or aadheenakartar, who traditionally consecrates the scepter of the maharaja through sacred ceremony. See: Hinduism, Śaiva Siddhanta, sannidhanam. §

abide: To live or remain in a place; to endure or dwell.§

abound: To exist in great numbers or quantity. —to abound in: to have in great numbers or quantity.§

Abrahamic religions: The three religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam, which descend from the lineage of Abraham, originating in the Middle East. They are all based in the Biblical tradition, which holds that God and man are eternally separate.§

accessible: Easy to approach. §

accumulate: To amass, cause to accrue, or gather.§

accursed: Under a curse; doomed and ill-fated.§

achieve: To accomplish or attain. —achievement: accomplishment or attainment.§

acknowledge: Give recognition to; admit the truth or worth of.§

acre: An area of land measuring 43,560 square feet (approx. 4047 square meters). §

adage: A concisely stated truth. Proverb, maxim.§

addiction: Enslavement to a habit. A medical condition in which one’s body or mind has become dependent on the continually escalating use of or participation in a particular substance or activity. §

addictive: Prone to be compulsively and physiologically dependent on a habit-forming substance, mental affliction, or a habitual life pattern, such as gambling, TV, pornography or other attraction, usually harmful in nature.§

Adi Granth: आदिग्रन्थ् “First book.” The central Sikh scripture. Its eloquent teachings are in harmony with Hinduism, but for the rejection of the Vedas and disavowal of image worship and caste.§

adjudicate: To hear and give judgment in a dispute or problem.§

administrate: To manage, conduct or direct.§

admonition: Advice or warning. §

adorning: Decorating or beautifying through ornamentation.§

adultery: Engaging in sexual relations with someone other than one’s spouse.§

adversary: An enemy, foe or opponent.§

adversity: Misfortune, disaster, affliction, hardship, distress.§

affection: Fondness; a gentle, tender, loving feeling.§

affliction: Pain or suffering; distress, grief, adversity. The state of being afflicted or beset with troubles.§

affluent: Wealthy, well-to-do.§

agenda: List of things to be dealt with or accomplished.§

aggrieve: To offend; cause injury or grief.§

ahimsa: अहिंसा “Noninjury,” nonviolence or nonhurtfulness. Refraining from causing harm to others, physically, mentally or emotionally. Ahimsa is the first and most important of the Hindu religious restraints (yamas). It is the cardinal virtue upon which all others depend. §

akin: Like, related to, or similar.§

alcohol: An intoxicating and addictive substance, ingredient in distilled and fermented liquors.§

Alexander the Great: King of ancient Macedonia who invaded (but failed to conquer) North-West India ca 326 BCE. His soldiers mutinied; many stayed and intermarried with Indians. Cultural interchanges influenced both civilizations.§

alien: Foreign.§

allay: To lessen or alleviate.§

altar: A raised surface or other place used for presenting offerings in worship.§

amass: To gather, collect, accumulate or hoard.§

amaze: To astonish; to produce feelings of awe and wonderment.§

amid: Surrounded by; among, in the middle of.§

anava: God’s veiling power that provides individualness, or separate ego, to each soul, making the soul seem apart and distinct from God and the universe.§

anguish: Distress, pain, suffering—often mental.§

anicham: அனிச்சம் A small, delicate flower which wilts upon being smelled.§

animosity: Strong dislike, enmity, hatred.§

annihilate: To destroy or demolish completely.§

antagonism: Hostility, opposition.§

antagonist: He who opposes one’s efforts or plans; an adversary.§

antipathy: Strong dislike or hatred, aversion.§

antiquated: Obsolete; no longer in current use.§

apt: Appropriate, fitting.§

archeology: The study of ancient peoples and how they lived, based on excavation of material relics, buried cities, etc.§

ardent: Eager, fervent, intense.§

ardor: Eagerness, intense feeling or enthusiasm, passion.§

aristocrat: A nobleman or member of the privileged hereditary upper class.§

arrogance: Unjustified pride in oneself; haughtiness; a domineering manner.§

artha: आर्थ Wealth. §

ascend: To move upward, as toward the Source.§

ascendant: In or approaching a position of superiority or greatest influence.§

ascertaining: Determining; making certain, as by careful examination.§

ascetic: A person who leads a life of contemplation and rigorous self-denial, shunning comforts and pleasures for religious purposes. See: austerity, renunciate, monk.§

asceticism: A religious way of life that stresses self-denial and self-discipline as a means toward spiritual progress. See: ascetic, austerity.§

aspiration: A strongly felt wish, or working toward a goal.§

assuage: To lessen, pacify or calm.§

assumption: A hypothesis or belief which is based on incomplete evidence.§

astral: Of the subtle, nonphysical sphere (astral plane) which exists between the physical and causal planes.§

astute: Shrewd, keen, penetrating, subtle, sagacious.§

atman: आत्मन् “The soul; the breath; the principle of life and sensation.” The soul in its entirety—as the soul body (anandamaya kosa) and its essence (Parashakti and Parasiva). One of Hinduism’s most fundamental tenets is that we are the atman, not the physical body, emotions, external mind or personality. In Hindu scriptures, atman sometimes refers to the ego-personality, and its meaning must be determined according to context.§

attitude: Disposition. State of mind. Manner of carrying oneself. Manner of acting, thinking or feeling which reveals one’s disposition, opinions and beliefs.§

augment: To enlarge or increase; to add to.§

Aum: ॐ or ஓம் Often spelled Om. The mystic syllable of Hinduism, placed at the beginning of most sacred writings. As a mantra, it is pronounced aw (as in law), oo (as in zoo), mm. Aum is explained in the Upanishads as standing for the whole world and its parts, including past, present and future. It is from this primal vibration that all manifestation issues forth. Aum is the primary, or mula mantra, and often precedes other mantras. It may be safely used for chanting and japa by anyone of any religion. Its three letters represent the three worlds and the powers of creation, preservation and destruction. In common usage in several Indian languages, aum means “yes, verily” or “hail.” §

auspicious: Favorable, of good omen, foreboding well. One of the central concepts in Hindu life. §

austere: Very simple, yogic; strict in self-discipline and self-denial. See: ascetic.§

austerities: Spiritual disciplines; self-denials.§

austerity: Self-denial and discipline, physical or mental, performed for various reasons including acquiring powers, attaining grace, conquering the instinctive nature and burning the seeds of past karmas. Ranging from simple deprivations, such as foregoing a meal, to severe disciplines, called tapas, such as always standing, never sitting or lying down, even for sleep. See: ascetic.§

Auvaiyar: ஔவையார் A saint of Tamil Nadu (ca 200 BCE), a contemporary (some say the sister) of Saint Tiruvalluvar, devotee of Lord Ganesha and Karttikeya and one of the greatest literary figures in ancient India. As a young girl, she prayed to have her beauty removed so as not to be forced into marriage and thus be able to devote her full life to God. She was a great bhakta who wrote exquisite ethical works, some in aphoristic style and some in four-line verse. Her Tamil primer is studied by children to this day. A second Saint Auvaiyar may have lived in the ninth century.§

avail (oneself of): To make effective use of.§

avarice: Greed, covetousness; inordinate desire to obtain and hoard wealth.§

avert: To turn aside, ward off or prevent.§

awesome: Inspiring feelings of reverence and wonder; splendid or full of awe.§

Banish: To drive away, exile or expel.
barrage: A heavy and prolonged attack.
barren: Unproductive of results or gains; unprofitable.

base: Low-minded, mean, ignoble. Also, to do or decide on the basis of.§

BCE: Abbreviation (equivalent to BC, “before Christ”) for “before common era,” referring to dating prior to the year one in the Western, or Gregorian calendar, now in universal secular use. See also CE.§

bedrock: The solid underlying foundation.§

befit: To be suitable to.§

begrudge: To give reluctantly or unwillingly.§

beholden: Obliged to feel grateful; owing thanks; indebted.§

belie: To demonstrate the untruth of.§

benevolence: The quality of being benevolent.§

benevolent: Benign, beneficent, generous, kind-hearted, philanthropic. §

bereft: Deprived of, or lacking.§

besotting: Stupefying, intoxicating, inebriating.§

betrothed: The person whom one has a mutual pledge to marry. §

bhakta: भक्त (Tamil: Bhaktar.) “Devotee.” A worshiper. One who is surrendered to the Divine.§

bias: Mental inclination or partiality.§

bija: बीज “The seed.” Semen is the essence of life, the purest form of the sacrificial-elixir (soma). —bija mantra: बीजमन्त्र “Seed syllable.” A Sanskrit sound associated with a specific Deity used for invocation during mystic rites.§

billowing: Large and swelling in mass.§

bounty: Rewards; riches; goodness.§

Brahma Sutra(s): ब्रह्मसूत्र Also known as the Vedanta Sutras, composed by Badarayana (perhaps as early as ca 400 BCE) as the first known systematic exposition of Upanishadic thought. Its 550 aphorisms are so brief as to be virtually unintelligible without commentary.§

Brahmaloka: See: Sivaloka.§

brahmin (brahmana): ब्रह्मन “Mature or evolved soul.” The class of pious souls of exceptional learning. From Brahman, “growth, expansion, evolution, development, swelling of the spirit or soul.” The mature soul is the exemplar of wisdom, tolerance, forbearance and humility.§

brevity: Shortness, conciseness, succinctness.§

bribe: Something, such as money or a favor, offered or given to a person in a position of trust to influence that person’s views or conduct.§

bridled: Restrained, governed, controlled. In context, to control one’s expression of his otherwise voluminous unexpressed thoughts. (From “bridle,” a head-harness used to guide and control a horse.)§

Buddha: बुद्ध “The enlightened.” Usually refers to Siddhartha Gautama (ca 624–544 BCE), a prince born of a Saivite Hindu tribe of eastern India on the Nepalese border. He renounced the world and became a monk. After his enlightenment he preached the doctrines upon which followers later founded Buddhism.§

Calamitous: Disastrous; causing wretchedness and misery.
calamity: Disaster or terrible misfortune.
campaign: An operation or series of operations energetically pursued to accomplish a purpose.

candle: A quantity of wax or other flammable solid, usually cylindrical in shape, which contains a wick; used as a source of light. —hold a candle: To compare; to even approach in worthiness or quality. (This expression is used in the negative sense: “This doesn’t hold a candle to that.”)§

Canterbury Tales: See: Chaucer.§

carcass: Dead body, or empty, lifeless form.§

caress: A gentle touch or gesture of fondness, tenderness, or love.§

caste: A hierarchical system, called varna dharma (or jati dharma), established in India in ancient times, which determined the privileges, status, rights and duties of the many occupational groups, wherein status is determined by heredity. There are four main classes (varnas)—brahmin, kshatriya, vaishya and shudra—and innumerable castes, called jati.§

Caucasian: One of the five races of man. See: race.§

Caucasoid: Caucasian.§

CE : Abbreviation for “common era.” Equivalent to AD (anno Domini, “in the Lord’s [i.e. Christ’s] year”). Following a date, it indicates that the year in question comes after the year one in the Western, or Gregorian (originally Christian) calendar. E.g., 300 CE is 300 years after the (inexactly calculated) birth of Jesus of Nazareth. Cf: BCE.§

celestials: Literally, “denizens of heaven.” Divine inner-world beings; gods or devas.§

censure: To blame, find fault with, criticize.§

CEO: Chief Executive Officer of a corporation or firm.§

chaff: Threshed or winnowed husks of grain. That which is worthless.§

chastity: Remaining celibate or faithful to ones spouse, including being virtuous and modest.§

Chaucer: Noted English poet, ca 1340(?)-1400 CE; author of Canterbury Tales.§

cherish: To hold precious; to value highly.§

chivalry: The demonstration of noble qualities such as courage, honor or readiness to help.§

Chola: Great South Indian dynasty of kings, lasting from 846 CE until 1130 CE.§

Christian era: The period beginning with the birth of Jesus Christ. Abbreviated “CE.”§

civility: Politeness; courtesy.§

civilized: Advanced in personal and social refinements; cultured.§

classic: A literary work, widely acknowledged as of the highest quality.§

classical: Traditional and formal; in conformance with traditional standards of excellence.§

cleave: To cling, be united or strongly attached, be faithful. §

CNN: Cable News Network, referring to a popular television news channel.§

code: A system of accepted behavior, rules, etc. Also, a secret method of communication in which symbols, words, etc. are given other than their usual meanings.§

cogent: Convincing, powerful, compelling.§

collyrium: A medicated preparation for the eyes.§

comic: Amusing, ludicrous, laughable.§

commend: To praise or approve. Recommend.§

commit: To perpetrate. —to commit to memory: To memorize. —to commit oneself to: To pledge or bind oneself to a course of action.§

compose: To put together; to form by assembling parts. Also, to write an original work. —to compose oneself: To quiet the mind and put one’s thoughts & emotions in order. §

comprehension: Understanding, or the ability to understand.§

conceit: Vanity; an overly flattering self-image.§

confer: To give, impart or bestow.§

confinement: Imprisonment, seclusion; restraint.§

confusion: A state of disorder. Also, perplexity, or difficulty in ordering one’s thoughts or emotions.§

congenial: Compatible, agreeable.§

conscience: The inner sense of right and wrong, sometimes called “the knowing voice of the soul.” §

consequence: A result; also, importance. —consequent: Resulting.
consequently: As a result.

contain: To hold within. Also, to comprise.§

consign: To hand over or assign to an undesirable place.§

constituent: Serving as part of a whole; component.§

contemporary: Modern; also, existing at the same time period as. §

contemptible: Worthless; despicable, deserving scorn.§

contention: Strife, argument, quarreling. Asserted belief.§

contentious: Antagonistic, argumentative.§

continuum: A continuous extent, succession, or whole, no part of which can be distinguished from neighboring parts except by arbitrary division.§

contrive: To devise, plan, scheme or plot.§

corporal punishment: Physical punishment, as in spanking, inflicted on a child by an adult in authority.§

corporate: Having to do with large businesses.§

corporate ladder: The hierarchical order of position, title, or rank, as in a large corporation. “To work one’s way up the corporate ladder.”§

corrupt: Morally unsound. Given to involvement with bribery. Also, to cause to become corrupt.§

council: A group of people chosen as an administrative or advisory assembly.§

countenance: Facial expression, appearance.§

counterpart: Someone or something which corresponds to another.§

counterweight: Something that is equal in weight to something else, used to provide a counterbalancing action.§

couplet: A verse of two lines.§

covetousness: Envy; desiring or attempting to get that which others possess.§

coyness: A pretended shyness, with the intention of appearing more alluring. §

cradle: Environment in which earliest growth or development is made. Originally a baby’s small bed.§

crafty: Deceitful, fraudulent, sly.§

crave: To desire intensely.§

cremate: To dispose of a dead body by burning to ashes, thus releasing the soul from attachment to the physical plane.§

crooked: Dishonest, deceitful; not straightforward.§

crucial: Of supreme importance; decisive; critical.§

cumbersome: Difficult to deal with; awkward.§

curtail: To cut short, abbreviate; to lessen.§

Damnation: To condemn as harmful, illegal, or immoral.
damsel: A young unmarried woman.
dawning: A beginning.

dearth: A scarcity, deficiency or lack.§

debilitate: To weaken or enfeeble.§

decency: Thoughtfulness, courtesy, propriety, seemliness and consideration for others.§

deforestation: To cut down and clear away the trees or forests from significant water-shed regions.§

deft: Skillfull, sure, precise.§

defy: To resist; to refuse to obey.§

deliberate: Premeditated; carefully planned beforehand. Slow and careful. Also, to think carefully before acting or deciding.§

deliberateness: Calm, careful consideration; caution.§

delineate: To mark or trace out the boundaries of a thing, concept, etc.§

delineation: A representation or depiction.§

deluged: Flooded, overwhelmed, inundated.§

depict: To portray or describe.§

depraved: Corrupt; morally bad.§

deprivation: The loss of something which one has considered important, perhaps something as basic as adequate food, clothing or shelter.§

deprived: Dispossessed; having taken something away from; having kept from possessing or enjoying; denied. §

desert: To abandon or forsake. Also, a region of little or no rainfall, usually sandy and largely devoid of life.§

desertion: The forsaking or leaving of one’s military duties or post without permission; especially, running away from the army with no intention of returning. §

deserve: To merit or be worthy of; to have earned a particular bit of karma, either pleasant or unpleasant.§

desist: To cease, discontinue or permanently abstain from.§

destiny: The seemingly inevitable or predetermined course of events. See: karma.§

destitute: Devoid of; lacking.§

destitution: Poverty of the lowest degree.§

detached: Impartial, aloof; not emotionally involved.§

deva: देव “Shining one.” A Second World being inhabiting the higher astral plane in a subtle, nonphysical body. See: guardian deva.§

device: A tool or implement. Also, a plan or scheme.§

devise: To plan, scheme or contrive.§

devoid: Totally without; empty.§

Dhammapada: धम्मपद The holy book of Buddhism.§

dharma: धर्म From dhri, “to sustain; carry, hold.” Hence dharma is “that which contains or upholds the cosmos.” Dharma is a complex and all-inclusive term with many meanings, including: divine law, law of being, way of righteousness, religion, duty, responsibility, virtue, justice, goodness and truth. Essentially, dharma is the orderly fulfillment of an inherent nature or destiny. Relating to the soul, it is the mode of conduct most conducive to spiritual advancement, the right and righteous path. §

diaspora: Any religious group living as a minority among people of the prevailing religion.§

dictate: To decree, “from the position of strength;” to command or order with authority.§

diligent: Painstaking, steady in effort, marked by perseverance. §

diminish: To make or become smaller. To degrade.§

dire: Dreadful, dismal, disastrous.§

discern: To perceive; distinguish subtle differences.§

discernment: The ability to distinguish, discriminate and make balanced judgments.§

discourteous: Uncivil, rude.§

disparage: To discredit, slight or belittle.§

dissension: Disharmony, discord, quarreling or strife.§

dissertation: An elaborate scholarly treatise.§

distinction: Superior quality, and/or the resulting special recognition.§

distinctiveness: Individuality; difference from anything or anyone else.§

divination: Act or practice of predicting the future or surmising the best course of action.§

divisive: Causing disagreements, divisions.§

divulge: To make public, reveal or disclose information previously kept private or secret.§

dogmatic: Asserting opinions or doctrines in a positive, possibly arrogant manner; unwillingness to consider any differing evidence, argument, ideas, or insights.§

doom: A decision or judgment, especially an official condemnation to a severe penalty.§

Doordarshan: A socio-cultural television media program in India.§

double-dealing: Deceitful.§

downtrodden: Oppressed or subjugated. A state of negative mindedness, where one sees the world around him and his place in it in disarray.§

Dravidian: The term used in this text to name the monastic communities of the Dvapara and Kali Yugas. In modern times it refers to the various Caucasoid peoples of southern India and northern Sri Lanka. §

dried soil: Soil that has been plowed into friable form, loose, open and well-drained, free of moisture.§

dumfounded: Made speechless with astonishment.§

dynamic: Vigorous, energetic, active.§

Echo: A repetition.
eclipse: To outshine, surpass.
ecology: The science of the relationships between organisms and their environments. Also called bionomics.

ecumenical: Universal. —ecumenism: the principles or practices of promoting cooperation and better understanding among differing faiths.§

edition: A changed, or revised reissue of a book. Loosely, any reprinting.§

efface: To erase.§

effeminate: Displaying feminine qualities or behavior such as weakness or undue delicacy; unmanly.§

eight infinite powers: Eight attributes of Siva: being self-dependent; being immaculate in body; having intuitive wisdom; being omniscient; being free by nature from all dross or other impurities that fetter souls; being of boundless grace; being omnipotent; and being in enjoyment of boundless bliss.§

elaborate: Very detailed and complicated; created with great care, diligence, and attention to detail.§

eloquence: Fluency, expressiveness, beauty, and persuasiveness (even compelling) of speech.§

elucidate: Explain, clarify or make clear.§

embody: To incarnate or give form to.§

eminent: High; above others in stature, rank or achievement. Renowned or distinguished; prominent, conspicuous. Not to be confused with: 1) imminent, about to happen; 2) emanate, to issue from; 3) immanent, inherent or indwelling.§

emissary: “Sent one.” An agent (not necessarily secret) sent on a task or to obtain information.§

enchant: To charm, fascinate, or entrance.§

encircle:To surround on all sides.§

endeavor: A serious attempt. To attempt seriously.§

endure: To bear or undergo.§

engender: To bring about, or to birth; cause, create or produce.§

engulf: To swallow up and submerge.§

enjoin: To urge or command.§

enliven: To give vitality to.§

enmity: Hostility or antagonism.§

ensnared: Caught, entangled, trapped.§

ensue: To come after, as a result or consequence.§

envious: To feel discontented because of others’ possessions or advantages.§

envoy: A messenger or diplomatic agent.§

ephemeral: Evanescent, transitory, fleeting.§

epigrammatic: Concise and witty. Literally “inscribed.” From such verses often inscribed in stone or metal.§

equable: Serene, tranquil, steady.§

era: A long period of time, distinguished by particular events or trends. Also a fixed point from which a time-reckoning begins, e.g. Vikramaditya era, Christian era, Muslim era (Hijrah), etc.§

erudite: Learned; well researched; scholarly.§

erudition: Scholarship; learning obtained through study.§

esoteric: Secret, hidden, hard to understand. Teaching intended for a chosen few, as an inner group of initiates. Abstruse or private.§

espionage: As used here, information obtained by spying. See: spy.§

espy: To spy. See: spy.§

estate: A station in life or possessed valuable property.§

estrange: To alienate; turn from a friendly attitude to one of indifference or hostility.§

etch: To engrave.§

ethical: In conformance with the accepted standards of virtuous conduct; righteous; dharmic.§

exalt: To promote or elevate in status; to praise.§

execute: To fulfill, administer, or bring into completion; also, to put to death.§

exemplar: One regarded as worthy of imitation; a model. An ideal pattern to be followed by others. —exemplary: Worthy of being held up as an example; praiseworthy. An ideal that serves as a pattern; an archetype.§

exhilaration: A very high, intense, joyful energy. Elation§

expend: To use up. Speed up.§

expound: To explain, put forth.§

expunge: To erase or obliterate; to destroy all trace of.§

extol: To praise highly; exalt, as in to extol the virtues of sadhana and seva.§

Fatalism: The doctrine that all events are predetermined by fate and are therefore unalterable.
fate: The supposed force, principle, or power that predetermines events.
fathom: To measure the extent of; to comprehend fully.

faultlessness: The state of not being at fault or to blame for something.§

Feet: Here, refers to the holy feet of God. The feet of God are considered especially precious as the source of man’s liberation.§

feign: To pretend or simulate.§

ferret: To investigate and bring out with great diligence and thoroughness; search, find.§

fervor: Intense, emotional enthusiasm; zeal.§

fetter: Something that serves to restrict; a restraint. §

feudal kingdom: Of or relating to a kingdom whose lands are held in fief, or to the holding of such lands.§

fickle: Variable, changeable, inconstant; capricious.§

fierce: As used here, angrily or violently threatening.§

five elements: Earth, air, fire, water and ether (akasha), which make up the physical body as well as the rest of the physical universe.§

fledgling: A young bird which has grown enough feathers to learn to fly.§

fluctuate: To vacillate or vary (in degree, intensity, quality, etc.).§

foible: A minor weakness or character flaw.§

folded: Hands pressed together, as in the Hindu manner of greeting known as anjali mudra or namaskaram.§

foolhardiness: Rashness, recklessness.§

forebode: To augur, portend, foreshadow, usually an undesirable outcome.§

foreordain: To determine or appoint beforehand; predestine. §

formless: Philosophically, atattva, beyond the realm of form or substance. Used in attempting to describe the wondersome, indescribable Absolute, which is “timeless, formless and spaceless.” See: Siva.§

foundational knowledge: The basis on which a knowledge stands, is founded, or is supported.§

fraternity: Brotherhood, company, fellowship, association.§

fraud: Deceit; treachery; cheating.§

frugal: Thrifty; taking care not to be wasteful or unnecessarily lavish. §

furrow: To cut narrow, shallow grooves side by side in the earth, often with a plow, piling the dirt into ridges between these furrows.§

Gandhi: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869-1948), the Hindu nationalist leader whose strategy of nonviolent resistance won India’s freedom from British colonial rule. Often honored as Mahatma (“great soul”) Gandhi.
Ganesha: गणेश “Lord of Categories.” (From gan, “to count or reckon,” and Isha, “lord.”) Or: “Lord of attendants (gana),” synonymous with Ganapati. Ganesha is a Mahadeva, the beloved elephant-faced Deity honored by Hindus of every sect. He is the Lord of Obstacles (Vighneshvara), revered for His great wisdom and invoked first before any undertaking, for He knows all intricacies of each soul’s karma and the perfect path of dharma that makes action successful. See: Mahadeva.

garland: A wreath or festoon, especially one of plaited flowers or leaves, worn on the body or draped as a decoration.§

garner: To amass; acquire, as in to gather and store in or as if in a granary.§

gender: Sexual identity, especially in relation to society or culture.§

genesis: Origin, source, cause.§

glade: An open space in a forest. An everglade.§

glutton: One who habitually and greedily eats excessive amounts of food.§

God: Supernal being. Either the Supreme God Siva or one of the Mahadevas, great souls, who are among His creation. See: Gods, Mahadeva, Siva.§

God Primordial: God, Who is not derived from another and Who existed first as the Source of all.§

Gods: Mahadevas, “great beings of light.” Extremely advanced beings existing in their self-effulgent soul bodies in the causal plane. The meaning of Gods is best seen in the phrase, “God and the Gods,” referring to the Supreme God—Siva—and the Mahadevas who are His creation. See: Mahadeva.§

gorge: To eat greedily; to glut.§

grievous: Causing suffering; hard to bear.§

guardian deva: At the birth of a child, devas of the inner worlds are assigned to guard and protect him throughout his life. See: deva.§

guru mahasannidhanam: गुरु महसन्निधनम् Spiritual head of a traditional aadheenam. §

Guru Purnima: गुरु पूर्निमा Occurring on the full moon of July, Guru Purnima is for devotees a day of rededication to all that the guru represents. It is occasioned by padapuja—ceremonial worship of the guru’s sandals, which represent his holy feet.§

guru: “Weighty one,” indicating a being of great knowledge or skill. A term used to describe a teacher or guide in any subject, such as music, dance, sculpture, but especially religion. §

Hallmark: An indicator or evidence of high quality or authenticity. Originally a mark on silver and gold articles stamped at Goldsmiths’ Hall in London as a symbol of approved standards.
harbor: To house or shelter; to hold and protect.

harlot: A prostitute. A mercenary, promiscuous and seductive woman.§

heir: One who inherits, or is expected to inherit, property from another.§

hell: Naraka. An unhappy, mentally and emotionally congested, distressful area of consciousness. Hell is a state of mind that can be experienced on the physical plane or in the sub-astral plane (Naraka) after death of the physical body. It is accompanied by the tormented emotions of hatred, remorse, resentment, fear, jealousy and self-condemnation. However, in the Hindu view, the hellish experience is not permanent, but a temporary condition of one’s own making.§

henpeck: To dominate or harass (one’s husband) with persistent nagging.§

herald: To proclaim, announce.§

heritage: A tradition passed down from preceding generations as an inheritance.§

heron: A large bird which wades stealthily through shallow water, then stands motionless until its prey swims or crawls within striking distance.§

Hinduism (Hindu Dharma): हिन्दुधर्म India’s indigenous religious and cultural system, followed today by nearly one billion adherents, mostly in India, but with large populations in many other countries. Also called Sanatana Dharma, “eternal religion” and Vaidika Dharma, “religion of the Vedas.” Hinduism is the world’s most ancient religion and encompasses a broad spectrum of philosophies ranging from pluralistic theism to absolute monism. It is a family of myriad faiths with four primary denominations: Saivism, Vaishnavism, Shaktism and Smartism. These four hold such divergent beliefs that each is a complete and independent religion. Yet, they share a vast heritage of culture and belief—karma, dharma, reincarnation, all-pervasive Divinity, temple worship, sacraments, manifold Deities, the guru-shishya tradition and a reliance on the Vedas as scriptural authority.§

hinge: A pivotal device, used for attaching a door to a wall, etc.§

hoard: To hide; store away; keep in reserve.§

homage: Special honor or respect shown or expressed publicly.§

hospitality: Cordial and generous reception of or disposition toward guests.§

householder: Grihastha. Family man or woman; pertaining to family life. One who follows the path of family life (as opposed to that of the renunciate). In Hinduism, family life is one of serving, learning and striving within a close-knit community of many relatives, under the guidance of a spiritual guru.§

hub: Center of a wheel. Center of interest, importance or activity.§

humility: Awareness of one’s shortcomings; modesty.§

Ice age: Extended period of time when glaciers expand to cover much of the earth’s surface.
icon: An image; a representation. A simile or symbol.
imbed: To set firmly in place.

immanent: Indwelling; inherent and operating within. Relating to God, the term immanent means present in all things and throughout the universe, not aloof or distant. Not to be confused with imminent (about to happen), emanate (to issue from), or eminent (high in rank).§

immense: Vast, immeasurable.§

immutable: Unchangeable.§

impartiality: Freedom from bias or favoritism; the condition of being unprejudiced and equitable.§

impeccable: Faultless; flawless; without error.§

impel: To urge to action through moral pressure.§

imperceptible: Impossible or difficult to perceive by the mind or senses.§

imperturbable: Calm, serene, mentally unshakable; not subject to being disturbed or disconcerted.§

implementation: The putting into effect or carrying out of a plan.§

imply: To indicate indirectly; to hint or suggest.§

impose: To inflict upon, uninvited and unrightfully.§

impoverished: Very poor; deprived of strength.§

inane: Empty; void of meaning; foolish.§

incessant: Unceasing; continuing without pause or interruption.§

incinerate: To burn to ashes.§

incomparable: Unequaled, without a match, beyond comparison.§

inconceivable: That cannot be imagined or believed.§

inconsequential: Of no consequence; trivial; insignificant. §

indifference: Lack of concern, apathy; unaffectedness.§

indispensable: Essential; absolutely necessary.§

indolence: Habitual idleness; laziness.§

indolent: Disinclined to exert oneself; habitually lazy.§

Indra: इन्द्र Ruler. Vedic God of rain and thunder, warrior king of the devas.§

indulgence: Leniency or special favors.§

indulgent: Lenient; excessively permissive; maintaining little or no restraint or control.§

inescapably: Unavoidably; inevitably.§

infatuation: Folly; irrational attraction or passion.§

infidel: An unbeliever with respect to a particular religion, especially Christianity or Islam.§

infiltrate: To pass into, through openings or weak spots; often with hostile intent.§

Infinity: God as the infinite, endless, unlimited with respect to space and time.§

inflammatory: Characterized by or tending to rouse anger or violence.§

inflamed: Aroused with passion, violence or anger.§

influence: To modify; to have an effect on; also, the ability to affect the thoughts or actions of others.§

information spy: One who observes and reports to interested parties the activities of others.§

iniquity: Lack of righteousness or virtue.§

initiation: A bringing into, or admitting as a member. In Hinduism, initiation from a qualified preceptor is considered invaluable for spiritual progress.§

innate: Inborn, inherent.§

inner worlds: The second and third worlds, in the Hindu view of the cosmos. See: three worlds.§

instinctive: “Natural or innate.” From the Latin instinctus, “impelling, instigating.” The drives and impulses that rule the animal world and the physical and lower astral aspects of humans—for example, self-preservation, procreation, hunger, and the emotions of greed, hatred, anger, fear, lust and jealousy. §

intention: A purpose or plan. §

interactions: Reciprocal actions; dealings.§

interminable: Endless or seemingly endless.§

Internet: Worldwide network of computers facilitating the transmission and exchange of information among people all over the world. Conceived in 1969 as ARPANET, a US Department of Defense research test, the Internet grew from 1994 to the present as the benefits of hypertext (the concept that made the World Wide Web possible) and the multimedia capabilities of the technology became popular among mainstream culture. The Internet has become the global key unifying communications technology.§

intrepidity: Fearlessness.§

intrinsic: Inward; essential; inherent. Of the real nature of a being or thing. §

intuition (to intuit): Direct understanding or cognition, which bypasses the process of reason but does not contradict reason. §

intuitive: Having to do with intuition.§

invigorating: Imparting vigor, strength, or vitality to; animating.§

irreparable: Damaged, and unable to be restored to its former state.§

Islam: Religion and Nation of Islam founded by Mohammed, formally in 622 CE. The latest of the Abrahamic religions, which include Christianity and Judaism. §

Islamic era: The Islamic age and time-reckoning beginning from Mohammed’s flight from Meccda to Medina (hegira, hejira, Arabid hijrah) in 622 CE.§

Itihasa: इतिहास “So it was.” Epic history, particularly the Ramayana and Mahabharata (of which the famed Bhagavad Gita is a part). §

Jackal: A nocturnal wild dog native to Asia and northern Africa which hunts in packs.
Jagadacharya: जगदचार्य “World teacher.” In 1986 the World Religious Parliament of New Delhi named five world leaders who were most active in spreading Sanatana Dharma outside India.

Jain: जैन Of or having to do with Jainism; a member of that religion.§

Jainism: A religion founded about 2,500 years ago in India. Its supreme ideal is ahimsa, nonviolence, stressing equal kindness and reverence for all life.§

japa: जप “Recitation.” Practice of concentrated repeating of a mantra, often while counting the repetitions on a mala or strand of beads. It may be done silently or aloud. Sometimes known as mantra yoga. See: mala.§

jequirity: The poisonous seed of the Indian licorice plant (Abrus precatorius), so striking in appearance that it is used for beads. §

Jesus: The most famous person of this name is Jesus of Nazareth, a Jewish carpenter and itinerant religious teacher, whose followers later founded the Christian religion. They consider him an incarnation of the Supreme God (Son of God), and revere him as Jesus Christ, the surname translating the Hebrew Messiah.§

journeyman: One who has fully served an apprenticeship in a trade or craft and is a qualified worker in another’s employ. §

jubilant: Joyful, exultant.§

jyotisha shastri: ज्योतिषशास्त्री “Astrologer.” A person well versed in the science of jyotisha.§

jyotisha: ज्योतिष From jyoti, “light.” “The science of the lights (or stars).” Hindu astrology, the knowledge and practice of analyzing events and circumstances, delineating character and determining auspicious moments, according to the positions and movements of heavenly bodies. In calculating horoscopes, jyotisha uses the sidereal (fixed-star) system, whereas Western astrology uses the tropical (fixed-date) method. §

Kadavul: கடவுள் “Beyond and within.” An ancient Tamil name for Lord Siva meaning, “He who is both immanent and transcendent, within and beyond.”
Kailasa Parampara: कैलसपरंपरा A spiritual lineage of 162 siddhas, a major stream of the Nandinatha Sampradaya, proponents of the ancient philosophy of monistic Saiva Siddhanta.

kama: Pleasure, love, desire. Cultural, intellectual and sexual fulfillment. §

karma: The law of action and reaction, cause and effect, by which our thoughts, words and deeds create our future. One’s karma must be in a state of quiescent balance, or fulfillment, in order for liberation to be attained. It is this state of resolution that all Hindus seek through making amends and settling differences.§

Kauai Aadheenam: Monastery-temple complex founded by Sivaya Subramuniyaswami in 1970; international headquarters of Saiva Siddhanta Church.§

keen: Sharp; vivid; strong; eager, enthusiastic. §

Koran: The Islamic religion’s sacred book, God’s word transmitted through the angel Gabriel to Mohammed, the prophet of Islam. Its official version appeared around 650, 18 years after Mohammed’s death. See: Mohammed.§

Kumbha Mela: A periodic gathering of a large number of Hindu devotees at the river Ganga, celebrating the tradition that drops of amrita, the divine nectar of immortality, fell at four holy places in India: Haridwar, Allahabad, Nasik and Ujjain.§

Lady-in-waiting: A close female attendant to a lady.
Lakshmi: लक्ष्मी “Mark or sign,” often of success or prosperity. Shakti, the Universal Mother, as Goddess of wealth. The mythological consort of Vishnu, usually depicted on a lotus flower. Prayers are offered to Lakshmi for wealth, beauty and peace.

lament: A feeling or an expression of grief; a lamentation.§

lamp black: The black, carbonized substance which forms on a burning lamp.§

lance: A thrusting weapon with a long shaft; a spear.§

languid: Adjective of languor. See: languor.§

languor: Lack of vigor or vitality; listlessness; lethargy; lassitude.§

lattice: An open, net-like structure, usually made of thin boards.§

lewd: Lustful, licentious, immodest, shameless; preoccupied with sex and sexual desire.§

liberation: Moksha, release from the bonds of pasam, after which the soul is liberated from samsara (the round of births and deaths). In Saiva Siddhanta, pasam is the three-fold bondage of anava, karma and maya, which limit and confine the soul to the reincarnational cycle so that it may evolve. Moksha is freedom from the fettering power of these bonds, which do not cease to exist, but no longer have the power to fetter or bind the soul. See: anava, karma, maya, pasam.§

licentious: Morally unrestrained, especially in sexual behavior. Also, tending to arouse sexual impulses.§

linchpin: The small pin which secures a wheel to its axle. A central cohesive element or functionality.§

liquor: Strong alcoholic drink produced by distillation, such as whisky or rum.§

localized: Existing within a specific area.§

lofty: Very high, exalted, noble.§

loom: A simple machine on which cloth is woven.§

lotus: A flowering aquatic plant, Nelumbo nucifera, and especially its flower, which is used as a symbol of spiritual development and the chakras. Because it grows out of mud and rises to perfect purity and glory, it is an apt representation of spiritual unfoldment.§

love-sickness: An incapacitating distraction, or pining, caused by overwhelming emotions of love, yearning, etc.§

lunatic: An insane person. Originally a lunatic’s condition was supposed to be intensified with the phases of the moon (Latin luna).§

luster: A bright, glossy, or shining quality.§

lustful: Filled with desire, usually sexual.§

Magnificent: Splendid, imposing, glorious.
Mahabharata: महाभरत “Great Epic of India.” The world’s longest epic poem. It revolves around the conflict between two kingdoms, the Pandavas and Kauravas, and their great battle of Kurukshetra near modern Delhi in approximately 1424 BCE. Woven through the plot are countless discourses on philosophy, religion, astronomy, cosmology, polity, economics and many stories illustrative of simple truths and ethical principles. The Bhagavad Gita is one section of the work. The Mahabharata is revered as scripture by Vaishnavites and Smartas. See: Bhagavad Gita, Itihasa.

Mahadeva: महादेव “Great shining one; God.” Referring either to God Siva or any of the highly evolved beings who live in the Sivaloka in their natural, effulgent soul bodies. God Siva in His perfection as Primal Soul is one of the Mahadevas, yet He is unique and incomparable in that He alone is uncreated, the Father-Mother and Destiny of all other Mahadevas. He is called Parameshvara, “Supreme God.” He is the Primal Soul, whereas the other Gods are individual souls. §

mahatma: Great soul. Also used as a title of honor.§

mala: माल “Garland.” A strand of beads for holy recitation, japa, usually made of rudraksha, tulasi, sandalwood or crystal. See: japa.§

malady: Sickness, affliction.§

malicious: Full of enmity; spiteful, malevolent.§

manifest: To come (or coming) into existence. §

marital: Of or relating to marriage.§

marvel: A wonderful, perhaps even miraculous, thing.§

marvelous: Strange and wonderful; extraordinary.§

maya: माया “Artfulness,” “illusion,” “phantom” or “mirific energy.” The substance emanated from Siva through which the world of form is manifested. Hence all creation is also termed maya. It is the cosmic creative force, the principle of manifestation, ever in the process of creation, preservation and dissolution. §

meagerly: Deficient in quantity, fullness or extent; scanty. Deficient in richness, fertility or vigor; feeble.§

meditate: To sustain the state of concentration, achieving a quiet, alert, powerfully concentrated state whezrein new knowledge and insights are awakened from within as awareness focuses one-pointedly on an object or specific line of thought. —meditation: The result of successful concentration; uninterrupted thought on a subject, leading to intuitive discovery.§

medium: A means, as of communication. The plural, media, refers to the public communication industry as a whole, including books, magazines, newspapers, television, etc.§

mercenary: Performing services for monetary payment.§

merit: A worthy quality; also, to be worthy of.§

messenger: One who carries a message.§

migrate: To move from one place to another.§

millennium: A period of 1,000 years. —millennia: Plural of millennium.§

minister: An official charged with a specific function on behalf of a political authority. In religious context, a clergyman authorized to conduct worship and serve the spiritual needs of the congregation.§

minute: Tiny, precise.§

miraculous: Marvelous, and inexplicable.§

mire: An area of wet, soggy, muddy ground; a bog. Deep, slimy soil or mud to describe a disadvantageous or difficult condition or situation. §

miser: Someone who avariciously gathers and hoards wealth, usually driven by fear of poverty.§

miserliness: Greediness, stinginess.§

misery: A great unhappiness, calamity, pain or ache.§

missionary: One who is engaged in spreading the teachings of his religion.§

mock: To treat scornfully or contemptuously; deride.§

Mohammed: Founder of the Islamic religion. See: Islam.§

moksha: See: liberation. §

monarch: The ruler of a monarchy: a king, queen, or emperor.§

monk: A celibate man wholly dedicated to religious life; a monastic. See: sannyasa, swami.§

morsel: A small, bite-sized portion of food.§

motivate: To impel or give impetus to.§

mountainous: Like a mountain, especially in size or height. Full of mountains.§

multitude: A great number; a crowd or swarm.§

murky: Dark, devoid of light, gloomy, dismal.§

Muslim: A follower of Islam. §

mystic: One who understands religious mysteries or occult rites and practices. Inspiring a sense of mystery and wonder.§

Nandinatha Sampradaya: नन्दिनाथसंप्रदाय See: Natha Sampradaya.
Nataraja: नटराज “King of Dance,” or “King of Dancers.” God as the Cosmic Dancer. Perhaps Hinduism’s richest and most eloquent symbol, Nataraja represents Siva, the Primal Soul, Parameshvara, as the power, energy and life of all that exists.

Narakaloka: See: Hell.§

Natha Sampradaya: नाथसंप्रदाय “Traditional doctrine of the masters.” Sampradaya means a living stream of tradition or theology. Natha Sampradaya, the oldest of Saivite sampradayas existing today, consists of two major streams: the Nandinatha and the Adinatha.§

nation: A people of a country as a political entity.§

nature: The character, disposition, or essence of a thing. Also, the physical universe, especially its laws and life processes. §

negligence: Carelessness, neglectfulness; habitual failure to do what needs to be done.§

Newsweek: A popular weekly news magazine published in the United States.§

nobility: The quality of having noble characteristics.§

nobleman: A person of heredity rank or title, such as the English peer, duke, earl, etc. §

noninvolvement: Detachment; state of being uninvolved or unentangled.§

nonviolence: See: ahimsa.§

novice: A person new to a field or activity; a beginner.§

numerology: The study of the hidden meanings of numbers and how they influence human life. §

nymph: A super-human or astral seductress.§

Objective: A target, goal or anything sought for or aimed at.
obliterate: To wipe out; to destroy all trace of.
oblivious: Unmindful, unaware; forgetful.

obscure: Not clearly understood or explained; dark, vague.§

oceanic: Of or pertaining to the ocean; huge.§

odd: Unusual; strange.§

odious: Hateful; abhorrent.§

office: A position which carries authority, or the functions or duties of such a position.§

official: Authorized or authoritative agent.§

ogre: A man-eating giant of folklore.§

ogress: A female ogre. §

olai: ஓலை One of various species of palm, the long-lasting leaves of which have been used in India and Sri Lanka since ancient times for recording scriptures and other literature, by scratching the words into the leaf’s surface. §

olden: Of long-ago.§

operative: Herein, working as a detective or spy. See: spy.§

opposition: Anyone who tries to obstruct one’s plans or interests; also, the obstacles or challenges put forth as part of such effort.§

oppression: Impositiing excessive taxes or other burdens; harsh government.§

opulent: Profuse, abundant, very rich.§

ostensibly: Claimed or believed by some to be.§

outflank: To move alongside or beyond (an enemy’s troops) in order to gain a more advantageous position.§

outstretch: To extend, to stretch out, as one’s arms or a large cloth.§

overflow: To spread past the edges or beyond the limits.§

Pagan: Literally, a rustic or peasant. A term coined by Christians to name a non-Christian; parallel to the Jewish term gentile or the Muslim infidel. A person who is not a Christian, Muslim or Jew; a heathen. Paganism is also a living spiritual way of life with roots in ancient traditions of worshiping the divine energy within nature. It identifies with the indigenous religions of Europe and regions to the east, such as parts of Ukraine. Pagans celebrate the sanctity of nature, recognize the Divine in all things and are accepting and tolerant of all religious expression. Broadly, Hindus could be classified as Pagan because of their affirmation of God in all things, karma, reincarnation and invoking many Gods, four beliefs which diverge dramatically from Abrahamic doctrine.§

pal: A familiar friend.§

palanquin: A couch carried by poles on the shoulders of two or more men.§

pandit: पण्डित A Hindu religious scholar or theologian, a man well versed in philosophy, liturgy, religious law and sacred science.§

Pandya: A great South Indian kingdom, 300 BCE-1700 CE.§

panegyric: High praise.§

pang: A sharp pain; a spasm of distress; agony.§

parallel: To correspond closely alongside, as in purpose or essential parts.§

parentheses: Curved written symbols (such as those containing this example) which enclose a sentence or idea which is additional, and tangential or explanatory to, a sentence or paragraph which is already complete without it. §

parliamentarian: An expert in parliamentary procedures, rules, or debate.§

particular: Specific. —particularly: Especially.§

Parvati: पार्वती “Mountain’s daughter.” One of many names for the Universal Mother. Prayers are offered to Her for strength, health and eradication of impurities. Mythologically, Parvati is wedded to Siva. §

pasam: पासम् or பாசம் “Tether; noose.” The whole of existence, manifest and unmanifest. That which binds or limits the soul and keeps it (for a time) from manifesting its full potential. Pasam refers to the soul’s three-fold bondage of anava, karma and maya. See: anava, karma, maya, mala, liberation, pasu, Pati-pasu-pasam.§

passion: Any extreme, overpowering emotion, including strong sexual desire, or lust; also, an overwhelming drive to do something. §

pasu: पसु or பசு “Cow, cattle, kine; fettered individual.” Refers to animals or beasts, including man. In philosophy, the soul. See: pasam, Pati-pasu-pasam.§

Patanjali: पतन्जलि A Saivite Natha siddha (ca 200 BCE) who codified the ancient yoga philosophy which outlines the path to enlightenment through purification, control and transcendence of the mind. See: Yoga Sutras. §

Pati: पति or பதி “Master; lord; owner.” An appellation of God Siva indicating His commanding relationship with souls as caring ruler and helpful guide. See: Pati-pasu-pasam, Siva.§

Pati-pasu-pasam: पति पसु पासम् or பதி பசு பாசம் Literally: “master, cow and tether.” These are the three primary elements of Saiva Siddhanta philosophy: God, soul and world—Divinity, man and cosmos—seen as a mystically and intricately interrelated unity. Pati is God, envisioned as a cowherd. Pasu is the soul, envisioned as a cow. Pasam is the all-important force or fetter by which God brings souls along the path to Truth.§

peerless: Without equal; matchless.§

penance: Prayashchitta. Atonement, expiation. An act of devotion (bhakti), austerity (tapas) or discipline (sukritya) undertaken to soften or nullify the anticipated reaction to a past action. §

penitents: Those who repent their misdeeds, especially those who perform penance to atone for their wrongful actions.§

perceive: To understand or comprehend. To become aware of directly through any of the senses, especially sight or hearing, and the third eye, ajna chakra. §

perception: Awareness (either sensory or intuitive).§

perilous: Dangerous; hazardous.§

perpetuate: To preserve; to cause to endure. §

perplex: To confuse or bewilder.§

persistence: Constancy, resoluteness. Continuous effort.§

pervade: To permeate or be present throughout.§

perverse: Distorted or deviating from dharma; acting on adharmic priorities.§

philanthropist: One who practices charity in a desire to help others. Literally (from Greek) “loving people.” —philanthropy: The desire to benefit humanity, especially through charitable gifts, etc.§

pierced: Stabbed, perforated.§

pilgrimage: Tirthayatra, one of the five sacred duties (pancha nitya karmas) of the Hindu is to journey periodically to one of the innumerable holy spots in India or other countries. Preceded by fasting and continence, it is a time of austerity and purification, when all worldly concerns are set aside and God becomes one’s singular focus. §

pinnacle: The culminating or highest point; apex.§

pious: Having or exhibiting religious reverence; earnestly compliant in the observance of religion; devout.§

pity: A feeling of sympathy for the sadness, pain, or troubles of another.§

plot: A story line; also, to make harmful or dishonest plans.§

plummet: To fall precipitously downward.§

ply: To work at; steadily attend to.§

ponder: To think carefully and deliberately about; to consider deeply.§

Pongal: Tai Pongal, தைப்பொங்கல் A four-day home festival held in the Tamil month of Tai (January-February), celebrating the season’s first harvest. §

portray: To depict or represent.§

posterity: Succeeding generations; offspring; the future.§

postulate: In debates, to propose or assume as given or self-evident.§

posture: A position of the body.§

potentate: One who possesses great power, as a ruler or monarch.§

praise: To express high approval of; to laud or extol. Also, laudation, approbation.§

prattle: To chatter.§

prayashchitta: See: Penance. §

precede: To come before in time, importance, influence or rank.§

predetermined: To determine, decide, or establish in advance. See: Fatalism, Fate.§

predicate: In grammar, that which is said about the subject of a sentence or clause.§

predominate: To be in the majority, or to have dominance over others.§

premonition: A feeling that something is about to happen.§

presence: The condition of being at that place and time; immediate proximity.§

prestige: exalted reputation, distinction, high status.§

prevail: To be strong and victorious; overcome all obstacles. To exist widely. §

prevalent: Prevailing; commonly occuring, accepted.§

primordial: See: God Primordial.§

principle: An essential truth, law or rule upon which others are based.§

privation: The lack of customary necessities and comforts.§

prodigious: Extraordinary, enormous; powerful.§

proffer: To offer, usually something intangible. §

proficient: Having or marked by an advanced degree of ability, as in an art, craft, profession or knowledge. —proficiency: The condition of being proficient; skillfulness, expertise.§

profuse: “Free flowing.” Abundantly generous.§

proliferate: To increase in numbers rapidly.§

propensity: Inclination, disposition, or tendency.§

prophetic: Predicting or foreshadowing the future.§

proportionate: Existing in a fixed ratio.§

propriety: Adherence to accepted standards of conduct; appropriateness, seemliness, decency.§

prose: Any literature or speech which is not poetry; ordinary, everyday language, unrhymed and unmetered.§

prospective: Anticipated, expected.§

protocol: Customs of proper etiquette, form and ceremony, especially in relation to religious or political dignitaries.§

providence: Care, guardianship and control exercised by God; divine direction.§

prowess: Superior ability or accomplishment.§

puja: पूजा “Worship, adoration.” A Hindu rite of worship performed in the home, temple or shrine. Its inner purpose is to purify the atmosphere around the object worshiped, establish a connection with the inner worlds and invoke the presence of God, Gods or one’s guru. §

punarjanma: Reincarnation. From punah, “again and again,” and janma, “taking birth.”§

puppet: One whose behavior is determined by the will of others; like a marionette, a figure having jointed parts animated from above by strings or wires.§

purnima: पूर्निमा “Full.” Full moon. See: Guru Purnima.§

Quell: To quiet, allay or pacify.
query: A question.
quintessence: The ultimate, pure essence of something; its most pure and complete manifestation.

Race: Technically, each of the five races of man (Caucasoid, Mongoloid, Australoid, Congoid and Capoid) is a Homo sapiens subspecies. A subspecies is a branch showing slight but significant differences from another branch living in a different area. More generally: any geographical, national or tribal ethnic group, or to mankind as a whole, as “the human race.”§

radical: Basic, fundamental. Also, drastic, extreme.§

raiments: Garments, clothing, attire. §

Rajaraja Chola: राजराजचोल Greatest of the Chola kings, reigning from 985-1014.§

Ramayana: रामायन “Life of Rama.” One of India’s two grand epics (Itihasa) along with the Mahabharata. It is Valmiki’s tragic love story of Rama and Sita, whose exemplary lives have helped set high standards of dignity and nobility as an integral part of Hindu dharma. §

rancor: Bitter hatred, spite or malice; ill will; enmity.§

random: Haphazard; without conscious choice.§

range: Extent or scope, indicating the amount of possible variation.§

raptly: With absorbed attention and great interest.§

rapture: Great joy; ecstasy; bliss.§

rasp: A coarse file with sharp points on its surface. To utter in a grating voice. To grate on (nerves or feelings).§

ratify: To confirm; to officially approve for implementation.§

ratio: The relation of one quantity to another; proportion.§

ravage: To violently destroy.§

realize: To become cognizant of; to grasp mentally; to comprehend.§

reap: To obtain a return or reward as in to harvest (a crop).§

recitation: A recital, especially in public. —recite: To repeat aloud from memory.§

reel: To stagger, attempting to regain one’s balance.§

refine: To purify. —refined: Purified. Also, elegant or subtle.§

reflect: To shine back the likeness of; to mirror. Also, to consider carefully.§

refrain: To hold oneself back; to forbear; to control the impulse to do something. §

refugee: One who flees in search of refuge, as in times of war, political oppression, or religious persecution.§

reincarnation: Punarjanma. Rebirth of the soul in another body. A rebirth in another form; a new embodiment.§

relatively: In relation to something else.§

relevant: Meaningful in relation to the current situation or topic; pertinent.§

relinquish: To give up or abandon; renounce.§

renouncer: See: Renunciate.§

renown: Fame; excellent reputation deriving from accomplishment. —renowned: Famous.§

renunciate: One who has renounced all attachment to the world, its pleasures and goals, in his one-pointed striving for liberation; a sannyasin.§

replica: A copy.§

repose: Rest, calm, tranquility, freedom from worry; peace of mind.§

reproach: Blame, accusation; disgrace.§

reprove: To rebuke, chide or reprehend; to express disapproval.§

request: To ask for; an asking for something; something asked for.§

resilient: Having the ability to spring back to its natural form after being subjected to stress; able to quickly recover in vigor, enthusiasm, etc. Elasticity.§

resistance: Opposition.§

resolutely: Determinedly, firmly, with confidence. —resoluteness: Determination, perseverance.§

resolve: To explain, clarify; to settle or set to rest; to dissolve.§

responsiveness: Quickness to respond or comply.§

restrain: To control; hold back.§

resurgence: A reviving, resurrection or re-strengthening.§

retaliation: Returning a wrong for a wrong received. Vengeance§

retribution: Punishment, retaliation.§

revelation: A vision or sudden understanding.§

revelry: Loud, disorderly merrymaking; boisterousness.§

revere: To respect with love and devotion. —reverence: A feeling of great love, respect and devotion; veneration.§

revolve: To circle around; to be centered around.§

rhyme: A uniform rhythm containing repetitive, similar sounds, especially at the end of lines. (A quality of some verse forms).§

rishi: ऋषि “Seer.” A term for an enlightened being, emphasizing psychic perception and visionary wisdom.§

rival: To equal or surpass, as in a competition.§

rogue: An unprincipled, deceitful, and unreliable person; a rascal or scoundrel. See: scoundrel.§

role model: Someone whose behavior others attempt to emulate as their ideal.§

Ssadhana: साधन “Effective means of attainment.” Religious or spiritual disciplines, such as puja, yoga, meditation, japa, fasting and austerity. The effect of sadhana is the building of willpower, faith and confidence in oneself and in God, Gods and guru. §

sadhu: सधु “Virtuous one; straight, unerring.” A holy person dedicated to the search for God. §

sage: A person respected for his spiritual wisdom and judgement.§

saint: A holy man or woman, devoid of ego, whose devout life reflects his or her inner peace, humility, and purity.§

Saiva Siddhanta: शैवसिद्धन्त “Final conclusions of Saivism.” The most widespread and influential Saivite school today, predominant especially among the Tamil people in Sri Lanka and South India. It is the formalized theology of the divine revelations contained in the twenty-eight Saiva Agamas. Other sacred scriptures include the Tirumantiram and the voluminous collection of devotional hymns, the Tirumurai, and the masterpiece on ethics and statecraft, the Tirukural. See: Hinduism, Saivism.§

Saivism (Saiva): शैव The religion followed by those who worship Siva as supreme God. Oldest of the four sects of Hinduism. See: Hinduism, Saiva Siddhanta.§

salvation: The realization of our unity with God, followed by liberation from rebirth. See: liberation, Pati-pasu-pasam.§

Sanatana Dharma: सनातनधर्म “Eternal religion” or “everlasting path.” It is a traditional name for the Hindu religion.§

sanctify: To make holy; to purify or consecrate.§

sannyasa (-in): संन्यस “Renunciation.” “Throwing down” or “abandoning.” Sannyasa is the repudiation of the dharma, including the obligations and duties, of the householder and the assumption of the even more demanding dharma of the renunciate. —sannyasin: “Renouncer.” One who has taken sannyasa diksha, the vows of sannyasa. A Hindu monk.§

sap: To drain the vital force of; to weaken; to undermine.§

satguru: सत्गुरु “True weighty one.” A spiritual preceptor of the highest attainment—one who has realized the ultimate Truth, Parasiva, through nirvikalpa samadhi—a jivanmukta able to lead others securely along the spiritual path. He is always a sannyasin, an unmarried renunciate.§

savor: To appreciate, enjoy tasting, or relish.§

savory: Enticing in taste or smell; deliciously salty, piquant, pungent or spicy.§

scepter: The staff and insigne of royal or imperial authority and power held by a spiritual monarch or king.§

scoff: To deride, mock or ridicule. An expression of derision or scorn.§

scorn: To treat with disdain or contempt.§

scoundrel: A mean, base, unscrupulous person; a stranger to dharma.§

scourge: Whip, flog severely. Metaphorically suffering, affliction.§

scribe: To write. Also, a person who writes things down, especially as dictated by another or copied.§

sectarian: Characteristic of a sect. A narrow adherent to the beliefs of a specific sect, especially in the conviction that all other sects are incorrect or incomplete.§

Self: Self-God. God Siva’s Perfection of Absolute Reality, Parasiva, that which abides at the core of every soul.§

self-oblivion: Complete forgetfulness or unmindfulness of problems, priorities, or dharma; mental vacancy, usually produced by alcohol or drugs. See: stupor.§

self-reflective: Characterized by or given to meditation or contemplation; thoughtful of one’s self.§

Sermon on the Mount: A teaching of Jesus of Nazareth, part of the Christian Bible. See: Jesus.§

servitude: The state of involuntary subjection to another; slavery; bondage.§

shamelessness: The lack of shame, modesty or decency.§

shloka: श्लोक A verse, phrase, proverb or hymn of praise, usually composed in a specified meter. Especially a verse of two lines, each of sixteen syllables. §

shrewd: Keen-witted, astute.§

shuttle: An instrument that carries a spool of thread in the weaving of cloth.§

Sikh: Of or having to do with Sikhism; a member of that religion. —Sikhism: A religion founded about 500 years ago in India, in opposition to the caste system and the use of images for worship. §

sin: Intentional transgression of divine law. Hinduism does not view sin as a crime against God, but as an act against dharma—moral order—and one’s own self. It is thought natural, if unfortunate, that young souls act wrongly, for they are living in ignorance. In Hinduism, there are no such concepts as original, inherent or mortal sin. See: dharma, anava.§

siren: In Greek and Roman mythology, sirens were a kind of sea nymph whose seductive singing lured sailors to their death.§

Siva: शिव The “Auspicious,” “Gracious,” or “Kindly one.” Supreme Being of the Saivite religion. God Siva is All and in all, simultaneously the creator and the creation, both immanent and transcendent. As personal Deity, He is Creator, Preserver and Destroyer. He is a one Being, perhaps best understood in three perfections: Parameshvara (Primal Soul), Parashakti (Pure Consciousness) and Parasiva (Absolute Reality). §

Sivaloka: “World of Siva,” and of the Gods and highly evolved souls. The causal plane, also called Karanaloka, existing deep within the Antarloka at a higher level of vibration, it is a world of superconsciousness and extremely refined energy. It is the plane of creativity and intuition, the quantum level of the universe, where souls exists in self-effulgent bodies made of actinic particles of light. It is here that God and Gods move and lovingly guide the evolution of all the worlds and shed their ever-flowing grace.§

slab: A large flat piece, usually of stone.§

sloth: Sluggishness, indolence, idleness, laziness.§

slumber: Sleep (both as a noun and as a verb).§

smear: To apply with a rubbing or stroking motion.§

soap opera: A type of drama, usually broadcast on radio or television, in which the emphasis is mostly on emotional turmoil.§

sordid: Low-minded, vile, mean. Morally “dirty.”§

sorely: Painfully.§

soul: The real being of man, as distinguished from body, mind and emotions. The soul—known as atman or purusha—is the sum of its two aspects, the form or body of the soul and the essence of the soul (though many texts use the word soul to refer to the essence only). —essence or nucleus of the soul: Man’s innermost and unchanging being—Pure Consciousness (Parashakti or Satchidananda) and Absolute Reality (Parasiva). This essence was never created, does not change or evolve and is eternally identical with God Siva’s perfections of Parashakti and Parasiva.§

sovereign: The ruler of a country; the holder of the highest political authority.§

sow: To scatter (seed) over the ground for growing.§

spaceless: Unbounded by spatial considerations; unlimited; not circumscribed by dimensions. §

spark: A small piece of burning matter, especially thrown off by fire. To set afire; to ignite, kindle, or activate.§

spiritual: Having to do with the spirit (soul, inner being) of man.§

spy: To clandestinely investigate or observe in order to obtain secret information; also, a person employed in spying.§

squander: To expend recklessly and extravagantly.§

stalwart: Strong, sturdy; brave.§

stanza: A group of lines of a verse forming a recurrent pattern.§

stature: Extent of development—whether referring to physical height or such aspects as political, scholarly or spiritual achievement.§

stoic: Indifferent to emotion or passion. The ideal of Stoic philosophy of ancient Greeks and Romans.§

stratum: A section or layer of something. Plural: strata. §

strut: A haughty, swaggering walk; to display in order to impress others.§

stun: To daze or make unconscious (by a blow). Also, to astonish.§

stupor: Dullness of mind or senses, as from alcohol or narcotics; a daze.§

stylus: A sharp, hand-held implement used for scratching marks onto leaves or other surfaces.§

subconscious: The subconscious mind: the storehouse of past impressions, reactions and desires and the seat of involuntary physiological processes.§

subdued: Conquered, overcome; reduced.§

subsist: To remain alive.§

subtle: Keen, acute, penetrating; also, elusive, delicate, not obvious.§

success: Accomplishment of a goal, often the goal of obtaining wealth.§

succinct: Brief, concise, and clearly stated.§

succumb: To submit to an overpowering force or yield to an overwhelming desire; give up or give in.§

sulk: To behave in a resentful, sullen manner, rejecting friendly or courteous overtures. —the sulks: Sulky behavior.§

sundry: Various; diverse.§

superconscious: Having to do with The mind of light, the all-knowing intelligence of the soul. At its deepest level, the superconscious is Parashakti, or Satchidananda, the Divine Mind of God Siva. Shining through the purified subconscious, it brings forth intuition, clarity and insight.§

superfluous: Unnecessary, irrelevant.§

supplicate: To beseech, implore or beg.§

surge: To billow violently, as waves on a stormy sea.§

surpass: To excel; to be superior to.§

suspend: To hang from something.§

sustain: To uphold, maintain or provide for; also, to experience.§

swami: स्वामी “Lord; owner.” He who knows or is master of himself. A respectful title for a Hindu monk, usually a sannyasin, an initiated, orange-robed renunciate, dedicated wholly to religious life. As a sign of respect, the term swami is sometimes applied more broadly to include nonmonastics dedicated to spiritual work. See: monk, renunciate, sannyasa. §

sweat: Perspiration. —sweat of the brow: Hard physical labor.§

swindle: To obtain, by fraudulent means, something which belongs to another.§

syllabus: An outline or general plan for a course of study.§

Tamil: தமிழ் The ancient Dravidian language of the Tamils, a Caucasoid people of South India and Northern Sri Lanka, now living throughout the world. The official language of the state of Tamil Nadu, India.§

tangle: A disorderly mass, as of hair, from which it is difficult to create order.§

tantrum: A fit of uncontrolled anger, temper or rage.§

tapestry: Something felt to resemble a richly and complexly designed cloth.§

taut: Pulled or drawn tight; not slack.§

tawdry: Gaudy and cheap; in poor taste.§

teeming: Abounding; swarming; existing in great numbers.§

temple: An edifice in a consecrated place dedicated to the worship of God or Gods. Hindus revere their temples as sacred, magical places in which the three worlds most consciously commune—structures especially built and consecrated to channel the subtle spiritual energies of inner-world beings.§

tenacity: Persistence, resoluteness.§

tenet: A principle, doctrine, or belief held as a truth, as by a group.§

terse: Brief, succinct, concise.§

testimony: A statement or other evidence in support of certain facts.§

tether: A rope or chain to keep an animal restrained within certain bounds.§

theologian: A scholar of religious doctrine.§

thicket: A dense growth of shrubs or underbrush.§

three worlds: The three worlds of existence, triloka, are the primary hierarchical divisions of the cosmos. 1) Bhuloka: “Earth world,” the physical plane. 2) Antarloka: “Inner or in-between world,” the subtle or astral plane. 3) Sivaloka: “World of Siva,” and of the Gods and highly evolved souls; the causal plane, also called Karanaloka. See: Sivaloka.§

thuravi: துறவி Tamil name for sannyasin. See: sannyasa.§

timeless: Outside the condition of time, or not measurable in terms of time. §

Tirumantiram: திருமந்திரம் “Holy incantation.” The Nandinatha Sampradaya’s oldest Tamil scripture; written ca 200 BCE by Rishi Tirumular. It is the earliest of the Tirumurai texts, and a vast storehouse of esoteric yogic and tantric knowledge. It contains the mystical essence of raja yoga and siddha yoga, and the fundamental doctrines of the 28 Saiva Siddhanta Agamas.§

Tirumular: திருமூலர் An illustrious siddha yogi and rishi of the Nandinatha Sampradaya’s Kailasa Parampara who came from the Himalayas (ca 200 BCE) to Tamil Nadu to compose the Tirumantiram. Tirumular was a disciple of Maharishi Nandinatha. See: Tirumantiram, Kailasa Parampara. §

touchstone: A criterion by which genuineness or worth in a particular matter can be ascertained. Originally a kind of black stone formerly used to determine the purity of gold and silver.§

tramp: A vagabond. A prostitute. A person regarded as promiscuous..§

transcendent: Surpassing the limits of experience or manifest form. In Saiva Siddhanta, a quality of God Siva as Absolute Reality, the Self. Distinguished from immanent.§

transgress: To overstep or break a law or ethical principle.§

transition: That which leads from one thing to another; a linking, as between topics of a book, stages of life, etc.§

tread: To walk upon or along.§

trepidation: Shaking with fear; alarm; agitation.§

trifling: Frivolous, insignificant.§

trigger: To activate.§

triumphant: Exulting, celebrating, rejoicing over a success or victory.§

trivial: Insignificant.§

Trojan War: Legendary reminiscences of a war waged by the Greeks against the city of Troy, probably around 1200 BCE.§

True Being: In Saivite Hinduism, the true being of man (indeed, of all of existence) is seen as none other than God. §

Truth: When capitalized, ultimate knowing which is unchanging. Lower case (truth): honesty, integrity, virtue.§

typical: Representative, characteristic.§

Unbaked clay pot: A pot prior to firing in a kiln, which would dissolve if water were poured into it.
uncharitable: Harsh, severe, ungenerous.
unchaste: Indulging in sexual intercourse with other than one’s spouse.

unequivocally: Plainly, clearly, with no ambiguity.§

unextinguished: Not extinguished; allowed to remain burning.§

unfold: To open gradually, especially in stages.§

uninquisitive: Disinclined to seek knowledge; disinterested in learning.§

universal: Having to do with the universe; also, pertaining to everything in the universe, or to everything or everyone within a specified sphere.§

universe: The sum total of physical manifestation, comprising all the galaxies, space between the galaxies, living beings, and all the forces that affect matter.§

unleash: To release or set free; to remove restraints from.§

unmindful: Careless, inattentive, heedless.§

unpretentiousness: Lack of pretension or affectation; modesty.§

unprovoked: Without provocation; uncalled-for; preceded by no apparent incitement; usually referring to a hostile act.§

unremitting: Not stopping or slackening; persistent.§

unrivaled: Matchless, peerless, unequalled.§

unsavory: Unpleasant, offensive, immoral.§

unscrupulous: Unprincipled, dishonest; unrestrained by the concept of dharma.§

unswerving: Holding a straight course; never deviating from dharma.§

untutored: Untaught.§

Upanishad: उपनिषद् “Sitting near devotedly.” The fourth and final portion of the Vedas, expounding the secret, philosophical meaning of the Vedic hymns. The Upanishads are a collection of profound texts which are the source of Vedanta and have dominated Indian thought for thousands of years. They are philosophical chronicles of rishis expounding the nature of God, soul and cosmos, exquisite renderings of the deepest Hindu thought. §

uplift: To elevate or raise the level of (often used in a spiritual sense).§

upright: Honest, honorable, pure in thought and conduct.§

Vacant: Without an incumbent or occupant; unfilled.
valiance: Bravery, courage, strength, heroism.
vast: Huge; immense; great in extent; boundless.

Veda: वेद Wisdom. Sagely revelations comprising Hinduism’s most authoritative scripture. They, along with the Agamas, are shruti, that which is “heard.” The Vedas are a body of dozens of holy texts known collectively as the Veda, or as the four Vedas: Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva. In all they include over 100,000 verses, as well as additional prose. The oldest portions of the Vedas are thought to date back as far as 6,000 BCE. Written down in Sanskrit in the last few millennia, they are the worlds most ancient scriptures.§

vegetarian: Shakahara. Of a diet which excludes meat, fish, fowl and eggs. Vegetarianism is a principle of health and environmental ethics that has been a keystone of Indian life for thousands of years.§

venerate: To love or consider with respect and admiration; to revere.§

verbiage: An excess of words; wordiness.§

verdant: Green with growing things.§

vernacular: Common, everyday manner of speaking; local dialect.§

version: A specific presentation, interpretation, or translation of a particular work.§

vestige: Trace or evidence of a thing’s ever existing.§

vibrant: Energetic, vital; full of life force.§

vigilance: Watchfulness; being alert for any danger.§

vigor: Vibrant physical and/or mental energy, strength & health.§

vile: Morally bad; wicked; offensive.§

vitality: Energy and vigor.§

Vivekananda, Swami: (1863-1902) Disciple of Sri Ramakrishna, known for his missionary zeal and brilliant lectures around the world. §

vying: Competing.§

Wanton: Undisciplined, reckless, immoral. Lascivious, lustful; having no regard for chastity.
warp: The threads that run lengthwise in a woven fabric, crossed at right angles to the weft. Warp and weft.
weft: The threads (also called the woof) that run crosswise in a woven fabric, crossed at right angles to the warp.

well-winnowed: Carefully sifted (as with grain, in the wind) so as to eliminate the unnecessary elements, leaving only that which is valuable.§

whip: To punish or chastise by repeated striking with a strap or rod; flog.§

wile: Strategems; sly, deceitful ways of accomplishing one’s desires.§

will-o’-the-wisp: Anything that deludes or misleads by luring on.§

wither: To lose vigor; weaken, languish.§

witness: One who can give a firsthand account of something seen, heard, or experienced.§

womankind: Women spoken of collectively.§

womb: In general, the environment in which something begins its growth and development.§

wonder: A marvelous thing; a feeling of amazement. Also, to marvel or wish to know.§

wondrous: Wonderful, marvellous; Inspiring awe, extraordinary, mirific.§

worldly: Of, relating to, or devoted to the temporal world.§

worshipful: Worthy of worship.§

wrath: Violent anger; fury. Or, an action carried out with great anger or rage.§

wreak: To inflict.§

wretched: Miserable, abject, dismal.§

Yak: A wild, shaggy-haired ox (Bos grunniens) of the mountains of central Asia. A domesticated yak is used as a work animal or raised for meat and milk.
Yoga Sutras: Patanjali’s most famous work, comprising 200 aphorisms delineating ashtanga (eight-limbed), raja (kingly) or siddha (perfection) yoga. Still today it is the foremost text on meditative yoga. See: Patanjali.

yoga: योग “Union.” From yuj, “to yoke, harness, unite.” The philosophy, process, disciplines and practices whose purpose is the yoking of individual consciousness with transcendent or divine consciousness. §

Yogaswami: யோகசுவாமி “Master of yoga.” Sri Lanka’s most renowned contemporary spiritual master (1872–1964), a siddhar revered by both Hindus and Buddhists. He was trained in and practiced kundalini yoga under the guidance of Satguru Chellappaswami, from whom he received guru diksha. Sage Yogaswami was in turn the satguru of Sivaya Subramuniyaswami, current preceptor of the Natha Sampradaya’s Kailasa Parampara. Yogaswami conveyed his teachings in hundreds of songs, called Natchintanai, “good thoughts,” urging seekers to follow dharma and realize God within. Four great sayings capsulize his message: Thanai ari, “Know thy Self by thyself;” Sarvam Sivam Ceyal, “Siva is doing it all;” Sarvam Sivamaya, “All is Śiva;” and Summa Iru, “Be still.”§

yogi: योगी One who practices yoga, especially kundalini or raja yoga. §

yogini: योगिनी Feminine counterpart of yogi.§

yuga: युग “Period, age.” One of four ages which chart the duration of the world according to Hindu thought. They are: Satya (or Krita), Treta, Dvapara and Kali. In the first period, dharma reigns supreme, but as the ages revolve, virtue diminishes and ignorance and injustice increases. At the end of the Kali Yuga, in which we are now, the cycle begins again with a new Satya Yuga. §

Zealously: With great zeal; ardently, eagerly, enthusiastically, fervently.§