Translated by Dr. S. Sabharatanam
- Chapter One: Revelation and Transmission of the Agamas (126 verses)
- Chapter Two: Formulation of the Significant Mantras (46 verses)
- Chapter Four: Directions for the Daily Worship of Lord Siva (538 verses)
- Chapter Five: On the Essential Aspects of the Daily Worship (81 verses)
- Chapter Ten: Examining the Omens (17 verses)
- Chapter Twenty-Six: Directions for Allocation of Appropriate Places for the Deities in Villages and Other Settlements (41 verses)
- Chapter Sixty-Two: Characteristics of Sivalinga (75 verses)
- Chapter Sixty-Seven: Exact Locations for the Installation of Various Deities (32 verses)
- Chapter Sixty-Eight: Directions for Installation of the Images (106 verses)
Chapter One: Revelation and Transmission of the Agamas (126 verses)
On the southern summit of the Mount Kailasa associated with multifarious wonderments, there is a seat under the full-grown vata-tree (fig tree), which seat is thickly covered by its shadow and which is exceedingly wide, with a tiger-skin placed around it. It is auspiciously beautified with gems studded over it. Lord Srikantha who is the controlling authority of this universe, who is the Great God is seated on it, being worshipped by the host of Devas, danavas, gandharvas, siddhas, vidyadharas and such other celestial groups.
There are great Sages such as Kausika, Kasyapa, Agastya, Gautama, Narada, Sanatkumara, Sanaka, Sanatana, Sanandana, Bhrugu, Atri, Bharadvaja, Vasishtha and others.
Having been awakened by the illumining rays of Sivasakti and become fit enough, they have become desirous of acquiring the supreme knowledge. Having prostrated before the feet of Srikantha, the spouse of Uma, they entreat:
The Sages: O, Lord, the possessor of six potential qualities (Bhagavan)! You are the governing Lord of the gods of lower realm and the higher realm. You are relieving the bound souls from the bonds which constrict them. You are performing the five cosmic actions- creation, maintenance, dissolution, concealment and bestowal of grace. You are the one who directly maintains the evolutionary process of space and other categories issuing out of the great maya. Your form is of the nature of auspicious mass of bliss springing forth from within your own self and of the nature of your own pure consciousness. You are inseparably united with supreme Sakti who is in the form of supreme consciousness. You are eternally free from the limiting factors such as direction, space and time. Through your pervasive presence, You exist as the perennial source for the delighted state of the worlds. O, the Lord of all gods!, we have been directed by you to engage ourselves in the systematic worship of Siva. In order to perform that worship perfectly, be favorably disposed now to instruct the principles enshrined in the Scripture which is the quintessence of the Scriptures revealed from the faces of Lord Siva. O, the Lord of all gods!, you are with such a compassion which spontaneously flows towards your devotees. Be kind enough to instruct those principles.
Having been entreated in this way by the Sages, Lord Srikantha, the holder of bull-flag, whose head is adorned with the shining half-moon, spoke these words loaded with deep contents: “O, the Sages who have completed thoroughly all the essential observances!, the subject matter asked by all of you is an excellent one. Now listen to what I say. This is the foremost Scripture which now exists as extracted from the Great Tantra called Kamika. This Kamika was originally revealed to Pranava and transmitted to others, in the Mount Meru. This is a supreme Scripture associated with all the four sections – kriya, carya, yoga and jnana.
The Sages, having been informed in this way, prostrated before the Lord, lying down on the ground like a staff. Having ordered them to lift themselves up from the ground, Srikantha Siva instructed this exceedingly superior Agama to them. “In the beginning, the Scripture was revealed in twofold way, in view of the difference observable in the competency of the fitting recipients. The Scripture collectively known as Sivajnana Sastras was revealed in two different streams called para and apara. These Scriptures reveal the exact nature of Pati (the Supreme Protector) and the bound souls and ultimately make known the exact nature of transcendental Parasiva. The Scriptures such as the Vedas belong to the category of apara. These Scriptures reveal the nature of the bound souls and the bonds. Just as the eyes of human beings and the cats are observed to be of different nature during the night time, even so these Scriptures which are para and apara are recognized to be of different contents.
Laukika, Vaidika, Adyatmika, Atimarga and Mantra – in this way this scriptural revelation became manifold. There are five faces – Sadyojata, Vama, Aghora, Tatpurusha and Isana. Each face is with an appearance of five faces. The scriptures such as Laukika and others were revealed by these five faces. Each face revealed 5 different scriptures. Thus, there took place the revelation of 25 different scriptures.
In order to express out clearly the nature of the one which remains concealed as the exact core of the word, scriptures such as the Mantras and the Tantras flowed out from the Sadyojata face. The scriptures known as Garuda, Vama, Bhuta tantra and Bhairva flowed out from the Isana face, Tatpurusha face, Vama face and Aghora face respectively in the said order.
From the upper face of the Isana face, the Scriptures such as the Kamika and others were revealed in two different streams of 10 and 18 Scriptures belonging to siva bheda and rudra bheda respectively. As directed and ordered by the Supreme Lord, these 28 Scriptures were revealed to 66 high-souled recipients in the due order. The same 28 Scriptures were revealed in accordance with the number of faces in the subsequent cycles of yugas through Sadyojata and other faces. They were revealed so as to be in four different sections.
In the same way, the Garuda Tantra came out from the Tatpurusha face, its variations being 24 in number. During the subsequent transmissions, these were revealed in order to accomplish fulfilment in Savitri and other mantras. The Vama tantra with its variations such as Nayasutra and others came out from the Vama face according to the direction given by Siva, their number being 24. Twenty-four scriptures, Kaula and others, collectively known as the Bhuta tantra came out from the Sadyojata face. The Bhairva tantra was revealed by the Aghora face so as to be of two different categories. They were later revealed in this world in the name of Asitanga and other Bhairavas in many different ways. When each scripture gets revealed in different numbers, there occurs amplification of that particular scripture.
Now, the transmission of the Saiva Agamas known as ‘Siddhanta Sastras’ is told with all the details. Since it yields abundant fruits which are to be gained through the tattva-related mantras and since it safeguards the efforts taken by the sadhakas, the Scripture is called “Tantra”. The Tantra (Agama) called Kamika, as consisted of one parardha verses, was first revealed to Pranava. This was transmitted to Trikala by Pranava and subsequently it was revealed to Hara by Trikala. O, the much exalted Sages among the twice-borns! there are three secondary Agamas (Upagamas) for this Kamika. They are: Vaktara, Bhairvottara and Narasimha (Mrugendra). Numetrical System of the Agamas (equivalent Agamic terms are given in the right): 0 pujya or sunya, 1 eka, 10 dasa, 100 sata, 1000 sahasra, 10,000, ayuta 100,000 laksha, 10 million koti, 100 million adbhuta, 1000 million padma (one billion), 10 billion kharva, 100 billion nikharva, 1000 billion brunda (one trillion), 10 trillion maha padma, 100 trillion sankha, 1000 trillion maha sankha, 10,000 trillion samudra, 100,000 trillion, maha samudra 10 million trillion, madhya 100 million trillion parardha.
The Yogaja was revealed to Sudha, as consisted of one laksha verses. Bhasma received this Agama from Sudha and then it was transmitted to Vibhu by Bhasma. There are five secondary Agamas for this Yogaja. They are: Vinasikhottara, Tara, Santa, Santati and Atmayoga.
The Cintya Agama was revealed to Sudipta as consisted of hundred thousand verses. Gopati received this Agama from Sudipta and subsequently Ambika received it from Gopati. There are six secondary Agamas for the Cintya Agama. They are: Sucintya, Subhaga, Vama, Papanasa, Parodbhava and Amruta.
The Karana Agama was revealed to Karana, as consisted of ten million verses. Sarvarudra received this Agama from Karana and then Prajapati received it from Sarvarudra. There are seven secondary Agamas for the Karana Agama. They are: Karana, Pavana, Daurga, Mahendra, Bhima, Marana and Dveshta.
The Ajita Agama was revealed to Susiva as consisted of one hundred thousand verses. Siva received this Agama from Susiva and subsequently Acyuta received this Agama from Siva. There are four secondary Agamas for this. They are: Prabhuta, Parodbhuta, Parvati and Padma Samhita.
The Dipta Agama was revealed to Isa, as consisted of one hundred thousand verses. From Isa, this Agama was received by Isana Murti and subsequently, Hutasana received this Agama from Isana Murti. There are nine secondary Agamas for the Dipta. They are: Ameya, Sabda, Acchadya, Asankhya, Amitaujasa, Ananda, Madhavodbhuta, Adbhuta and Akshata. Then the transmission of Suksma Agama is told.
The Sukshma Agama was revealed to Sukshma as consisted of one billion verses. Vaisravana received this Agama from Sukshma and from Vaisrvana this was received by Prabhanjana. There is only one secondary Agama for this and it goes by the name Sukshma.
The Sahasra Agama was revealed to Kala as consisted of one hundred trillion verses. Bhima received this Agama from Kala and from Bhima this was received by Dharma. There are ten secondary Agamas for the Sahasra Agama. They are: Atita, Mangala, Suddha, Aprameya, Jatibhak, Prabuddha, Vibudha, Hasta, Alankara and Subodhaka.
The Amsuman Agama was revealed to Amsu as consisted of five hundred thousand verses. From Amsu, this Agama was received by Agra and then Ravi received this Agama from Agra. There are twelve secondary Agamas for this Amsuman. They are: Vidyapurana, Vasava, Nilalohia, Prakarana, Bhutatantra, Atmalankara, Kasyapa, Gautama, Aindra, Brahma, Vasishta and Aisana.
The great Scripture known as Suprabheda was revealed to Dasesa. This Agama was then received by Vighnesvara from Dasesa and from Vighnesvara, this was received by Sasi. This Agama was first revealed as consisted of thirty million verses. There is no secondary Agama for this Suprabheda. The order of four sections as kriya, carya, yoga and jnana is found only in this Agama. Thus, the revelation of ten Agamas belonging to Siva-bheda has been told. Next, the revelation of the Agamas belonging to Rudra-bheda is detailed.
The supreme Agama known as Vijaya was revealed to Anadirudra as consisted of ten million verses. Paramesa received this Agama from Anadirudra. There are eight secondary Agamas for the Vijaya. They are: Vijaya, Udbhava, Saumya, Aghora, Mrutyunasana, Kubera, Mahaghora and Vimala.
The Nisvasa Agama was revealed to Dasarna as consisted of ten million verses. Then it was revealed to Sailaja by Dasarna. There are eight secondary Agamas fo the Nisvasa. They are: Nisvasottara, Nisvasa, Nisvasa Mukhodbhava, Nisvasa Nayana, Nisvasa Karika, Ghora, Yama and Guhya.
The Savyambhuva Agama was revealed to Nidhana as consisted of thirty-five million verses. Nalinodbhava received this Agama from Nidhanesa. This Agama has got three secondary Agamas. They are:
The Anala Agama was revealed to Vyomna as consisted of thirty thousand verses. Hutasana received this Agama from Vyomna. There is no secondary Agama for this.
The Vira Agama was revealed to Tejas as consisted of one hundred thousand verses. Prajapati received this Agama from Tejas. There are thirteen secondary Agamas for this Agama. They are: Prastara, Phullamalla, Prabodha, Bodha, Bodhaka, Amoha, Mohasamaya, Hakata, Sakatadhika, Hala, Vilekhana, Bhadra and Vira.
The Raurava Agama was revealed to Brahmanesa as consisted of 800 million verses. Nandikesa received this Agama from Brahmanesa. There are six secondary Agamas for this. They are: Kalaghna, Kalaatita, Raurva, Rauravottara, Mahakalamata and Aindra.
The Makuta Agama was revealed to Sivakhya as consisted of one hundred thousand verses. Mahadeva received this Agama from Sivakhya. There are two Upagamas for this – Makutottara and Makuta.
The Vimala Agama was revealed to Sarvatmaka as consisted of three hundred thousand verses. Virabhadra received this Agama from Sarvatmaka. There are sixteen Upagamas for this Agama. They are: Ananta, Bhoga, Akranta, Vrushapinga, Vrushodara, Vrushadbhuta, Sudanta, Raudra, Bhadravidha, Arevata, Atikranta, Attahasa, Alankruta, Arcita, Dharana and Tantra.
The Candrajnana Agama was revealed to Ananta as consisted of thirty million verses. Bruhaspati received this Agama from Ananta. There are fourteen Upagamas for this Agama. They are: Sthira, Sthanu, Mahanta, Varuna, Nandikesvara, Ekapada purana, Sankara, Nilarudraka, Sivabhadra, Kalpabheda, Srimukha, Sivasasana, Sivasekhara and Devyamata.
The Mukhabimba Agama was revealed to Prasanta as consisted of one hundred thousand verses. Dadhici received this Agama from Prasanta. There are fifteen Upagamas for this Agama. They are: Caturmukha, Malaya, Ayoga, Samstobham, Pratibimbaka, Atmalankara, Vayavya, Trautika, Tutiniraka, Kalatyaya, Tulayoga, Kuttima, Pattasekhara, Mahavidya and Mahasaura.
The Prodgita Agama was revealed to Sulina as consisted of three hundred thousand verses. Kavaca received this Agama from Sulina. There are sixteen Upagamas for this Agama. They are: Kavaca, Varaha, Pingalamata, Pasabandha, Dandadhara, Ankusa, Dhanurdhara, Sivajnana,
Vijnana, Srikalajnana, Ayurveda, Dhanurveda, Sarpadamshtri-vibhedana, Gita, Bharata and Atodya.
The Lalita Agama was revealed to Alayesa as consisted of eight thousand verses. Lalita received this Agama from Alayesa. There are three Upagamas for this Agama. They are: Lalita, Lalitottara and Kaumara.
The Siddha Agama was revealed to Bindu as consisted of fifteen million verses. Candesvara received this Agama from Bindu. There are four Upagamas for this Agama. They are: Sarottara, Ausanottara, Saalaabheda and Sasikhanda.
The Santana Agama was revealed to Sivanishtha as consisted of six thousand verses. Asamvaya received this Agama from Sivanishtha. There are seven Upagamas for this Agama. They are: Lingadhyaksha, Suradhyaksha, Sankara, Amalesvara, Asankhya, Anila and Dvandva.
The Sarvokta Agama was revealed to Somadeva as consisted of two hundred thousand verses. Nrusimha received this Agama from Somadeva. There are five Upagamas for this Agama. They are: Sivadharmottara, Vayuprokta, Divyaprokta, Aisana and Sarvodgita.
The supreme Scripture known as Paramesvara Agama was revealed to Sridevi as consisted of twelve hundred thousand verses. Usana Muni received this Agama from Sridevi. There are seven Upagamas for this Agama. They are: Matanga, Yakshinipadma, Paramesvara, Pushkara, Suprayoga, Hamsa and Samanya.
The Kirana Agama was revealed to Devavibhu as consisted of fifty million verses. Samvartaka received this Agama from Devavibhu. There are nine Upagamas for this Agama. They are: Gaaruda, Nairruta, Nila, Ruksha, Bhanuka, Dhenuka, Prabuddhaa, Buddha and Kala.
The Vatula Agama was rvealed to Siva as consisted of one hundred thousand verses. Mahakala received this Agama from Siva. There are twelve Upagamas for this Agama. They are: Vatula, Vatulottara, Kalajnana, Prarohita, Sarva, Dharmatmaka, Sreshta, Nitya, Suddha, Mahanana, Visva and Visvatmaka. In this way, all the Upagamas pertaining to the twenty-eight Mulagamas have been detailed well.
Lord Siva appears in a form constituted of these Agamas. In this form, the Kamika is present as His two feet. Yogaja- ankle; Cintya – fingers of the feet; Karana – shank; Ajita – knees; Dipta – thigh regions; Sukshma – the loins; Sahasra – hip region; Amsuman – back portion; Suprabheda – navel; Vijaya – stomach; Nisvasa – heart; Svayambhuva – the breast-spots; Anala – the eyes; Vira – neck portion; Raurava – the ears; Makuta – the crown and the main parts and sub-parts of the body; Vimala – the shoulders; Candrajnana – the chest region; Bimba – the well-formed face; Prodgita – tongue; Lalita – the cheek; Siddha – the fore-head; Santana – the ear rings; Sarvokta – the sacred thread; Paramesvara – ornamental chain; Kirana- the ornaments made of gems; Vatula – the attire; all the auspicious deeds recommended in these Agamas – the three stripes of holy ash; all the specific preparations such as arghya-water and others – the waist-belt and such other items needed for the body; all the directions related to the worship of Siva – the perfumed unguents; all the vereses related to meditation of form (dhyana) denote the various flowers and garlands; the principles set forth in the knowledge-section (jnana pada) – the eatables to be offered to Him. The form of Sadakhya presents itself as associated with the form constituted of the Agamas, with the vibrant force constituted of the mantras and with other different parts designed with the secondary sections of the Agamas and the mantras.
All the twenty-eight Mula Agamas which are in two different streams as Sivabheda and Rudrabheda shine forth as the fabulous gem (cintamani) which could yield all the desired fruits. They are capable of yielding the one ultimate fruit (liberation) as well as the mutitudes of fruits related to the worldly life. Even though the Lord who revealed the Agamas is only One, the Agamas became manifold in view of those who received these Agamas. All the activities from the ploughing of the selected land up to the installation should be done according to the directions given in the Primary Agamas (Mulagamas) only. If these are done based on the Upagamas, both the doer and the protector of the country would perish.
Only the specific variations in the rituals of worship are made known by the Upagamas. The basic directions set forth in the twenty-eight Primary Agamas are superior for the activities such as installation and others. The activities, from the ploughing the land to the systematic worship, commenced based on a particular Primary Agama should be fulfilled completely based on that particular Primary Agama alone. No activity should be done, consulting the Primary Agama other than the one taken up for commencing the work. If the direction for any specific activity is not told in the selected Primary Agama, then that activity may be fulfilled based on the Mulagama other than one selected already.
These Agamas are replete with statements directly issued by Lord Siva. These statements are the directions dealing with those which are to be undertaken and those which are prohibited. These directions have been given with emphasis and certainty. These are dealing with those which are desirable and which are to be abhorred. These Agamas are associated with four sections in which such directions are set forth. These are the unfailing means for the attainment of worldly enjoyments as well as the final liberation. Only these Agamas have been briefly revealed to the competent persons in this world by the Devas, excellent Sages and others after receiving these from their Gurus. Owing to the spontaneous compassion towards all the beings of the world, these Devas and the Sages instructed these Agamas briefly.
These Agamas are to be studied systematically by the Siva-vipras (Adisaivas) adhering to the traditional system pertaining to the lineage of Guru. These Agamas are to be taught only by the Siva-vipras. Such teaching of the Agamas should not be done by other persons. Once the activities such as ploughing the land and the others are undertaken according to the Siddhanta Agamas, they are not to be done in consultation with other scriptures during the course of such activities. Such consultation with other scriptures would result in the defect of unsystematic and confusing blend of the scriptures. Because of the occurrence of such severe defect, the ruler and the ruled get ruined.
Gauda tantra, Bhuta tantra, Bhairava, Vama tantra, Kapala scriptures, Pancaratra scriptures, Lakula scriptures, scriptures of Kula tradition, Pasupata tantras, Puranas, Dharma Sastras, Itihasas, Six-limbs of the Vedas, Rg Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda, Atharvana Veda, scriptures belonging to the system of Bauddha and Arhata – all these come under the ‘not-superior’ category (apara) in view of the Agamas which are known as the Urdhva Srota (Scriptures which issued forth from the upper face) and whose authenticity could not be diminished.
The Kamika and other Mula Agamas, which are collectively called Sivajnana Sastras, are always considered as representing the head portion of the form of Lord Siva. All other Scriptures represent the heart, neck and other parts of that form. Other Scriptures have been revealed by Lord Sambhu so as to constitute the prior and unsettled prima-facie part to suit the varied levels of the human beings. But, the Saiva Siddhanta Sastras (Agamas) have been revealed by Him so as to constitute the final and well-ascertained conclusive part, after setting aside all other scriptures which fail in ascertaining exactly the principles which are to be accepted and the principles which are to be discarded.
The image of any Deity can be installed and sanctified by the Adisaivas who are well-rooted in the knowledge of the Agamas even according to the other scriptures. Such image should be worshipped by them duly for the attainment of earthly prosperity and heavenly happiness and for the prosperity of the ruler, the village and the sponsor.
For performing the personalised worship (atmartha puja) and the temple worship (parartha puja), Adisaiva is the highly qualified and authentic person. O, the foremost twice-born Sages!, the Adisaivas are house-holders and normally they do the worship-related rituals everywhere. They have the competency to perform the rituals concerned with Yamala, Matru tantra, Kapala, Pancaratraka, Bauddha, Arhata, Lakula, Vaidika and other systems according to the scriptures belonging to each system and according to their own Agamic Scriptures. They perform diksha and other rituals as applicable to all these systems and do the installation of the image pertaining to each of these systems (based on the knowledge of the scriptures of other systems and the knowledge of their own Agmas).
Because of the importance of the Saiva Agamas and because of their greatness of representing the face of Siva’s form, the competency and authority always lies with the Adisaivas for the systematic study of these Saiva Scriptures. There is no such authority for others in the study of these Agamas. Therefore, the temple worship, personalised worship, installation, worship of other Deities – all these should be done by the Adisaivas only. For others, only personalised worship (atmartha puja) is recommended. Transgressing this rule, if parartha puja (temple worship) also is performed by others, then, as the result of such violation, the ruler and the country would perish within a short span of time. There is no doubt about this.
This is end of the first chapter titled “Transmission of the Agamas” in the Great Tantra called Kamika
Chapter Two: Formulation of the Significant Mantras (46 verses)
Then I will tell you briefly about the systematic formation of the mantras, in due order. In the whole series of events from ploughing of the land to the regular worship, not even a single activity is carried out without mantra.
The term ‘manana’ denotes attainment of the capacity of knowing all. The term ‘trana’ denotes the bestowal of grace on those, enmeshed in the worldly life. Since it possesses the power of yielding manana and trana, it is called “mantra”.
It is to be known that the mantra consists of two different forms – vacya and vacaka. The form of the word is known as vacaka. The form of the deep content (meaning) of that word is known as vacya. In any mantra, the inseparable identity of this vacaka and vacya is very much expected.
Basically, nada is called mantra and that nada arises from paranada (the most subtle sound). Bindu arises from the nada and from the bindu manifests the first ‘svara’ letter (vowel) ‘A’. From the letter ‘A’, all other vowels arise in terms of two. On the whole there arise thirteen different letters.
There are sixteen vowels (svaras) and they are known as the souls (jivas). The letters from ‘Ka’ to ‘Ksha’ are considered as the bodies of those souls. They are 34 in number and it is these letters which are called ‘vyanjana’. All things are pervaded by these letters (‘A’ to’Ksha’) which are variegated by the varied functions of the vital air (prana). It is by these letters that the Scriptures categorised as para and apara have been structured. The nada consists of nine divisions in which all the 50 different letters remain included. The nine divisions of the letters are formed in the following way: division of 16 svaras, 5 divisions of vyanjanas, each division consisting of 5 vyanjaka letters, 2 divisions of vyanjakas, each division consisting of 4 vyanjakas and the last division consisting of only one vyanajka. On the whole, nine divisions.
O, the twice-born Sages!, that nada is termed by the specific names pertaining to Siva. This nada is differentiated into three kinds – gross (sthula), subtle (sukshma) and supreme (para). The nada which is of the nature of making known the inner content of the audible sound is present within the heart of all the living beings.
It should be known by the sadhakas and by those who have exact knowledge of the tattvas that these fifty matruka-letters are associated with fifty different Rudras and fifty different Saktis. O, the twice-born Sages! the elaborate details of these Rudras and Saktis will be told to you later under the context of the description of the varna-adhva.
The Sages: O, Lord!, in this world, all the beings are with decaying good qualities and short duration of life. They are associated with covetousness, delusion, increased conceit, attachment, enmity and other such vices. O, the possessor of abounding grace!, the powerful emergence of mantras which is taking place in manifold ways is to be explained exactly by you now as applicable to those who are capable of doing the mantra-sadhana and those who are not able to accomplish this sadhana.
The Lord: I will tell you succinctly the process by which the unfailing means for the attainment of happiness would be available to the human beings. Listen to this.
The first letter ‘A’ is related to all the Deities. It is of red color. It has the power to cause allurement. The letter ‘AA’ is related to Parasakti. It is in white color. It has the power of attracting the things towards itself. The letter ‘I’ is related to Vishnu. It’s color is blue-black. It has the power of protecting. The letter ‘II’ is related Mayasakti. It is of pale yellow color. It has the power of alluring the women.
The letter ‘U’ is related to the Vastu Devata. It’s color is dark blue. It has the power of subjugating the king. The letter ‘UU’ is related to the Bhumi Devata. It’s color is blue-black. It has the power of subjugating the world. The letter ‘Ri’ is related to Brahma. It’s color is whitish yellow. It has the power to ward off the afflictions caused by the planetary positions. The letter ‘Rii” is related to Sikhandi. It’s color is black. It has the power to ward off fever and the inflamed state of the mind and body.
The letters ‘Li’ and ‘Lii’ are related to the two Asvini Deavtas (Divine physicians). They are in the color of white and red. Both of them have the power to ward off fever and such other diseases. The letter ‘E’ is related to Virabhadra. It’s color is pale yellow. It has the power to accomplish all the desired things. The letter ‘Ai’ is related to Vagbhava (Sarasvati). It is in the color of crystal. It has to the power to bestow the knowledge. The letter ‘O’ is related to Isvara. It presents itself in the form of luminous beam. It has the power to yield all the desired fruits.
The letter ‘Au’ is related to Adisakti. It is in white color. It has the power of yielding all the desired objects. The letter ‘Am’ is related to Mahesa. It is in red color. It has the power to bestow happiness and comforts. The letter ‘Ah’ is related to Kalarudra. It is in red color. It has the power of cutting asunder the fettering bonds.
The letter ‘ka’ is related to Prajapati. It’s color is whitish yellow. It has the power to yield the shower of rain and of wealth. The letter ‘kha’ is related to Jahnavai (Ganga). It is in the color of milk. It has the power to annihilate the effects of sinful deeds. The letter ‘ga’ is related to the Lord Ganesa (Ganarupa). It is in the color of red. It has the power to ward off the obstacles. The letter ‘gha’ is related to Bhairava. It is in the color of pearl. It has the power of destroying the enemy. The letter ‘n’a’ is related Kala Deva. It is in the color of black. It has the power of bestowing victory in all endeavors.
The letter ‘ja’ is related to Canda Rudra. It is in the color of black. It has the power of destroying the three bands of negative forces. The letter ‘cha’ is related to Bhadra Kali. It is in the color of ‘rajavarta’ flower. It has the power of yielding the final victory. The letter ‘ja’ is related to Jambhabhit. It is in the color of red. It is of the nature of conducing to the final victory. The letter ‘jha’ is related to Ardhanari form of Siva. It is in the color of blue-black. It is conducive to victory in all the efforts undertaken. The letter ‘jna’ is related to Koti Rudra. It’s color is whitish yellow. It has the power of warding off the diseases.
The letter ‘Ta’ is related to Bhrungiisa. It is in the color of red. It is conducive to all states of happiness. The letter ‘Tha ‘is related to the Moon. It is in white color. It has the power of annihilating the chances of untimely death. The letter ‘Da’ is related to Ekanetra Rudra. It is in the color of whitish yellow. It has the power to gain victory over the Kaladeva. The letter ‘Dha’ is related to Yama. It is in blue color. It has the power of annihilating the chances of immature death. The letter ‘NA’ is related to Nandi Deva. It is in the color of red. It has the power of yielding the objects of enjoyments.
The letter ‘ta’ is related to Vastu Devata. It is in white color. It is of the nature of bestowing the power to gain victory over all. The letter ‘tha’ is related to Dharmi. It’s color is like the color of kunda flower. It has the power of bestowing victory. The letter ‘da’ is related to Durga. It’s color is blue-black. It is of the nature of bestowing the capacity to accomplish everything. The letter ‘dha’ is related to Dhanada (Kubera). It’s color is whitish yellow. It has the power of yielding all the desired things. The letter ‘na’ is related to Savitri. It is in the color of crystal. It is of the nature of annihilating the effects of sinful deeds.
The letter ‘pa’ is related to Parjanya (Indra /Varuna). It is in the color of white. It has the power to cause the showers of rain. The letter ‘pha’ is related to Pasupati. It’s color is bright white. It has the power to sever the limiting bonds. The letter ‘ba’ is related Trimurti. It’s color is whitish yellow. It has the power of enabling to accomplish all the deeds undertaken. The letter ‘ma’ is related to Madana (Kama Deva). It’s color is blue-black. It has the power of enabling to gain victory over the obstructing forces.
The letter ‘ya’ is related to Vayu Deva. It is in black color. It has the power to drive away the enemy or to make a person leave his business. The letter ‘ra’ is related to the Agni Deva. It is in red color. It has the power to incinerate, to cause destruction. The letter ‘la’ is related to Pruthvi tattva (Earth). It’s color is pale yellow. It has the power to stabilize, to immobilize. The letter ‘va’ is related to Varuna Deva. It is in the color of moon-white. It has the power to alleviate sickness and maladies.
The letter ‘Sa’ is related to Lakshmi. It is in golden color. It has the power to bestow riches and wealth. The letter ‘sha’ is related to Dvadasa Adityas (12 suns). It is in red color. It has the power of yielding all the desired objects. The letter ‘sa’ is related Sakti. It is in red color. It has the power to give stability, to enable to exist for a long time. The letter ‘ha’ is related to Siva. It is in the color of pure crystal. It has the power to bestow the eight kinds of yogic accomplishments (anima and others) and the power to give the worldly enjoyments as well as liberation. The letter ‘ksha’ is related to Vidya (science of spiritual disciplines). It is in the color of milky white. It has the power to bestow happiness.
Thus, the presiding Deity, effect and color of all the letters from ‘A’ to ‘ksha’ have been told succinctly, in the due order of the letters. For each letter, color, form and the related Deity are to be contemplated. Based on such letters as associated with three factors, the seed-letter corresponding to the name of a particular Deity gets formed. Therefore, all these letters are considered as the seed-letters. Having known such significance of the seed-letters, the Guru should formulate the mantra pertaining to a Deity.
While performing the installation of a Deity or Linga, tying up the protective band, initiation, consecration, anga-nyasa and kara-nyasa, the Guru should do the nyasa of these seed-letters over his body by touching his head and other parts of his form, in the prescribed order.
Having known well the specific features of the letters, having well contemplated the color and form of all the concerned seed letters, the sadhaka should do the incantation (japa) of the chosen mantra. Such incantation is capable of yielding all the desired effects. In the Agama, it is maintained that all these seed-letters (matrukas) are considered as the important causal factors of all the mantras. The nyasa of these seed-letters may be done as associated with the concerned Rudra and Raudri (Siva and Sakti) or may be done without associating with them. By such nyasa, all the activities are accomplished. Therefore, the Guru and the sadhaka should first do the nyasa of these seed-letters and then do the incantation (japa).
This is the end of the 2nd chapter titled “Formulation of Significant Mantras” in the Great Tantra called Kamika
Chapter Four: Directions for the Daily Worship of Lord Siva (538 verses)
Now, I will explain the systematic process of Siva-worship which is efficacious in yielding the worldly enjoyments as well as the final liberation. Siva-worship is of two kinds – individual (personal) worship (atmartha) and worship for the public (parartha).
The worship being done for the Linga graciously given to the disciple by the Guru at the completion of the qualifying diksha-ritual, or for the Linga made of earth and other substances is said to be personal (atmartha). Since it grants the fruits to the disciple as desired by him, it is called svartha (atmartha) puja.
There are temples situated in villages, towns, cities and such other settlements, situated near rivers and mountains, situated in the much celebrated 68 sacred places or in other pleasant and beautiful surroundings. Such temples may enshrine the self-manifest Linga (svayambhu), Linga worshipped by other gods, Bana-linga, Linga worshipped by the sages (arsha linga) or the Linga designed by a human being. The worship being done for such Lingas enshrined in various temples is known as parartha puja.
The parartha puja should be inevitably performed for longevity, health, victory and abundant increase of wealth of the Ruler and for the many-faceted growth of the village and other settlements.
Parartha Puja should be performed daily by the Adisaivas. Adisaiva is the most supreme among the twice-borns; he is virtuous, being always inclined to obey the directions given by Lord Siva. Such an Adisaiva should perform the temple worship daily. Apart from doing the personal worship (atmartha), if other persons perform the temple worship, such activity would result in the decay of the doer and the ruler.
Those brahmins who have originated from the face of Brahma, without being created by Siva, are considered to be common brahmins. For them, there is no authority to get involved in the parartha puja. If, out of conceit or delusion, they do the parartha puja, then the ruler and the country would perish in due course of time. If these common brahmins worship Lord Siva in the temples for the sake of getting the required fees, then the ruler and the land would cease to exist. Therefore, the ruler should carefully avoid them to perform the temple worship.
Maintaining the sacrificial fire in one’s own house, systematic study of the Vedas, performing sacrifices which involve many kind of fees in great measure – all these activities cannot be equal to even one part out of million parts of the greatness of the worship of Sivalinga. If Lord Siva, the Bhagvan, is not worshipped by a person who has become malicious to his own self, such an unworthy person would be roaming through this worldly life which is like the great ocean of misery, for a very long period. Without worshipping Lord Siva, the three-eyed, one should not take his daily meals. To give up one’s own breath or cutting one’s own head is more meritorious than failing to worship Lord Siva. Having known this truth, one has to worship Him, taking all efforts.
Having cleaned his legs up to knees and his hands up to the fists, the sadhaka should proceed to ward off three kinds of obstacles from the surroundings of the temple (or the home shrine). The three obstacles are – those coming from the heavens, those present in the space (atmosphere) and those present in the land. He should drive away the obstacles related to the heavens by looking above with his eyes charged with the perfect knowledge of tattvas. He should expel the space-related obstacles from the shrine by throwing the flowers. He should ward off the earth-related obstacles by striking the ground three times with his right heel.
The west-facing Sivalinga is considered to be superior. If there is no west-facing Linga, the east-facing Linga may be preferred. The south-facing and the north-facing Lingas are not preferred by the learned Sages for the attainment of superior powers (siddhis). This specific direction is applicable to the temple which has only one entrance and in which the Formless Form of Siva has been installed.
For the temples built in the style of Merumandara and others and for the temples in which the Linga having four faces (caturmukha linga) has been installed, four entrances should be provided. For such temples (having four entrances), the specific direction mentioned earlier does not apply.
The direction in which the main entrance has been provided should be considered as east. The entrance which is just opposite to the Linga should be taken as the east-entrance. There, the Tatpurusha face is to be meditated. The upper face known as Isana should also be meditated as facing that direction. The bali-pitha, Bull and the trident – all these three should be facing the Linga.
On the lintel of the threshold, Ganapati and Sarasvati are to be worshipped; on the right side of the threshold, Nandi and Ganga are to be worshipped; on the left side of the threshold, Yamuna and Mahakala should be worshipped. In the temple which has four entrances, the entrance-deities (dvara devas) in the east are Nandi and Mahakala; in the south, Bhrungi and Vighnesa; in the west, Rishabha and Shanmukha; in the north, Durga and Canda. These Deities are to be worshipped with hrudaya and other anga-mantras ending with ‘namah’, in due order. The form, features of the pedestal, manner of appearance of each Deity should be meditated and these Deities are to be worshipped in a systematic way with sandal, flowers and such other paraphernalia.
Having offered samanya-arghya water, the Guru (priest) should enter the main shrine by the right side of the entrance, placing the right foot first. He should invoke the presence of khadga-weapon on the threshold in order to ward off the obstacles there and then worship the Vastu-Brahma, reciting the mantra which begins with ‘vastoshpate’.
Having circumambulated the Linga in clockwise direction, the Guru should adore the Great Lord with deep devotion. Then the learned Guru should look at the multitudes of various objects such as the sandal, flowers and other such items brought and arranged there by the servicing devotees (paricarakas) and install the kalasas (pots). These items should be looked at with ‘tattva-eyes’; sprinkled with the recital of astra mantra (abhyukshana, sprinkling the consecrated water with the right palm turned down); well striked and again sprinkled (prokshana, sprinkling the consecrated water, with the right palm turned upwards). After doing all such purifying rituals, the Guru should accept those items and send the servicing devotees out (of the main shrine). The kalasas should be with well-formed top, with thick and rounded side, should be unshakable and should be devoid of holes.
“I am going to worship You (with your grace)” – having prayed humbly in this way as applicable to the context, the Guru should reach the place where the water for Siva-worship has been stored and energize it with six anga mantras. Then he should purify the kalasas and the wet cloth by sprinkling over them with the accompaniment of astra mantra. Reciting the rudra-gayatri mantra and hrudaya antra, he should fill up the kalasas with the water filtered through the wet cloth. Then, with a pure cloth, he should wipe the kalasas which are well filled up with water and which are wound round with two-stranded thread. Then, he should take the kalasas one by one with his hands and place them in the main shrine or in the mukha-mandapa (frontal hall).
The Guru who is highly skilled should take care to see that he is not touching the sides of the entrance and other parts, that the water is not spilling out to the ground from the kalasas. He should strew the darbha- grass, flowers and such other substances over the ground besmeared well and kept pure, with the recital of hrudaya mantra. There, he should arrange in an orderly way eight kalasas along with a specific kalasa meant for Sakti (vardhani kalasa). Or, he may place one kalasa or two kalasas or place them to be in the number of seven, fifty, twenty-five, multiples of one of these numbers or twice these numbers. Or, he may arrange them according to the directions set forth for ‘snapana abhisheka’. Having done so, he should perform the daily-ablution.
Five kinds of purification have been declared (in the Agamas). The first one is the purification of the self (atma suddhi); the second one is the purification of the place; purification of paraphernalia is the third; purification of mantra is the fourth; purification of Linga is the fifth.
Having placed a seat designed with kusa-grass suitable to the ascetic or a seat designed with the skin of black antelope over the well-wiped and well-besmeared ground or in another place, the learned Guru should assume a posture (asana) as desired by him and should keep his body straight, being north-faced. Having smeared his both hands with sandal paste, he should purify them with astra mantra. Then touching mutually the front and back side of each hand, he should make his form to be of nectarine nature with the recital of mula mantra ending with ‘vaushat’. Having contemplated that he has attained a pure body of consciousness pertaining to Siva and Sakti, he should invoke the presence of Siva who is Suprme and above sakti tattva with the recital of mula mantra and identify the brahma mantras and the anga mantras with the his own form.
It has been ordained that the householders (gruhastas) should do the kara-nyasa in the order of evolution and the forest-dwellers (vanaprasthas) and the ascetics should do this kara-nyasa in the order of dissolution.
Identifying the mantras from the ‘isana’ to ‘sadyojata’ with the fingers from the thumb to little finger is said to be the nyasa in the order of evolution. Identifying the mantras from ‘sadyojata’ to ‘isana’ with the fingers from the little finger to the thumb is said to be the nyasa in the order of dissolution. The world is always in the cyclic order of creation and dissolution and hence this nyasa in the order of evolution and dissolution has been recommended here.
Having identified the netra mantra with the palm, he should then do the nyasa of the other anga mantras. The nyasa should be done from the thumb to the little finger and from the little finger to the thumb. First he should touch the thumb with the index finger and touch all other fingers with the thumb. Then, the learned Guru should do the nyasa up to the index finger. Then he should touch his head with index finger. Or, he may do the nyasa of astra, kavaca, sikha, siras and hrudaya mantras with the thumb and other four fingers respectively. In the order of evolution, this nyasa should be done in the reverse order. The order of dissolution in the process of nyasa is recommended for those who are desirous of final liberation. Nyasa from the head to feet is in the order of evolution. The nyasa from the feet to the head is in the order of dissolution.
The seed letters of the Vidyesvaras should be identified, as done before, with the fingers from the thumb to the little finger. Having contemplatively rendered his form to be of nectarine nature, he should ideate that he is being surrounded by the power of kavaca mantra for protection. The hands which are rendered to be with the nature of Siva by this kind of nyasa become fit and efficacious enough in the performance of all ritualistic activities. While doing the ‘sakali karana’, sandhya worship, acamana and while performing certain activities associated with specific process, this kara-nyasa should be essentially done.
Having arrested and grasped the self which is pervading the whole body, with the hand-gesture (mudra) of dissolution (samhara), the Guru should install it to be within Siva who is present in the cave of his heart-lotus or in the space of pure consciousness above the brahmarandhra. There are five Saktis who are present in the heart, neck, uvula, midpoint between the eyebrows and the forehead, called Kutila, Vyapini, Tanvi, Samana and Unmana respectively. In the plane of brahmarandhra which is above all these, there is Sivaskati. Instead of installing his self within Siva, the Guru may unite his self contemplatively with this Sakti.
Having first contemplated the transposition of his self in this way, the Guru should incinerate his body (contemplatively). Such unification of self with Siva or Sakti should be done by the Guru in order to protect it for experiencing the fruits of karmas which are to occur hereafter. The fire of knowledge incinerates the fruits of all the karmas (sancita and agamika), within fraction of a second. The karmas of those who are devoted to path of liberation are within the control of the Sakti of Siva. Therefore, there is no question of the annihilation of his karmas. That Sakti is known as Tirobhavakari (Tirodhayi) belonging to Siva, the First Guru (Parameshti). That Sakti is helpful for Siva with regard to His fivefold function – creation, maintenance, dissolution, concealment and bestowal of grace.
Just as the gold which is associated with dirts and taints turns out to remain as an absolutely pure gold after being burnt in fire and all its dirts having been extirpated, even so the embodied soul turns out to be an absolutely pure one, all the accumulated fruits of his sinful deeds being completely annihilated through his yogic discipline of dharana. But, being under the authoritative control of Sivasakti, he once again gets the embodied state (to experience the fruits of prarabdha karma).
The sadhaka who has been well initiated (dikshita) is considered to be evidently a living liberated soul. After having done the unification of the soul with Siva, the sadhaka should contemplate the tattvas related to his body and soul. Three tattvas, five tattvas, nine tattvas, twenty-five tattvas, thirty-six tattvas or one tattva which is inseparably united with the self – should be contemplated. Those tattvas which were contemplated during the diksha-ritual should be contemplated here also.
I will now explain the order of five tattvas and the process of their purification in order to render the body to be absolutely pure. There are five kalas – nivrutti, pratishta, vidya, santi and santyatita (space of tranquility). All these worlds are being pervaded by these five kalas. The mantras are pervaded by the words; the words are pervaded by the letters; the letters are pervaded by the worlds (bhuvanas); the worlds are pervaded by the tattvas; and the tattvas are pervaded by the kalas in an orderly pattern. These five kalas in which all other five adhvas – mantra, pada, varna, bhuvana and tattva – are existing being pervaded by these kalas, should be contemplated and purified.
The contemplation on each one of these five kalas as associated with letters, distinct mark, form, quality, mantra and mantresvara and as located in each section of the body and as tuned to the breath-control (pranayama) is considered here as dharana (the sixth aspect of yoga). Just like the removal of poison from the body, the extirpation of impurities from the body will take place through this kind of dharana.
The pruthvi tattva has the symbolic form of square. It has the color of gold; distinctly marked with vajra-weapon. Its seed letter is ‘lam’. Its presiding Deity is Brahma. It is related to sadyojata mantra and hrudaya mantra. It is associated with nivrutti kala. It is raised above through five elevations with the recital of ‘hlam’ (bija akshara) five times.
The jala tattva (water) has the symbolic form of half-moon. It is with the color of white; distinctly marked with lotus. Its presiding Deity is Vishnu. Its seed letter is ‘vam’. It is related to vamadeva mantra and siro mantra. It is associated with pratishta kala. It is raised above through four elevations effected by the recital of ‘hvim’ four times.
The agni tattva (fire) has the symbolic form of triangle. It is distinctly marked with svastika. Its color is red. Its presiding Deity is Rudra. Its seed letter is ‘ram’. It is related to aghora mantra and sikha mantra. It is associated with vidya kala. It is raised above through three elevations effected by the recital of ‘hrum’ three times.
The vayu tattva (air) has the symbolic form of hexagon. It is distinctly marked with six dots (bindus). Its color is black. Its presiding Deity is Isvara. Its seed letter is ‘yam’. It is related to tatpurusha mantra and kavaca mantra. It is associated with santi kala. It is raised above through two elevations effected by the recital of ‘hyaim’ two times.
The akasa tattva (space) has the symbolic form of circle. There is no distinct mark for it. It is with the color of smoke. Its presiding Deity is Sadasiva. Its seed letter is ‘ham’. It is related to isana mantra and astra mantra. It is associated with santyatita kala. It is raised above through one elevation effected by the recital of ‘haum’ one time.
The pruthvi tattva (earth) is located in the heart; jala tattva, in the neck; agni tattva, at the root of uvula; vayu tattva, at the mid-point of the two eyebrows; akasa tattva, in the brahmarandhra. Or, the location of these tattvas may be contemplated in a different way. The pruthvi tattva is from the feet to the knee; the jala tattva is from the knee to navel; the agni tattva is from the navel to the neck; the vayu tattva is from the neck to the top of the face. The akasa tattva is located above this. Such locations are told for the purpose of dharana-practice.
Now, I will tell briefly about the process of breath-control (pranayama) with some specific details. The breath-control should be practiced in three phases – breathing out (recaka), breathing in (puraka) and retention of the breath (kumbhaka). The phonemes related respectively to these three are, akara (‘a’), ukara (‘u’) and makara (‘m’). The presiding deities of these three are Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra respectively. These three are related to atma tattva, vidya tattva and siva tattva, in the same order. If each phase of breath is done with a duration of 12 units (matras), it is of inferior type. If each phase is done with a duration of 24 units, it is of medium type. If each phase is performed with a duration of 36 units, it is of superior type.
First, the sadhaka should breath out the air which is impure and within his body. Then he should breath in the pure air which is in outer space, in a slow phase. He should retain the in-drawn air in such a way that his stomach appears like a pot filled up with water. Then he should breathe out.
Having closed the uvula with the root of the palate, he should untie the knots of the channels with the recital of the pasupata-astra mantra ending with ‘phat’ and breath out while the knots are being untied. At each level of chakra where there is the knot, he should contemplate the untied stage of the knot and ideate that he is being freed from obstructions created by the knot. He should elevate his self from one chakra to another cakra above and ensure the ascent of his self to the higher planes. Having systematically done the subtle breath-control (sukshma pranayama), he should redesign his body to look like a yantra. Through such elevation and untying of the knots, his self is enabled to exist in oneness with Siva at the level of dvadasanta.
Then, the sadhaka, who is well learned and who has known well those things which are to be accepted and followed and those things which are to be abandoned, should breath in slowly. During the first half of the inhalation and through the pruthvi tattva he should ideate the state of worldly existence to be in the form of a tree whose roots are above and branches are below. During the later part of the inhalation and through the jala tattva, he should think that the tree of worldly existence is being watered. During the retention of breath, he should ideate that the tree is appearing with glistening leaves, flowers and fruits. Being in kumbhaka and through agni tattva, he should cut down the tree with the sword of detachment (vairagya) and render it to be completely desiccated. Being in the same state, he should ideate that the tree in the form of his own body has been completely incinerated with the fire of knowledge, from the big toe to the top. Then he should slowly breath out. During the exhalation and through vayu tattva, he should think that the body-tree has turned now into ashes and diffuse those ashes in all the ten directions. Finally, he should contemplate through akasa tattva that the body-tree has now been absorbed into the pure space.
Then, having induced a slight move to the pure maya, he should contemplate the formation of a fresh body related to Sakti. Having drenched it with the nectarine stream issuing from the thousand-petalled cakra, he should make it to be a body of pure consciousness (vidya deha). He should then invoke his own self which is of the nature of matrukas (letters) and which is having the iccha sakti, jnana sakti and kriya sakti as its three eyes, to occupy that pure body of consciousness with the hand gesture of goad (ankusa mudra) and with flowers and with the recital of appropriate mantra.
Then, he should place the isana mantra on his head; tatprusha mantra on the face; aghora mantra on the chest; vamadeva mantra on the secret part; sadyojata mantra on the feet. This placing of the mantras should be done along with a mudra appropriate to each one. Then he should identify the maala-brahma mantras with his body, from the head to the feet. Or, he may do the nyasa of bija-brahma mantras. Subsequently, he should do the nyasa of 38 kalas.
The process of the nyasa of 38 kalas: on the top of the head – om īśānassarva vidyānārh namah; on the east side of the head – om īśvarassarva bhūtānārh namah; on the south side of the head – om brahmanodhipatirbrahma namah; on the north side of the head – om śivo mestu namah; on the west side of the head– om sadasivom namah.
Sasini, Angada, Ishta, Marici, Jvalini – these are names of the Saktis of the five kala mantras pertaining to Isana. The five kalas may be identified as associated with these Saktis or kala mantras alone may be identified, without adding the name of Sakti.
First, the pranava (OM) should be identified with the top side of the face. on the east side of the face – om tatpuruahāya vidmahe namah; on the south side of the face- om mahādevāya dhīmahi namah; on the north side of the face – om tanno rudra namah; on the west side of the face – om pracodayān namah; These are the four kala mantras of tatpurusha vaktra. On the top side of the face is the Sakti kala known as Avyakta kala (Santyatita kala). The names of the Saktis of the four kalas are – Santi, Vidya, Pratishta and Nivrutti.
on the heart – om aghorebhyo tamāyai namah; on the neck – om atha ghorebhyo mohāyai namah; on the right shoulder – om ghora rak$āyai namah; on the left shoulder – om ghoratarebhya ni$thāyai namah on the navel – om sarvatamassarva mrtyai namah; on the stomach – om śarvebhyo māyāyai namah; on the back side – om namaste rudra abhayāyai namah on the chest – om rūpebhyo jarāyai namah; These eight kalas of aghora hrudaya mantra should be identified with the vidya deha.
om vāma devāya namo rajāyai namah – on the privy part; om jyesthāya namah raksāyai namah – on the genital organ; om rudrāya namah ratyai namah – right thigh; om kālāya namah pālyai namah – left thigh; om kala kāmāyai namah – right knee; om vikaranāya namah sarhyaminyai namab – left thigh; om bala kriyāyai namab – right shin; om vikara, :āya namah buddhyai namah – left shin; om bala kāryāyai namab – right hip; om pramathanāya namah dhātryai namah – left hip; om sarvabhūta damanāya namah brāhma, :yai namah – waist; om mana mohinyai namah – right side; om unmanāya namah bhavāyai namah – left side; The thirteen kalas of vamadeva mantra have been expounded in this way.
orh sadyojātāyarh prapadyāmi siddhyai namab – on the right foot; orh sadyojātāya vai namab rddhyai namab – on the left foot; orh bhave dyutyai namab -on the right hand; orh abhave lak$myai namab – on the left hand; orh anātibhave medhāyai namab – on the nose tip; orh bhajasva mārh kāntyai namab – on the head; orh bhava svadhāyai namab – on the right arm; orh udbhavāya namab dhrtyai namab – on the left arm; These are the eight kalas of sadyojata mantra. All these kalas should be identified, holding the appropriate mudras (modes of joining the fingers).
Having designed vidya deha in this way through the nyasa of 38 kalas, he should first invoke the mula mantra to occupy the vidya deha and then invoke the presence of anga mantras. He should identify the hrudaya mantra with the heart; siro mantra with the head; sikha mantra with the tuft; kavaca mantra with the place between the breasts; astra mantra with the hands. The he should do the nyasa of phonemes (lipi nyasa).
The process of identifying the letters with the body: om am śrīkal)thāya pūrl)odaryai namai) – tip of the hairs on the head; om ām anantāya virajāyai namai) – forehead; om im sūk_māya śālmalyai namai) – right eye om īm trimūrtaye lolāk_yai namai) – left eye om um amareśvarāya vartulāk_yai namai) – right ear om ūm arghīśāya dīrgha ghol)āyai namai) – left ear; om rm bhārabhūtaye dīrgha mukhyai namai) -right nostril om fm nidhaneśāya gomukhyai namai) – left nostril; om 1m sthāl)ave dīrgha jihvāyai namai) – right cheek; om Tm harāya kul)c;odaryai namai) – left nostril
om em cal)c;īśāya ūrdhvakeśyai namai) – upper lip; om aim bhautikāya vikrtimukhyai namai) – lower lip; om om sadyojātāya jvālāmukhyai namai) – upper row of teeth; om aum anugraheśāya ulkāmukhyai namai) – lower row of teeth; om am kfrāya śrīmukhyai namai) – head; om ai) mahāsenāya vidyāyai namai) – (whole hole)face
om kam krodhīśāya mahākālyai namai) – right arm; om kham cal)c;eśāya sarasvatyai namai) – right elbow; om gam pañcāntakāya sarvasiddhi gauryai namai) – right fist; om gham śivottamāya trailokya vandyāyai namai) – right palm; om nam ekarudrāya mantraśaktyai namai) – tip of the right palm
om cam kūrmāya ātmaśaktyai namai) – left arm; om cham ekanetrāya bhūtamātre namai) – left elbow; om jam caturmukhāya lambodaryai namai) – left fist; om jham ajeśāya drāvil)yai namai) – left palm; om ñam candrāya nagaryai namai) – tip of the left palm
om tam someśāya khecaryai namai) – right thigh; om tham lāngaline mañjaryai namai) – right knee; om c;am dārukāya rūpil)yai namai) – right shin; om c;ham ardhanārīśvarāya vīrāyai namai) – right foot; om l)am umākāntāya khādiryai namah – tip of the right foot
om tam _ac;īśāya pūtanāyai namai) – left thigh; om tham c;il)c;ine bhadrakālyai namai) – left knee; om dam atraye gomatyai namai) – left shin om dham īśānāya śankhinyai namai) – left foot; om nam me_āya garjinyai namai) -tip of the left foot
om pam lohitāya kālarātryai namai) – right side; om pham śikhinyai kubjinyai namai) – left side; om bam jalachagalal)c;āyakāminyai namai) – back side om bham dviral)c;āya vajrāyai namai) – navel; om mam mahākālāya jayāyai namai) -heart; om yam tvagātmane pāline sumukheśvaryai namai) – skin
om ram raktātmane bhujangāya revatyai namai) – blood; om lam vasātmane pinākine mādhavyai namai) – om vam medomayāyā khac;gīśāya vārul)yai namai) – om śam asthyātmane bekāyai namai) – bones; om _am majjātmane śvetāya rak_opadhāril)yai namai) – marrow
om sam śuklātmane bhrgave sahajāyai namai) – seminal fluid; om ham prāl)ātmane lakulīśāya lakðyai namai) – flesh; om lam lingātmane tamorūpāya vyāpinyai namah – base of the genital organ; om k_am krodhātmane vartakāya māyāyai namai) – tip of the genital organ
The sadhaka should conceive the anga-mantras pertaining to the matrukas with those letters which are identified with the heart and other locations. The parnava, seed letter ‘hamsah’ and another seed letter ‘soham’ should be united in the beginning, middle and the end respectively. O, the Sages, eminently rich in penance!, breasts, two eyes and the base-cakra (muladhara) added with heart and other locations are considered to be the six limbs (shadangas) of the matruka.
The seed letter in the middle should be joined with the seed letter in the first. Or, the first seed letter may be joined with middle seed letter. Of these two types, the first pattern is known as ‘lopa’ and the second one is known as ‘kilam’. The exact form of the mantra should be formulated according to its power of moving through the chakras and it should be united either with lopa or with kila. In the incantation of the mantras, the sadhaka should unite other seed letters concerned with each mantra with the mula mantra, exercising his reasoning skill. In order to gain the power of employing the mantras (mantra siddhi) to achieve the desired fruits, he should add the seed letters in the kila pattern or in the lopa pattern and
then do the incantation (japa).
Having known well the process of employing the kila-technique, the sadhaka should perform all the rituals. ‘Namah’, ‘svaha’, ‘vashat’, ‘hum’, ‘vaushat’ and ‘phat’ – these are the six categories which are to be identified with the hrudaya mantra, siro mantra, sikha mantra, kavaca mantra, netra mantra and astra mantra respectively. Having done the nayasa of phonemes in this way, the sadhaka should do the nyasa of nine tattvas.
The nine letters of the mantra to be pronounced through madhyama-sound should be identified with dvadasanta, brahma-randhra, midpoint of the eyebrows, uvula, neck, heart, navel, the region where the base of the genital organ meets and the base of the spinal (muladhara). The letters of Siva’s specific mantra added with the corresponding Sakti kalas should be identified with navel, heart and the forehead. The ‘vyoma vyapi’ mantra should be identified, from the top of the head to the big toe. Having perfectly assumed the state of being in the form of mantras (mantratvam), the sadhaka should design appropriate locations within his vidya-deha for the performance of puja, homa and Samadhi, in an orderly way. The systematic worship should be done in the location of the heart. Fire-ritual should be performed in the navel. In the forehead, he should meditate on Lord Siva, who is the dispenser of boons and whose look is directed towards all directions and all beings.
With regard to the process of invoking the Lord Isvara, he should design an inner shrine within his heart. Then he should arrange for a suitable seat in a manner which is explained here, now. He should invoke the Lord holding sandal and other substances in his hands and worship Him mentally. In the fire-pit which has appeared in his navel as self-installed, he should offer the oblations of supreme nectarine drops. Through the regulated flow of inbreath, he should kindle the fire-pit, self-installed in the navel. Elevating himself to the midpoint between the eyebrows, he should meditate on Sivalinga which is with the resplendence of pure crystal and with great splendour. Contemplating the perfect state of oneness with that Linga and meditating on Lord Siva who is present within that Linga, he should breathe in through the left channel. Such actions are considered to be the worship of Siva. Then, he should offer the oblations of the nectar of consciousness (jnanamruta) through outbreath (pingala nadi). Having inhaled the prana and making it to enter the muladhara chakra, he should raise his self upwards through outbreath, cutting asunder the knots including their roots. Once again, he should inhale the prana through the ida nadi and raise his self to the midpoint between the eyebrows. There he should meditate constantly on Lord Siva.
Or, if he desires to perform the fire-ritual mentally, in a more elaborate way, he should first conceive his body to have been composed of the vibrancies of all the tattvas from the siva tattva to the pruthvi tattva and ideate three sections which are present therein. The three sections are – the asana section, murti section and sambhu section (seat, form and the mantra). He should contemplate the four groups of tattvas which remain absorbed there by these three sections.
In this body which has well expanded now, he should design a lotus-seat which is of the nature of Sakti. Having ideated the presence of the form of vidya deha of the Lord, he should invoke Lord Siva to occupy that form. On the pericarp of the lotus-seat, he should worship Lord Siva as surrounded by the Brahma Mantras and Anga Mantras, Vidyesvaras, Ganas, Lokapalas and Ayudhas (weapons). Here, Lord Siva may be worshipped as surrounded of three enclosures, one avarana or twenty-seven avaranas according to the capacity of the sadhaka.
In the shrine designed mentally, with the substances conceived mentally, the sadhaka should daily contemplate Lord Siva, the Supreme Isvara, and worship Him. By constant and deep meditation on the garuda-bird (eagle), the Guru attains the state of oneness with garuda and attains the fruit of the removal of poison. In the same way, the sadhaka attains the state of oneness with Siva by constant and deep meditation on Him and attains the fruits as desired by him.
By arresting the inflow and outflow of the prana, the worship of Siva should be done. Under the context of all important phases of events, the sadhaka should breath out, well tuned to the inflow of the breath. Having worshipped the five Lords – Isana, Tatpurusha, Aghora, Vamadeva and Sadyojata – along with their spouses, Angamantra Devas, Ashta Murtis, Mahesa and Sadasiva, he should worship Lord Siva and then breath out.
The avarana of Vidyesvaras, the avarana of Ganesvaras, the avarana of Lokapalas, the avarana of Ayudhas, the avarana of the Rudras and other Lords – when these avaranas are worshipped, the sadhaka should breath out at the end of the worship of each avarana. Before commencing the worship of next avarana, he should breathe out again. This should be repeated for each avarana.
The worship being done during the rising of the moon and the sun (when the inbreath and the outbreath being not arrested) would become futile and cause afflictions. The worship done while there is neither moon nor the sun would accomplish the desired fruit. When the breath is flowing through the central channel (sushumna), the sadhaka should worship all the Deities.
Additionally, the sadhaka who is now with the body constituted of Sakti kalas, should offer those substances born of eight tattvas enumerated for the worship, such as pruthvi and others. All sorts of perfumes denote the pruthvi tattva. Water meant for ablution, drinkable items, eatable items – all these represent jala tattva. The rows of lamps represent the agni tattva. Fan, chowrie and such other items denote the vayu tattva. Recital of hymns, musical songs and such others represent the akasa tattva. In this way, all other tattvas should be offered in terms of various paraphernalia, in a fitting way.
The sadhaka, having meditated and worshipped according to the directions revealed by Siva Himself, becomes free from the bondage caused by the pairs of opposites and enjoys the nectarine bliss. Having completed the purification of the self, the Guru should then perform the purification of the place where the puja is to be done.
Having displayed the tala-mudra three times (striking the left palm with the middle three fingers of the right hand) with the recital of astra mantra, the Guru should contemplate the place as surrounded by an enclosure (prakara). He should ideate the presence of moat as lying outside the prakara with the recital of kavaca mantra.
Then the Guru should conceive an array of astras (weapons) encircling outside the moat in order to drive away the obstructing forces. Having ideated a resplendent pavilion, he should perform the purification of various substances meant for the worship. He should fill up the vardhani kalasa (Sakti kalasa) with perfumed water with the accompaniment of astra mantra. Then he should sprinkle the water taken from the vardhani kalasa over the arghya-vessel, conch, padya-vessel, acamana-vessel and other such vessels kept there to be used for the worship, reciting the astra mantra.
He should look at those vessels with the recital of hrudaya mantra and make them encompassed by a protective force (avakuntana) with the recital of kavaca mantra. Vessels made of gold, silver, copper, bronze or conch; vessels designed with the leaves of palasa-tree or lotus-leaf; vessels made of wood or clay; containers designed by stitching the leaves of plantain and other trees – all such vessels are suitable for the worship of Siva.
Then, having filled up the vardhani-vessel with perfumed water reciting the astra mantra, he should declare the auspiciousness of the time, day and place (punyaha vacana) and sprinkle the water taken from the vardhani over the sandal, flowers and other substances brought and arranged there by the servicing-devotees (paricarakas), reciting the hrudaya mantra. After this, he should purify the padya- vessel by sprinkling the vardhani-water over it and fill it up with perfumed water and place usira-roots and sandal into the padya-vessel.
In the same way, he should prepare another vessel to hold acamana-water. Karpura (camphor) in a measure of 3 palas, broken leaves and kushtaka – all these should be added to the acamana-water, with the recital of hrudaya mantra. The he should fill the arghya-vessel with the perfumed water collected in the vardhani kalasa. Water, milk, tips of kusa grass, rice, flowers, sesame, yava and mustard – all these eight substances should be placed into the arghya-vessel. Having prepared the visesha-arghya in this way, he should invoke the recommended groups of mantras into that arghya.
Having rendered the arghya to be with the supreme quality of nectar by displaying the amruta mudra with the accompaniment of hrudaya mantra ending with ‘vaushat’, he should provide a covering to it with the kavaca mantra and worship it by offering sandal, flowers, incense, light and fruits. He should sprinkle the arghya-water with kuasa-grass over the curd, milk, clarified butter and other substances with the accompaniment of hrudaya mantra. Each one of those substances kept there for the purpose of worship should be energized with suitable mantras.
The established direction is that ela and usira, each one with a measure of 3 palas, karpura, kumkuma, srikhanda, agaru, leaves (of bilva and other trees), flowers, fragrant substances – all such things should be added with the kalasa water for the purpose of ceremonial ablution to be done for Siva. If all these substances are not available, the available things may well be accepted. The available things may be mixed with other substances similar to the recommended ones.
He should drop a small quantity of arghya-water along with flowers into all the kalasas arranged for the ablution, with the accompaniment of hrudaya mantra in order to purify them. He should energize such items as the sandal, flowers, clothes, ornaments, eatables (naivedya) and others with hrudaya or all the anga mantras which are innately very pure, each one being associated with its own specific power and with sadyojata, vamadeva, aghora, tatpurusha and isana mantras. In order to instill purity, he should energize the remaining substances with gayatri mantra. Milk, curd, clarified butter, honey, sugar, perfumed water – all such items kept there for ablution should be energized with hrudaya and other anga mantras which are eternally pure.
All the substances purified with mantras should be honored by him with the offerings of sandal, flowers and other things. By displaying the amruta-mudra, he should render all the items to be with the qualities of nectar. Then he should worship the Lord who is in oneness with his own self with all these substances which have been consecrated and sanctified in this way. Having applied a round mark (tilaka) in his forehead with sandal, he should place a flower on his own head. Then, observing a serene state of silence desired by him, he should purify the mantras.
(All the mantras are having their own specific forms) Garlands and the multitudes of rich ornaments with which the mantra-deities have been adorned have been detailed in the scriptures. The Sakti which illuminates and enkindles their power is Sivasakti whose mantra-name is “Om Namah”. The Guru should recite all the mantras which are used in the worship by adding ‘Om’ in the beginning and ‘namah’ at the end. Holding flowers in the hollow of his hands folded and joined together (anjali mudra), he should contemplate the beatific presence of Siva within his own self, should recite the mantras one by one, in a slow phase, starting from duration of three units (matras) and reaching above up to the level of nada. For the mantras which are abiding in the pure tattvas, purification is effected in this way.
Then he should prepare the mixture of five substances got from the cow (pancha gavya). The process of mixing the five substances is now explained. In the auspicious part of the pavilion, he should draw a square mandala associated with nine grids. Having identified five tattvas (siva, sadasiva, vidya, prusha and kala tattvas) with the central, east, south, north and west grids respectively, he should place five vessels – supratishta, susanta, tejas, ratna and amruta – in these grids, in the same order. Then he should place milk, curd, clarified butter, cow-urine and cow-dung in these vessels respectively. He should energize them with isana, tatpurusha, aghora, vamadeva and sadyojata mantras in the mentioned order. Energizing is one time for milk with isana mantra, two times for curd with tatpurusha mantra, three times for clarified butter with aghora mantra, four times for the cow-urine with vamadeva mantra and five times for the cow-dung with sadyojata mantra. Water with kusa-grass contained in the avyakta-vessel kept in the north-east grid (identified with prakruti tattva) should be energized for sixteen times. Having rendered them to be of nectarine nature, he should worship them and declare their oneness with Siva.
Milk, curd, clarified butter, honey, sugar, perfumed water – all such items kept there for ablution should be energized with hrudaya and other anga mantras which are eternally pure.
Then the learned Guru should perform the daily, occasional or optional worship for the supreme Lord. He should arrange the kalasas (snapana) arrayed according to a recommended pattern. Such patterns are numerous. He should purify the ground with the recital of astra mantra and smear the cow-dung over it with the recital of vamadeva mantra. He should design a square mandala by drawing the east-west lines and north-south lines, space between the lines being one span (tala).
For all the designs, the measure of the pericarp of the central lotus should be three spans. For placing five kalasas, there should be four petals (for the lotus), facing each main direction. To arrange nine kalasas (nava kalasa sthapana), four kalasas should be placed additionally in each intermediary direction to
form one avarana (enclosure). Twenty-five kalasas may be placed surrounding the first avarana. O, the twice-born Sages!, similarly forty-nine kalasas or one hundred and eight kalasa may be arranged.
Having left out either two rows or one row in all directions, he should design two outer enclosures so as to be associated with eight entrances. Fifteen kalasas should be placed in the middle rows and nine kalasas should be placed in the array (vyuha) of each corner. The three rows in the middle lying around the row of fifteen kalasas should be left out. This arrangement is for placing 108 kalasas. If it is for the placement of 1000 kalasas, there should be nine enclosures in addition to the existing ones.
Two lines should be marked in east-west direction and two lines, in north-south direction in such a way that the space between them measures one and a half hasta or one hasta. Keeping the inner arrays well designed, he should make fourteen enclosures outside the inner arrays. Such direction for the arrangement of 1000 kalasas has been laid down in the Scripture. Either four fire-pits or eight fire-pits should be constructed around the middle array.
In the grids lying in all the intermediary directions, four arrays should be formed. Other arrangements are as explained before. This is for the placement of 508 kalasas. If it is associated with eight enclosures, 200 kalasas may be arranged. Eight kalasas should be placed in the middle row and sixteen in the row lying outside this. The eight arrays formed in the main directions and in the intermediary directions should be taken for the placement of remaining kalasas. In this way, the kalasas may be arranged so as to be in
the number mentioned before (508).
Then, a raised platform (sthandila) should be designed. Four measures (prasthas) of water should be poured into the siva-kumbha, this quantity being considered to be superior. Starting from the measure twice the mentioned one and increasing by one each time, the maximum measure may go up to ten times. This measure is for the siva-kumbha. Half of the measure of siva-kumbha should be for the other kalasas. Or, either four, three, two prastas or one prasta of water may be poured into the kalasas. The kalasas should be wound around with two stranded or three stranded thread or with single stranded thread, in a systematic pattern.
The water kept in siva-kumbha should be associated with varala, truti, karpura, nyakrodha, usira and jati and this should be energized with the recital mula mantra of Siva. The vardhani kalasa and the surrounding kalasas should be filled up with the consecrated water of siva-kumbha only.
Then he should place the kurca (specific bunch of darbha-grass) designed with three darbhas or with 36 darbhas corresponding to 36 tattvas. The kurca should be placed with the recital of isana mantra and the recommended substances should be placed into the kalasas with the recital of mula mantra. The siva- kumbha and the vardhani-kalasa should be wound around with two stranded thread. He should place 9 gems or 5 gems into the siva-kumbha and sakti-kumbha. Padya, acamana, arghya and pancagavya should be placed in all the four main directions (one in each direction). Kusodaka, milk, curd and clarified butter should be placed in the intermediary directions. In this way, the second type of arrangement of the kalasas has been told. Now, the third type of arrangement is explained.
Honey, parched-paddy, ragi-flour, flour of parched- paddy, turmeric powder, bhuti (a medicinal plant), juice of sugarcane, plantain fruit, sesame, white mustard, substances got from the panasa-tree, coconut, two orange fruits and pomegranate – these should placed into the kalasas. If the inner row of the arrangement meant for the placement of 25 kalasas is left out, there could be had a row for the arrangement of 16 kalasas. In the main and the intermediary directions, the eight vessels –padya-vessel and seven others- should be placed. The eight substances, honey and others, should be placed in the inner rows. All these three types of arrangements of kalasas are declared to be of specific importance in the daily course of worship. The arrangement of 25 kalasas is also declared to be specific in the daily worship. In the most supreme type among the superior types (uttamottama), the kalasas amy be arrayed up to 108.
Various types of arrangement of kalasas in the number above 108, explained before, is recommended for the occasional worship. All these substances mentioned above should be placed with the recital of mula mantra. The kalasas should be kept closed by hollowed plates (saravas) or bunch of tender leaves with the recital of seed-letters specifically belonging to the substances concerned. The kalasas should be adorned with different kinds of clothes, reciting the hrudaya mantra.
The Guru should ideate the seat for siva- kalasa and meditate on the form of vidya-deha. He should render the manifestation of the form with brahma mantras and identify the kala-mantras of each brahma- mantra with that form. Having stabilized that form, he should contemplate its perfect identity with Siva. For the kalasas, the Guru should offer padya, acamana and others with the recital of hrudaya mantra and offer sandal, flowers, incense, light, arghya and other items. Then he should display linga-mudra to them and create a protective belt around the kalasa with the recital of kavaca mantra.
Having worshipped Gauri in the vardhani-kalasa, he should display yoni-mudra to it. O, the foremost Sages among the twice-borns!, in the arrangement of 5 kalasas, leaving out Isana, all other four Brahmas, Tatpurusha, Aghora, Vama and Sadyojata, are the presiding Lords. (Sivakumbha and Vardhani – 1; Tatpurusha and others – 4. So, five kalasas) In the arrangement of 9 kalasas, 8 Vidyesvaras are the presiding Lords of 8 kalasas placed around the Sivakumbha and Vardhani. In the arrangement of 25 kalasas, Sivakumbha and Vardhani at the center; around this, 8 Vidyesvaras in the next row; 8 Murtisvaras in the outer row and 8 Bhuvanesvaras, Vamadeva and others, in the next outer row.
Eight Ganesvras, eight Bhuvanesvaras – Angushta and others, eight Bhuvanesvaras – Krodha and others or 8 Rudras belonging to the group of 100 Rudras – these are the presiding Lords of the kalasas in the outer rows. These 24 Lords together with 25 Lords mentioned earlier are the presiding Deiities in the arrangement of 49 kalasas.
In the arrangement of 108 kalasas, 8 Vidyesvaras are the presiding Lords in the middle row. 100 Rudras are the presiding Lords in the outer enclosure. In the arrangement of 1008 kalasas, 8 Vidyesvars are to be worshipped in te middle enclosure. In all other kalasas, only Siva is worshipped specifically, by the recital of 1000 names enumerated in the hymn. Thus, the forms of Siva as indicated by the 1000 names and the eight Vidyesvaras are the presiding Lords of 1008 kalasas.
While worshipping the presiding Lords, the name of each Lord should be recited as ending with the fourth case and joined with pranava (Om) and the concerned seed-letters in the beginning and with either ‘svaha’ or ‘namah’ at the end. Reciting the mantra-name in this way, the Guru should perform the worship of each Deity. Or, the names of Siva alone may be recited for all the kalasas.
The purification of Linga, which comes next in the course of five purifications is now told with all the essential details. Linga is said to be of three kinds – the fully formed, formless and the formed-and- formless. There are self-manifested linga, linga worshipped by gods, linga worshipped by the sages, linga worshipped by the humans and many other kinds. There are immovable linga, moveable linga, three kinds of mandalas, picture depicted in a cloth, picture depicted in the walls, pedestal consecrated with mantras, kindled fire, enclosed water, actual form of the Guru, sacred tree and such others or the vidya-pitha (seat meant for keeping the Scriptures for worship) to be considered for the worship of Siva. And there are self-manifested stone associated with specific marks, gem, other material designed in the form of linga according to the directions given in the treatise dealing with linga, loose sand available near river-banks, ball of cooked rice, fruit and such others. All these are suitable for the worship of Siva. Any one of these varieties may be taken by the sadhaka as suitable to him and consecrated.
Holding the samanya-arghya in his hand, the Guru should worship the Bull installed in front of the entrance. The image of the Bull made of metal should be worshipped in front of the main shrine. The image of the Bull made of granite should be worshipped as one of the retinue Deities in the enclosures. The fourth letter of the seventh group should be first added with the sixth vowel, bindu and nada. Then the pranava should be placed before this. Finally, the words ‘vrushabhaya namah’ should be pronounced. The mantra of the Bull is formulated in this way. (Om vrum vrushabhaaya namah – this is the mantra). The brahma mantras and the anga mantras of the Bull should be formed out of this mantra.
Having sprinkled the arghya-water over the entrance, he should worship the guardians of the entrance in due order. Ganesa and Sarasvati are to be worshipped in the right side and left side of the lintel. Nandi and Ganga, on the right side of the entrance; Mahakala and Yamuna, in the left side of the entrance; Vimala and Subahu, in the right doorleaf and the left doorleaf. These Deities should be worshipped with hrudaya and other anga mantras ending with ‘namah’, in the due order.
Meditating on the exact form, seat and the mode of appearance of each Deity, the Guru should worship them with sandal, flowers and other materials. Having invoked the presence of the fiery form of khadga (sword) on the upper threshold, he should drive away the three kinds of obstructing forces. The concealing screen (curtain) designed in the foremost type should be drawn at the end of dvara-puja, ceremonial bath, offering of eatables and sandhya worship.
Having worshipped the Vastu-Brahma reciting the mantra ‘vastospate brahmana’, he should worship the flowers and other items which were offered to Siva previously and which are present on the Linga, reciting the gayatri mantra and offer the consecrated water taken from the samanya arghya. Reciting the five Brahma-mantras, he should carefully remove those flowers and other items from the Linga and place them on the pedestal and such other seats designed in the north-east of the shrine, reciting the hrudaya mantra and the words ‘candesaya’. Then, he should clean the pedestal of the Linga with his right hand, reciting the astra mantra. Subsequently, he should clean the Sivalinga. Both the Sivalinga and the pedestal should be cleaned well, only with the consecrated water poured with the recital of astra mantra.
Then, he should proceed to perform the ceremonial ablution making use of the consecrated water contained in the samanya arghya-vessel. The lotus-seat is meant for invoking the Lord; ananta-seat is meant for the rituals concerned with ablution; vimala-seat is meant for offering of flowers and such other items; yoga-asana is meant for the offering of eatables (naivedya); the lion-seat (simhasana) is meant for adorning the Lord with clothes, ornaments and such others. In this way, the five seats should be conceived by the Guru, while worshipping Lord Siva. The worship of Lord Siva should be performed only after completing the rituals concerned with the purification of self, place, materials, mantras and the Linga. No other alternate direction has been declared in this regard.
The guru should worship Ganesa in the north-west of the pedestal with sandal, flowers and other materials. In the north-east of the pedestal, he should worship the row in which seven Gurus are present, reciting the hrudaya mantra. Having perfectly known the relationship between the seat and the seated (asana and asani), he should commence the rituals concerned with the worship. The seat is said to be two kinds, differentiated as the body and the soul. The ananta and other seats are extending above up to the plane of suddha vidya tattva. He should contemplate that the luminous body (vidya deha) extends above, up to the end of pure maya. This soul, here, is Lord Siva Himself. In this way, three categories should be contemplated- seat, vidya deha and Siva. That which is extremely subtle is of the nature of pervading everywhere. The pervaded one is being controlled by the pervading one.
Like the air which is holding control over a small piece of grass effortlessly, there is a Sakti who creates and supports all the visible existents of the world and holds control over them. That Sakti is called Adharasakti. This Adharasakti should be identified with the kurmasila part of the pedestal of Linga. Adharasakti is as pure as the cool rays of the moon; has a charming and benign appearance; she is with four faces and four hands. She is having a form whose whiteness is comparable to the ocean of milk. Her form is composed of the letter located in the heart.
Ananta is with resplendent blue color and he is adorned with innumerable hoods; he is holding his two hands just in front of the heart, in anjali-mudra; he is with one face and four hands; his form is comparable to the lotus flower which appeared from the ocean of milk. The Guru should identify this Ananta with the concerned seat, with the recital of hrudaya mantra and contemplate his form to be in the shape of a seat.
The lions which originated from the virility of Ananta, representing dharma, jnana, vairagya and aisvarya and having their legs placed in the corner directions, are with the resplendence of white rays of the sun and are with whitish yellow and blue-black color. They are surrounded by innumerable lions which are mutually looking at each other and which represent adharma, ajnana, avairagya and anisvarya. Their forms are appearing with variegated colors and they are having their bodies extending in all the main directions. The simhasana should be contemplated in this way, by the Guru.
Then, he should contemplate a knot in the lower plane and another knot in the upper plane. The lower knot is in red color and the upper knot, in white color. These knots are of the nature of two Saktis which are responsible for the bondage and liberation and which are associated with such other powers. The lower knot should be ideated to be in the south-west and below the girdle and the upper knot to be in the north-east above the girdle of the lotus-seat.
The lotus is associated with eight petals and with eight significant powers (siddhis); fully blossomed with the filaments (kesaras) which are in form of various Saktis and with pericarp energized by Saktis. This lotus should be specifically ideated to be at the bottom of the rudra-bhaga, by placing the leaves of bilva with the recital of hrudaya mantra. Vama, Jyeshta, Raudri, Kali, Kalavikarani, Balavikarani, Balapramathani and Sarvabhutadamani – these eight Saktis are present in the eight petals, from the east to the north-east (in clockwise direction) and in the filaments. Mononmani should be contemplated to be in the pericarp. The eight Saktis, from Vama to Sarvabhutadamani, are in red color and Manomani, in white color. All these Saktis should be invoked with the recital of hrudaya mantra.
Then, he should conceive upon the plane of lotus the surya-mandala, candra-mandala and agni-mandala as spreading up to the end of the petals, end of the filaments and the end of the pericarp respectively. Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra are the presiding Deities of these three mandalas, in the same order. He should meditate on Brahma, specifically called ‘Prajapati’ (the Lord of the created beings) who annihilates all sorts of sinful effects, as appearing with four faces, four hands holding kamandalu-vessel, staff, rosary of rudraksha and lotus and as appearing with effulgent red color and identify his presence with the petals.
Vishnu appears with the color of ‘atasi’ flower (blue lily), holding in his hands conch, wheel and mace. He is attired in silken cloth whose color is yellowish white. Being resplendent, he is adorned with the garland of tulasi-leaves and the splendorous crown and the ornament designed with the clusters of tinkling bells (kinkini). Having meditated the Great Lord Vishnu in this way, he should identify his presence with the filaments.
Lord Rudra who has blue-spotted neck, who is mounted on the bull-vehicle and who alleviates the effects of heinous sinful deeds, appears with white color of conch, kunda-flower and moon and holds the trident in His hand; He is having three eyes and wearing the lion-skin as his under-garment; His head is adorned with the crescent-moon. Having meditated Rudra in this way, he should identify His presence with the pericarp.
In the same locations (petals, filaments and pericarp), three tattvas (related to sakalas, pralayakalas and vijnanakalas), three qualities – sattva, rajas and tamas and the three fires – bala agni, yauvana agni and vruddha agni should be identified according to their differentiations. Having contemplated the lotus-seat as pervaded by all the tattvas from the pruthvi tattva to the suddha vidya tattva, he should once again identify the presence of Sakti with the center of the lotus-seat. Thus the seat of the Primal Guru, Lord Siva, should be conceived as arising from the Sakti and ending with the Sakti. Ananta exists there as the presiding Deity in the form of the pedestal. O, the twice-born Sages!, the conception of the designing of the pedestal has been told here briefly.
Dharma, Jnana, Vairagya and Aisvarya – these four along with Ananta and Sakti constitute the six parts of the pedestal. This seat of Lord Sambhu is constituted of six adhvas and it should be worshipped with the recital of hrudaya mantra.
Or, the designing of the pedestal is now told in a different way. The pedestal formed of all adhvas has four feet constituted by the four yugas. For this lotus, pruthvi tattva is the bulbous root. The tattvas from jala to kaala constitute the stem of the lotus charmingly furnished with the tiny thorns of fifty different kinds of dispositions of the buddhi tattva. For this lotus, maya tattva is the big knot (appearing at the top of the stem). Suddhavidya tattva serves as the upper level of the great lotus-seat. It shines forth with the eight petals identified with the Vidyesvaras and with the filaments identified with the Sakti. In this way, the priest should contemplate the lotus-seat. The same lotus-seat should be conceived as manifested of matruka-letters.
Dharma, Jnana, Vairagya and Aisvarya are constituted of four letters belonging to neuter gender. Ananta is constituted of ‘am’ and the petals of the great lotus-seat, with ‘au’. The Guru, who is the foremost among knowers of the scriptures should ideate the pericarp, the innermost part, with the last letter of the vowels. The nine vowels from ‘o’ to ‘a’, leaving out the four letters of the neuter gender, are to be identified with the nine Saktis – Vama, Jyeshtha and others manifesting in the due order. The twenty-five letters from ‘ka’ to ‘bha’ are to be identified with the filaments. The nine letters from ‘ma’ to ‘ha’ are to be conceived as the seeds of the lotus. The three mandalas should be identified over the petals as done before. Having conceived the lotus-seat constituted of matruka-letters, the Guru should proceed to worship it.
The vidya-deha (the body of consciousness) of the Lord arising from the three mandalas should be conceived as effulgent as the fiery pillar and as extending up to isvara tattva. Having conceived in this way, the Guru should identify the vidya-deha with rounded shaft of the Linga. ‘ham sivamurti’ wrapped by the seed letter of hrudaya on two sides is said to be the murti mantra. It is this mantra which is said to be the mula mantra pertaining to Sadakhya. The Acharya should invoke the presence of vidya-deha of Sadasiva upon the center of the head (of Linga).
In invoking the presence of the supreme Lord in the Linga which is of the nature of absolutely pure realm, the Guru should ideate the form associated with 38 kalas and designed with brahma mantras and anga mantras. This is the form of Sadasiva and its lineaments are now told for the purpose of effective meditation. Meditation is essential for the attainment of all the goals and for such meditation, the exact form may be depicted in a thick cloth and such other materials.
Five faces; ten shoulders; effulgence of crystal; three eyes; tranquil composure; crest adorned with the crescent moon; locks of matted hair bound with serpent; mounted on the lion-throne constituted of mantras; seated on the white lotus (designed on the throne); adorned with various ornaments such as the ear-rings, karnika, hara, kati sutra, bandhana, keyura, kataka, channavira and others; eternal age of sixteen years; supremely beautiful and auspiciously charming; face beautified with gentle smile; holding the trident, parasu, khadga, vajra and fire in His right hands; holding the abhaya-mudra, pasa, ghanta, naga and ankusa in His left hands. Or, the weapons held in the hands are told in a different way. Varada-mudra, abhaya- mudra, khadvanga, sakti and sula in the right hands; damaru, sarpa, aksha mala and indivara-flower in the left hands. Lord Sadasiva should be meditated as associated with these lineaments.
His three eyes are to be considered as symbolizing the three powers- iccha, jnana and kriya; the crescent moon denotes His power of all-knowing; ten hands represent the ten directions; the trident denotes His three qualities –sattva, rajas and tamas functioning in the pure realm; parasu denotes His nature of eternal existence; khadga represents His invincible prowess; vajra denotes His state of unshakable firmness; fire denotes His destructive power, the power which incinerates the roots and knots of bondage and the luminous power which illumines the objects of the worlds for the sake of those existing in the pure maya; the naga denotes the power of supporting and sustaining everything and the power of disposing the things allocated to all the beings; pasa denotes the three bonds- maya, karma and mala; the ghanta represents the nature of basic sound which makes known the the form constituted of mantra; abhaya-mudra denotes His power of protecting all the worlds; ankusa represents the power of regulating and meting out the enjoyments obtainable to the souls according to their karmic fruits and controlling the souls to experience only those pertaining to them. In this way, the weapons held in His ten hands should be understood as representative of the power relevant to each of them.
The Isana face which is in the middle, looking upwards, is in the color of crystal; Tatpurusha face which is turned towards east is in the mixed color of red and brown; the Aghora face turned towards south is in black color; the Vamadeva face turned towards north is in the color of saffron; and the Sadyojata face turned towards west is as pure as the cool rays of the moon.
The east face (tatpurusha) is incessantly raising the roarings of a lion; its forehead is shining forth with auspicious fiery eye; this face is bereft of eyebrows; it is with prominent and elevated nose; highly charming with beautiful cheeks and smiling lips. The south face (Aghora) is with a dreadful appearance; it is associated with long, hard and fang-like protruding teeth; it is with widely opened mouth and large nose;with round eyes and tongue darting out like snake; it is adorned with the snake-ornament and its head is adorned with skull; it is with locks of matted hair looking like the fiery flames and its tuft is bound with serpent. The west face (Sadyojata) is with a pleasant look and it is beautified with charming nose and forehead; it is with three eyes and adorning crown; beautified with ear rings, it is with auspicious appearance. The north face (Vamadeva) is surrounded with rows of hair locks appearing like the flight of large balck bees; adorned with gold ornaments; its forehead is beautified with a round mark of kumkuma (tilaka); it is bright and effulgent like a pure mirror; its forehead appears with curls of hair as if bedecked with ring-shaped ornament; it is with charming and attractive body. The upper face looking above (Isana), which is at the top, appears highly formidable; this face is adorned with ear rings and with three eyes. It is having a crown adorned with young crescent moon. Having deeply contemplated the five faces in this way, the Guru should worship the form of Sadasiva.
The Guru should do the mantra-nyasa for the vidya-deha of Sadasiva in the same way as this nyasa was done to his own body earlier. Having conceived the vidya-deha constitutes of the mantras related to Sakti, he should invoke the presence of the formless Siva in that Sakti-related body. Lord Siva is the Primal and Ultimate cause; absolutely pure; eternal; ever-existing Reality; He is of the nature of pure consciousness, bliss and happiness; he is pervading over all the tattvas; immeasurable and incomparable; He is not confined to names and forms; He is existing in a pure realm which is beyond the reach of word and mind. The formless Lord Siva who is with such transcendental attributes should be duly invoked to be present in the pure form designed with Sakti-kalas. Preceded by invocation, His presence is rendered and stabilized by the recital of mula mantra. Just as the fire contained within the log of wood is made to appear visibly by means of churning, rubbing and other such activities, even so Lord Siva who is formless is rendered to be perceptible by the greatness and power of the mantra recited with devotion.
The Guru, having attained the state of one-pointed concentration of the mind and holding flowers in the hollowed hands joined together and held in front of his heart, should recite the prasada mantra (mula mantra associated with seed letters) with utmost devotion and meditate on the formless Siva. He should recite the mantra, ideating that Siva being raised by the resplendent rays of His own Sakti, is descending from His own transcendental place and coming down through the levels of sakti, bindu and nada and reaching his flower-filled hands. Such process is known as ‘avahama’ (invocation).
The Sages: O, Lord!, how could there occur ‘invocation’ for Lord Siva who is present everywhere and in every object? If such invocation is accepted, then His nature of being all-pervasive gets obstructed. Kindly explain.
For the fire which is present within a tree right from its roots up to its top, there is possibility for the outward manifestation of fire at one point of the tree. In the same way, for the all-pervasive Lord, the manifestation of His form of consciousness at one place does not get affected. It is seen that the self performs actions such as ‘walking out’ and ‘coming inside’ through its body. In the same way, there is possibility for Siva in manifesting Himself outwardly and concealing Himself in His own transcendental plane through His specific body constituted of mantras. Since He is associated with inconceivable powers, Siva shines forth as all-pervasive and as non-pervasive at one and the same time. Whether He is associated with the body or dissociated from the body, He remains as all-doer and as all- pervasive. Having understood in this way, the Guru should conceive that Lord Siva who has descended to the level of bindu has now come down to the flowers kept in his hands.
This invocation should be done through the path of the channel of vital air which is in the form of luminous column. Having grasped the form of Siva and taken it out from the flowers, the Guru should install that form within the vidya-deha which is shining forth in the Linga. The fully unfolded state of Sakti by whose ability Lord Siva has now perceptibly become His own Master (Independent Lord) and gets fixed in the nearest vicinity is known as ‘sannidhana’. This sannidhana should be confirmed through the display of hand gesture pertaining to the effecting of vicinity (sannidhana mudra). To confine the vicinity of Siva within the Linga, without being affected by disappearance until the completion of worship (puja) – is known as ‘sannirodha’ (well effected confinement). Such sanniorodha to the pervasive Lord should be conceived through the display of sannirodhana mudra. Just as a substance which yields happiness to the owner is safeguarded well in this world, even so the nearest presence of Siva should be safeguarded (avakunthana). Such safeguard should be effected through the display of avakunthana mudra.
Just as the fire, sun and other luminous bodies are capable of performing their own functions through their own luminous rays, even so Lord Siva, the unassailable, shines forth as the performer of all cosmic functions through the anga-mantras which originated from His own form. Of the six anga-mantras, the hrudaya mantra denotes the ever-existing ability of Siva; siro mantra denotes His supremacy; sikha mantra denotes His state of absolute independence; kavaca mantra denotes His protecting and shielding power; astra mantra denotes His Sakti by which He drives away the inimical and obstructing forces; netra mantra denotes His power of all-knowing which makes known evidently the existence of all the objects. In this way the six supreme qualities of Lord Siva, the Creator of the worlds, have been explained here.
These six mantras, hrudaya and others, are called the six anga-mantras. These mantras should be identified with heart, head, tuft (crest), torso, eyes and hands respectively by reciting mantra pertaining to each. The attainment of consciousness related to the inseparability between the limbs and the body which remain differentiated is known as ‘amruti karana’ (the nectar of immortalizing). This should be performed to the Lord by displaying the amruta mudra. Augmenting the effulgence and power of the beautiful limbs of the Lord is known as ‘prarocana’ (inspiring and exciting presence) and this should be done by displaying the maha mudra which is meant for the attainment of happiness and for the warding off the evil forces.
The divine body constituted of six advas; resplendent appearance; benign and beautiful face; associated with His own Sakti; whitening the fronts of all the directions by his immediate presence characterized by the heavy mass of supreme bliss – having meditated Lord Siva as associated with such attributes, the Guru should offer the padya-water at His feet and acamana in His face. He should offer the arghya-water upon His head and then offer durva-grass, flowers and unbroken rice (akhsata).
The padya-water should be offered with the hrudaya mantra ending with ‘namah’; acamana-water should be offered with hrudaya mantra ending with ‘svadha’; arghya-water should be offered with hrudaya mantra ending with ‘vaushat’. Having performed ten kinds of sacramental rites in this way, the Guru should worship Siva with various offerings.
It is ordained that in the process of daily worship, various offerings related to the worship, ceremonial ablution and such other rituals meant for honoring the Lord should be done according to the availability of the resources and wealth. These offerings may be done in a simple manner or in a grand scale. All the recommended offerings such as garlands and other paraphernalia should be essentially done in the worship done for the attainment of particular fruit as desired by an individual.
Ceremonial ablution, clothes, paste of sandal and other perfumes, flowers, incense, light, havis (specially cooked rice, related to the fire-ritual), betel leaf and areca nut together with perfumes for scenting the breath (mukha vasa), music, much celebrated dance, fire-ritual, bali for the demi-gods and cosmic elements – all of these should be performed in the daily festival. If enough wealth and resources are available, all these rites including bali and music may be performed for the Lord Siva. Perfumes, flowers, incense, light and offering of eatables – these are the five kinds of offering to be given to the Lord. Or, giving the four offerings up to the light is also acceptable. The images fit for the ceremonial bath should be essentially bathed. Ceremonial bath should be left out for the representative images such as drawings, depictions on the clothes, knife or mirror or gems and others.
Giving the offerings up to the light is called ‘arcana’; giving the offerings up to eatables is called ‘pujana’; giving the offerings up to the bali is called ‘santi’. Thus, the worship is said to be of three kinds. Arcana should be done in the morning and the evening. In the noon, offerings up to the eatables should be given. Having cooked two prasthas of rice, the Guru should offer it as naivedya.
Both in the morning and the noon, there should be one light in the main shrine. In the night, there should be two lights. According to the system mentioned here, the Guru should perform the worship categorized as the least of the inferior type of puja. For the preparation of ‘havis’, the Guru should make use of two prasthas of rice, in the morning and the noon. Having worshipped well both in the evening and the morning, the guru should light four lamps.
If worship is done in three sessions (morning, noon and evening), two prasthas of rice should be used for each session for the preparation of naivedya. Four lamps in the morning and eight lamps in the evening should be lighted. In the system of three types of lower category, the offerings should be given with the accompaniment of the sounding of musical instruments. In the system of the least type of medium category, rice with a measure of one adhaka should be used in the noon for the preparation of havis. In the morning and the evening, two prasthas of rice should be used and twelve lamps should be lighted. O, the twice-born Sages!, in all the three sessions, the Guru should offer the linga designed in the form of flower as bali.
In the system of intermediary type of medium category, one adhaka of rice should be used for havis to be offered in three sessions. Half of this measure should be used in the midnight session and there should be twenty-four lights. In all the three sessions, flowers and arghya-water associated with bali should be offered with the accompaniment of the sounding of musical instruments, conch and kahala (a kind of blow-pipe). In the noon session, the daily fire-ritual should be performed with the recital of siva mantra. In the superior type of medium category, two adhakas of rice should be used in three sessions and one adhaka of rice in the midnight session. There should be seventy lights. Offering of bali should be done in three sessions and the fire-ritual should be performed in these three sessions. In all the six sessions of medium category, all kinds of musical instruments should be sounded. In a temple where the system of six sessions of worship is followed, there is no restriction with regard to the limitation of time for each phase of worship.
Where the system of the least type of the foremost category is followed, one drona of rice should be used in all the three sessions. Half a drona of rice should be for the midnight session. One hundred and eight lamps should be lighted in this session. Offering of bali and fire-ritual should be done in all the three sessions. Twenty-four musical instruments which include all kinds of instruments should be sounded. Thirty-four, twenty-four or ten women artistes who are with charming and youthful appearance, who are well trained in the traditional dancing should perform the classical dance in all the three sessions. There should be five Acharyas for this program which should last for the duration of one ‘yaama’.
Where the system of the medium type of the foremost category is followed, four prasthas of havis and payasa (rice boiled with milk and sugar) should be used in all the three sessions. One drona of rice should be cooked separately for the preparation pure food (suddhodana) for each session. One drona of rice should be used for the midnight session. Two hundred lamps should be lighted in this session. Bali, homa, special kind of incense known as ‘sitari’, lamp – should be offered in all the three sessions. There should be thirty-four musical instruments and fifty ‘ganikas’ (women dance-performers devoted to temple services) for the performance of dance program. This dance should be performed in all the three sessions so as to last for the duration of two yaamas.
With regard to the superior type of the foremost category, the order of the offering of havis is now explained. Payasa and other eatables which should be nicely prepared and each item should be with a measure of five dronas. Half of this measure should be for the midnight session. There should be 500 lamps. Bali and homa should be offered in all the three sessions. The musical instruments should be fifty in number. Dance should be performed by 216 women artistes (ganikas) in all the three sessions (three sandhyas) so as to last for the duration of one yaama.
Havis should be prepared to be in five different colors. Such havis, payasa and other eatables should be offered in due order. The measure of rice should be one drona, half of one drona or one quarter of a drona. Of the items mentioned, either one, two or three or all the items may be offered. Again, havis should be offered in a specific way in one session. The pure food (simple and unmixed cooked rice, suddha annam) should be in twice the measure mentioned before. These are the general details applicable to all the temples. Thus, nine categories of worship have been told. Details concerned with each ritual are now explained.
The large vessel meant for the storage of ablution-water should be worshipped first and the ablution- water should be perfumed with the recommended ingredients. This water should be consecrated with the recital of samhita-mantras, honored with flowers and fumigated and rendered to be very auspicious. The sesame-oil extracted afresh with the hand-machine and the moderately warmed and perfumed clarified butter got from the cow-milk should be kept ready for the ablution.
Having worshipped the Linga along with the pedestal, the Guru should offer the incense and then besmear the rice flour mixed with turmeric powder over the Linga and then besmear the powdered beans. Then he should commence the ceremonial bath. It is directed that the Linga should be bathed with fragrant ingredients, myrobalan fruits and such other materials.
Keeping the well-ground flour of rice and other grains, black mustard and salt in one or five shallow earthen plates or in the vajra-like plate made of cow-dung or in such other vessels, the Guru should besmear these over the Linga and then perform the ablution with warm water, perfumed water and unguents. Milk, curd, clarified butter, honey, candied sugar and such other substances may be used for ablution, according to his capacity. These may be with a measure of one kudupa (approximately, a quarter of a liter) to four kudupas (adhaka), increasing the measure by one kudupa each time. If candied sugar is not available, the juice of sugarcane may be used; if honey is not available, ghee may be used. If the resources are abundant, ablution may be done with the water collected from various sacred places and with various kinds of fumigation. Then the ablution should be done with tender coconut water, juices of various succulent fruits, flowered water, water deposited with gold or gold ornaments, water deposited with gems, and the water mixed with sandal paste. Ablution should not be done when the top of the Linga is bereft of flower or leaf.
Joining the index finger and the thumb, the Guru should take the flowers with the recital of astra mantra and with the recital of the same astra mantra he should remove the flower already placed on the top of the Linga, simultaneously placing the flower held with the index finger and the thumb, on the top. Then he should offer eight flowers, three perfumes and seven waters. Invocation, arghya, padya, ceremonial bath, incense, besmearing of sandal paste and other fragrant substances, naivedya, visarjana (ceremonial send-off) – in all these eight occasions, the Guru should offer eight flowers. Arghya, besmearing and the ceremonial bath – in these three occasions, he should offer the sandal and other fragrant substances. Offering of flowers, arghya, padya, ablution, acamana, kshalana, prokshana – in all these seven occasions, he should offer the pure water. Under all occasions, incense should be offered. Having known well all other ritualistic details (through his Guru or from the Agamas), he should perform those rituals.
The curtain, designed in a superior way, should be drawn at the completion of the worship at the entrance (dvara puja), at the completion of ablution, at the end of nivedana and at the end three twilight worship (sandhya). Having completed the ablution with various kinds of water, the Guru should perform the ceremonial bath with the kalasa-vessels installed systematically.
Holding the water-pot in his left hand, the Guru should remove the flower placed earlier on the top of the Linga with the recital of astra mantra and keep his hands washed well. He should stream down the kalasa water through the hand held in the conch-mudra and perform the ceremonial bath. While pouring the water on the top of the Linga, water drops should not spill out. He should not move around his hand above the top of the Linga and should not display the mudras below the level of Linga portion. He should not let the kalasa-water spill around and should not let the materials kept there for the ablution become wetted by the spilling water.
With the accompaniment of repeating loud sounds which proclaim the victory of the Lord (jaya sabda), the Guru should lift up the Sivakumbha and Saktikumbha (vardhani) and take them inside the shrine and place them upon the yantrika (specially designed pedestal). Having offered padya, acamana and arghya to the Lord and the Sakti present in the consecrated water kept in the kalasas, he should offer the sandal, flowers, incense, light and arghya to them and after that he should remove the flowers and other materials from the kalasas with the right hand. Keeping his mind firmly on the relevant tattvas, the Guru should collect the bunch of durva-grass (kurca), flowers and water, reciting the Sivamantra. Doing so, he should identify the mula mantra with the top of the Linga. Then he should bring out the presence of Sivasakti on the left side of the Linga.
Reciting the Sivamantra, the Guru should bathe the Linga with the kalasa-water and then bathe the Sakti who is in the form of the pedestal. Bathing the Linga and the pedestal with the perfumed materials, myrobalan and others on this occasion is recommended. Having bathed the Linga along with the pedestal with the sandal water, he should offer the acamana-water to all the faces of Siva and wipe them with pure and dry cloth. Then he should carefully besmear the paste of fragrant materials over the Linga and the pedestal. Having covered the Linga with pure clothes and different varieties of valuable and pure materials, he should offer eight flowers to the Lord and offer the havis consecrated with the mantras.
Kidney-bean rice or pure (unmixed) rice associated with seasoned dishes and appetizing condiments should be offered to the Lord. The Guru should adorn the Linga with garlands of flowers and then worship it with pieces of leaves got from the recommended plants and trees.
The Linga should be adorned with three-striped sheet made of gold, golden crown, leaves and durva-grass made of gold, a number of flowers made of gold, each one embedded with Lakshmi, crescent moon and innumerable flowers made of gold and such other ornaments. The Guru should beautify the Linga with three-stranded sacred thread, upper garment and waist-band. He should adorn the Linga with golden cloth and golden belt provided with a fictitious face at the joint. He should beautify it with other kinds ornaments such as gold crown, gold flowers, bead designed with gold balls. He should adorn the Image with various kinds of ornaments designed with precious gems, according to the fitness of perfect beautification.
On each day of a week, the Guru should adorn the Linga with a specific kind of ornament made of a particular gem. On Sunday, ornament made of diamond; on Monday, pearl ornament; on Tuesday, coral; on Wednesday, emerald; on Thursday, topaz; on Friday, adamantine gem (vajra); on Saturday, sapphire. These are the directions related to the ornamentation, fit for all the days as well as specifically fit for a particular day of a week.
The Guru should offer the padya-water at the feet of the Lord with the recital of sadyojata mantra. Then he should offer the acamana-water to the face and arghya-water at the head with the accompaniment of siro mantra. While performing the ablution with pancagavya and others, the great bell should be sounded; subsequent bathing (upasnana) should be done and the incense should be offered. At the completion of each phase of ritual, the subsequent bath and the offering of incense should be essentially done.
The singing of the songs composed of mantras, vina-recital, systematic recital of the Vedas, reading of the Agamic scriptures and other works, then the singing of the songs composed in gauda-language and others – these should be done until the completion of the offering of incense. Then, the hymns composed in dravida-language and its dialect languages should be sung. Such hymns may be sung supported by dance recital. Musical compositions in Sanskrit should be rendered melodiously without the occurrence of corrupted words and with correct setting of musical notes (svaras). Or, the singing of the songs composed in the eighteen languages may be arranged for. Arrangement for the performance of dance evolved in various parts of the country may be done.
Garlands of flowers, wreaths and such others should be arranged so as to appear hanging all around. Having filled the charcoals which are burning without smoke up to the mid-level of a round and perfect vessel, he should fumigate the shrine with the pleasant smoke by burning the ingredients recommended to be fit for burning. Holding the bell which is rendered to be in good and auspicious shape and whose sounds could reach distant places, in his left hand and sounding it, the Guru should raise the incense-vessel upwards and wave it with the accompaniment of astra mantra.
The shrine should be brightened all around with the lamps which are filled with the ghee got from the tawny colored cows and provided with the wicks applied with camphor and agaru-powder (a kind of sandal used for fumigation) and which could shine constantly, without being extinguished. It should be illumined with the lamps arranged to be in the form of wheel and arch; with the lamps which are in the shape of trident; with many rows of lamps and with the lamps which are in different shapes and designs.
In view of rendering services and benefits to the world, ceremonial gift of cows, sesame and gold and the offering of tender grass to the cows and such other gifts should be made.
Then the Guru should perform the ‘aratrika’ (waving the light-vessel in front of the Deity) waving the large-sized vessels which are filled with oil, which contain the light which could shine constantly and which are provided with well trimmed wicks. He should apply the sacred ash (vibhuti) in the forehead of the Lord to be in the form of round dot (tilaka) or in the pattern of three stripes. He should offer the acamana-water once at the end of the offering of incense, light, naivedya and bali and in between each ritual. Only after the offering of acamana, he should commence to perform the next ritual.
Having prostrated and humbly entreated, the Guru should obtain permission from the Lord and proceed to worship the Deities present in the outer enclosure. He should worship Isana at the pericarp with flowers and other materials; Tatpurusha in the east petal; Aghora in the south petal; Vamadeva in the north petal; and Sadyojata in the west petal. He should identify the presence of the five Lords with the five places (four petals and the pericarp). The forms of these Lords should be meditated as having five faces and ten hands and as adorned with the crown ornamented with the crescent moon and as holding the much celebrated weapons.
He should worship the Hrudaya, Siras, Sikha, Kavaca, Netra and Astra (the Lords of Anga-mantras) in the south-east, north-east, south-west, north-west, in all the four directions and at the center, in the due order. Hrudaya is with the color of moon; Siras is in the color of gorocana (a bright yellow pigment); Sikha is with the brightness comparable to the effulgence of the lightning; Kavaca is in the color of smoke, from the head to the feet; Astra is with the tawny color; Netra is with a brightness of the luminous shaft and the Guru should worship this as present at the center of the lotus.
The Lords of Anga-mantras should be meditated as having five faces and ten hands, as adorned with the crescent moon and with various kinds of ornaments and various kinds of garlands, as besmeared with ointment of perfumes, as sixteen years old, endowed with charming lineaments and everlasting youthfulness, as appearing with delighted face and handsome form, as having three eyes in each face and as seated in svastika-posture. The Lords of five Brahma-mantras and six Anga-mantras should be invoked from the head and other limbs and from the heart and other parts of Sadasiva, the Primal Lord and should be lead to the corresponding locations. Alternatively, Isana and the Lord of Netra-mantra may be worshipped in the north-east petal of the lotus-seat, by the Guru. Thus, the Guru should worship the retinue Lords of the first enclosure, as present around Lord Sadasiva.
Or, the the nine Saktis, Vama and others, may be worshipped in these locations. The Adisakti known as Manonmani should be worshipped as mounted on the left lap of Lord Sadasiva. Invocation and the subsequent sacraments should be done with the relevant mantra pertaining to each Lord and each Sakti, in the due order. It has been systematized by the learned Acharyas that out of the eight sacraments beginning with invocation, only six sacraments should be done for each retinue Lord and each Sakti, leaving out avakunthana (safe-guarding) and amrutikarana (immortalizing). Since these retinue Deities are considered as the limbs of the Primal Lord, there is no need for the separate arrangement for snapana and lights.
Eight Vidyesvaras, Ananta and others are present in the due order, in the second enclosure. They are: Ananta, Sukshma, Sivottama, Ekanetra, Ekarudra, Trimurti, Srikantha and Sikhandi. These Vidyesvaras are with four faces and like Lord Hara, they are having ten hands; they are adorned with crown and crescent moon; being handsome and pleased, they are seated on lotus, holding different weapons in their hands. They are with ten hands holding khadga, keta, dhanus, bana, kamandalu, akshamala, varada mudra, abhaya mudra, trident and lotus. They are with an excelling brightness comparable to the brilliance of the sun which shines forth at the end of yuga.
Ananta should be worshipped in the east; Sukshma, in the south; Sivottama, in the west; Ekanetra in the north; Ekarudra, in the north-east; Trimurti, in the south-east; Srikantha, in the south-west; and Sikhandi, in the north-west.
Starting from the north, Ganesvaras are present in the due order, in the third enclosure. Ambika (Sivasakti) is present in the north, being mounted on the lion-vehicle. She is with three eyes and with a color of whitish yellow, holding mirror in Her hand. Candesvara is in the north-east, with the brightness of vaidurya-gem (cat’s eye), attired with tiger hide, having three eyes, with the hands holding the trident, danda (shaft), kuthara (a kind of axe), varada mudra and abhaya mudra, presenting a fierce appearance and adorned with crescent moon and serpents. Nandi is present in the east, having the brilliance of padmaraga (ruby), being three-eyed, holding the trident in his hand, with a charming appearance and wearing a serpent as the sacred thread.
In the south-east, the Guru should worship Mahakala whose color is green, who is holding the trident in his hand, three-eyed, wearing a serpent as the sacred thread and who is with dreadful appearance. Ganesa, whose form is dwarfish, who is with the face of elephant, holding his own tusk in his hand, is having a crown-like frontal globes above his forehead; his ears are in the likeness of winnowing-basket; he is with soft sprig-like trunk extending up to three spans, holding sweet-ball (laddu), kuthara and rosary of rudraksha in his hands; three-eyed; and his resplendence is like that of the lotus-leaf. Such Ganesa should be worshipped as seated in the south. Vrushabha is in the form of bull; three-eyed; his brightness is like the resplendence of white kunda-flower, moon and snow. He symbolizes the sustaining power and he is of the nature of perfect order and harmony. This Vrushabha should be worshipped as present in the south-west.
Bhrungi should be worshipped in the west, as endowed with a thin form bereft of flesh and as appearing with white color. Skanda appears with six faces; he is in the guise of a young boy whose youthfulness has blossomed afresh; he is with twelve eyes and twelve hands which are holding sakti, khadga, pataka, abja (lotus), prasa, kukkuta, danda, vara mudra, abhaya mudra, dhanus, bana and maha parasu. Or, in order to obtain wealth, He may be meditated as having one face, four or two hands. His four hands are holding sakti, kukkuta, vara mudra and abhaya mudra and he is with the color of coral. He should be worshipped as present in the north-west by all those who are desirous of auspicious benefits.
Or, the Ganesvaras may be worshipped in a different order. Devi, Candesa, Mahakala, Vrushabha, Nandi, Ganesa, Bhrungi and Skanda – they may be worshipped in this order. Keeping his mind free and secure, the Guru should meditate on them as appearing with the brightness of padmaraga (ruby).
The protectors of the world (loka palas, directional deities) are in the fourth enclosure, each one present in his own direction, in the due order. The Guru should worship Indra who is mounted on the elephant (called Airavata), who is in the color of whitish yellow and who is holding the thunderbolt (vajra) in his hand, having one thousand eyes and who exists in the east. He should worship Agni who is present in the south-east, surrounded by the streaks of flames, holding the sakti-wepon in his hand and mounted on the ram. He should worship Yama who is present in the south, mounted on the buffalo, who is with the color of black and holding the danda in his hand. In the south-west, he should worship Nirruti who is in blue color, holding the mace-weapon in his hand and mounted on the nara (human being). In the west, he should worship Varuna who is in white color, mounted on a large fish and holding a noose (pasa) in his hand. In the north-west, he should worship Vayu who is with variegated colors, holding a dhvaja (flag) in his hand and mounted on the deer.
In the north, he should worship Kubera who is holding khadga in his hand, seated on the treasure (or, mounted on the horse) and who is in the color of whitish yellow. In the north-east, he should worship Isana who is in tawny color, holding the trident in his hand, mounted on the bull, has three eyes, who is with a charming face and who appears as much delighted. In the direction below, he should worship Vishnu who is in the color of blue-black, mounted on the Garuda-vehicle and holding the cakra-weapon in his hand. In the direction above, he should worship Brahma who is in red color, mounted on the hamsa-vehicle and holding a lotus in his hand. The Guru who has perfectly known the scriptural directions should worship them, keeping the first letter of the name of each Deity as the seed letter of the concerned mantra.
In the fifth enclosure, the array of weapons should be worshipped as detailed in the Scripture. The Guru should worship the vajra-weapon in the east, conceiving it to be in the color of whitish yellow and to be in hexagonal form. In the south-east, he should worship sakti-weapon which is in the color of bright red; in the south, danda-weapon in the color of blue-black, in the south-west, khadga which is in the color of blue; in the west, pasa which is in white color; in the north-west, dhvaja which is in variegated colors; in the north, gada which is in gold color; in the north-east, trisula which is in fiery color; in the direction below, cakra-weapon which is with the brilliance of the sun, and in the direction above, the Guru, who is highly skilled, should worship the padma which is in white color. Thus, the worship to be done in five enclosures has been explained briefly.
In the system of worship with only one enclosure, the retinue Deities are held to be the Lords of Brahma-mantras and Anga-mantras. Or, the retinue Deities may be held to be the Lords of Brahma- mantras alone or those of Anga-mantras alone. In the system of worship with three enclosures, the retinue Deities are held to be the Lords of Brahma-mantras and Anga-mantras, ten directional Deities (lokapalas) and ten weapons for the first, the second and the third enclosure respectively. Or, the Directional Lords may be worshipped as associated with their own weapons. Alternatively, the Brahma-mantras and the Anga-mantras, eight Vidyesvaras, eight Murtis, eleven Rudras may be worshipped with sandal and other substances in the order applicable to the inner enclosures. In the system of the worship of the retinue Deities, the knowers of the Agamas have given directions for the worship of the enclosure confined to the outer enclosures also.
Having worshipped the retinue Deities of the enclosures in this way, he should offer the superior variety of naivedya. He should offer the naivedya to all the five faces or to the upper face alone. Half measure of this naivdya should be offered to each of the Deities of Brahma-mantras and Anga-mantras, separately. If vessels are available, the caru-food should be kept in a separate container and offered to each Deity separately. If not, the havis should be kept in one of the pure containers arranged there for various purposes and should be consecrated with mantras and be offered to all the Deities.
With regard to the worship of the Deities of outer enclosures, each Deity should be worshipped separately with sandal and other substances, preceded by the separate worship of the Guardian Lords of the entrance. The bali should be offered to the presiding Deities of the cosmic elements and the naivedya consecrated by mantras should be offered. After that, having entered into the shrine, the Guru should perform the daily fire-ritual (nitya homa).
Having cleaned his hands, the Guru should offer the acamana-water to ensure the satisfaction of the Lord. Then he should offer the ‘mukhavasa’ and ‘tambula’ recommended to be fit for the Lord. Then he should make the Lord to be auspiciously delighted, with the raising of five great sounds related to the five cosmic elements, with mirror, parasol, chowrie, songs, dance, recital of sacred hymns and such other services.
Having meditated on Lord Sadasiva whose form is constituted of skati-kala mantras and who is seated with His delighted Sakti, the Guru should place a pavitra (a protective and purificatory darbha-grass designed in a specific pattern) on the head of the Lord, preceded by the relevant rituals. A sadhaka gets himself entangled daily in the bonds of karmas knowingly or unknowingly through his words, mind and body. Since it protects the sadhaka from falling into the hellish worlds because of such karmic bonds, it is called ‘pavitraka’. Having recited the mantras related to ‘paramibhava’ (state of oneness with the Lord) for the sake of perfect completion of the commenced rituals, he should recite the prasada mantra raising his central channel up to dvadasanta and conceive its oneness with the Lord, as done before.
Then the raised display of mahamudra which was shown earlier should be done.Then having supplicated to the Lord, the learned Guru should do the incantation of mula mantra with the rosary of rudraksha. Since it imparts the power of control over the senses and over all the activities done by the senses for the secured attainment of perceptible and imperceptible fruits, it is called ‘aksha sutra’.
The rosary of rudraksha maybe made with 108, 54 or 27 rudrakshas and it should be consecrated with the mantras which have their existence in the pure tattva. While counting the incantation, if each rudraksha of the rosary is moved up with the thumb, ring finger and the middle finger, then there would result the exalted benefit of superior kind. If is moved up with the thumb and index finger, the accomplishment of the desired fruit would be of medium knid. If it is moved up with the thumb and the little finger, the the benefit would be of lower type. It is ordained that in the process of incantation, the samhita mantras should be recited for one part out of ten parts of the total number of the mula mantra-incantation. The incantation should be done without being too swift or too slow, without pronouncing indistinctly. It should not be done with unsteadied and confused mind. Such incantation which forms part of the series of daily rituals should be done in a perfect way and it should be dedicated to the Lord, duly.
For the fulfillment of what should be accomplished and for giving a pause of short duration for the other devotees assembled there, the Guru should offer the ‘culokodaka’ (handful of water) three times with the accompaniment of the relevant mantra, making use of kusa-grass, flowers and other substances. He should supplicate: “Om, O, Lord!, you are the secret of the most secrets, you are the protector! Kindly accept this incantation done by me now. Through your grace which always exists in you, let there be the accomplishment of the concerned fruit of this incantation. O, the Lord of the gods!Sankara!, whatever insignificant trace of the fruits of my good deed or bad deed be there, to be experienced by me who is firmly existing at the feet of Siva, kindly extirpate it. Siva is the giver; it is Siva who enjoys the fruits; all these objects of the world are the expressions of Siva Himself; it is Siva who worships everywhere. Indeed, He who is Siva is me only”. Having entreated in the way, he should dedicate the incantation, worship and his own self to the Lord, with deep devotion. Sitting there and meditating on Siva in a manner explained earlier, he should praise the Lord with various sacred hymns composed in different meters (chandas) and repeatedly prostrate before Him.
Then he should perform the fire ritual to be executed daily in the fire kept constantly in the separate shrine meant for the fire-ritual. Or he may perform this fire-ritual in the fire-pit designed in the south-east of the kitchen-hall, according to the rules pertaining to such ritual. Then he should perform the daily-festival and arrange for the performance of dance-recital. Subsequent to these, he should worship the Linga with sandal, flowers and other materials in the due order and offer the arghya-water meant for making the Lord to turn way (paranmukha arghya). Then he should display the Great Mudra (maha mudra).
Displaying the mudra meant for dissolution (samhara mudra) and reciting the astra mantra, he should raise the Deities present in the enclosures and unite them with the original forms with the accompaniment of murti-mantra pertaining to each Deity. Reciting the mula mantra followed by the hrudaya mantra, he should ideate that Lord Siva presents Himself now as the formless one, being dissociated from the karanas (instruments) and all those attributes which constitute the body of the Lord. Knowing the different states of the formed and the formless Siva, he should meditate on the formless Siva who is always present within the heart of the devotee. This is the process of executing the farewell to the Lord, the process without anticipating any fruit. This kind of process is considered to be common for all.
Worshipping with a motive to attain the desired fruit is admissible in the case of the Linga received by the sadhaka from the Guru. This has been made known earlier. Motivated worship is admissible in the case of portable Linga. But, such motivated worship is not admissible in the case of sthandila, under all circumstances. But it is ordained that the worship should be done for all types of Lingas, without any motivation, without desiring for any fruit.
He should worship Candesvara in the north-east with sandal, flowers and other substances. It is maintained that all the remains of the offerings made to Lord Siva should be dedicated to Candesvara. Some say that Candesvara is present on the top of the Linga; others are of the view that he is present in the pedestal. Candesvara may be considered to be in the north-east side of the pedestal or to be present in the shrine specifically provided for him, outside the main shrine. It is said that Candesvara is the manifested form of a part of Siva’s anger.
The eatables, sandal, flowers and such other materials, various objects kept there for the worship of Siva, garlands – all these which are enjoyed by the Lord are called ‘nirmalya’ (free from impurities). The particles which are in the sthandila-linga and those which are the remains of the things enjoyed by Siva are strictly for the enjoyment of Candesvara; they are unapproachable to the devotees and the common people. So, by all means, they should be kept apart, avoiding the intention to make use of them.
The canopy provided for the halls, umbrella, garlands and others, clothes, ornaments, vehicles, cows, lands, gold, houses – all these which are dedicated to Lord Siva are called ‘devasvam’ (properties of Siva). Other materials also, apart from the items mentioned above, should be dedicated to Siva. Either the property of Siva or those materials which are meant for the enjoyment of Candesvara should never be used for one’s own purpose. But touching the canopy, smelling the pleasant aroma of the incenses and such other deeds are not restricted; not considered as offences. Likewise, looking at the multitudes and rows of lamps lighted inside the temple, trimming of the wicks and such other deeds are not offensive.
Having sent off the Lord (temporarily), being without any motivation, he should purify the Linga as done before. Having placed it over the yoga-pitha which represents the pranava-letter, he should do the ‘sakalikarana’ with the blemishless samhita mantras and worship the Lord with the recital of gayatri mantra. For the attainment of Siva-related enjoyments, he should decorate the Linga and the pedestal with flowers and other materials according to his capacity and humbly pronounce ‘kshamasva’ (“kindly excuse me”).
Having sprinkled over the arghya-vessel and others, he should place all those vessels on wooden stools or planks. Having wiped the main shrine with three balls of cow-dung, he should collect all the things set aside as ‘canda bhojya’ (things meant for the enjoyment of Candesvara) and place them in the vessel specially designed for keeping the remains of the things used for worship (ucchishta bhajana). If he gets drenched by the drops of consecrated water meant for ablution and those of milk and such other items, he should take bath or besprinkle himself with consecrated water. If such drops have spilled out above or below his navel, he should do acamana and purify himself and bow down before the Lord. Then he should recite the samhita mantras for setting right the defect of the spilling and trickling of the water drops over him.
With regard to the portable Linga kept in the sacrificial hall and sthandila, he should complete the worship by winding up the final phase of the rituals and purify the ground with three balls of cow-dung. Then, having cleaned his hands and feet by sprinkling, he should do acamana according to the direction. Having prostrated before the Lord by laying himself on the ground like the fallen shaft, he should pronounce ‘kshamasva’ (kindly excuse me).
This is the end of the 4th chapter titled “Directions for the Daily Worship of Lord Siva” in the Great Tantra called Kamika
Chapter Five: On the Essential Aspects of the Daily Worship (81 verses)
I will explain the directions related to the essential aspects of the daily worship, first speaking on the significant features of time-juncture (sandhya). In the duration from the sunrise (of one day) to the sunrise (of the next day), seven and a half ghatikas make one yama and each yama denotes one sandhi (juncture). Six breathings make one prana and six pranas make one ghatika. Sixty ghatikas make one full day consisting of one day-time and one night-time. In one full day, there are eight sandhis. The worship performed in all the eight sandhis is considered to be of the most superior category. (one breath= 40 seconds; one prana= 4 minutes; one ghatika = 24 minutes; one yama= 3 hours)
There are nine varieties of daily worship – worship done in 7 yamas (of one day), 6 yamas, 5 yamas, 4 yamas, 3 yamas, 2 yamas, one yama, three quarters of one yama and a half of one yama. The worship should be done from the beginning up to the dance-recital so as to last for the completion of sandhi. If the worship exceeds the duration of one sandhya, it is defective. But, if it is completed within one sandhya, there is no violation. In a process in which the series of rituals (upacaras) are performed in a grand scale, such rules are to be observed.
For the performance of ablution, two ghatikas (48 minutes); for arcana, one ghatika; for naivedya, half of a ghatika; for the bali-offering, half of a ghatika; for the daily fire-ritual, half of a ghatika; for the daily festival, 2 ghatikas; for the dance, one ghatika. This is the schedule of time for each phase of worship. This is the order of duration for the complete worship to be done in the three main sandhis (morning, noon and evening).
When the series of rituals are performed in a simple scale, if the duration of each phase of worship gets shortened, there is no defect. There is no such schedule of time in the performance of personal worship (atmartha puja). This may be done in any sandhya available to the sadhaka, so as to last for the available ghatikas, in consideration of his own capacity.
During the time of half of one prahara (one prahara equals two and a half hours) just before the sunrise, five great sounds (related to the five gross elements) should be raised. Such raising of these sounds is efficacious in dispelling the darkness of all the living beings. At this auspicious time, the Guru should worship Lord Siva for the fruition of all the desired benefits.
Worship should be done additionally in a special way at the end of ‘arcana’ in the evening and in the midnight. The image of Linga should be adorned with much quantity of sandal and flowers, delighted with many kinds of pleasant incenses and aromatic substances, offered varieties of food and eatables and smeared with fragrant ingredients which are profusely used by the worldly people and such other materials. Having specially adorned well Uma Sakti mounted on the couch, with specific materials, the Guru should lead Her to the side of the Lord, accompanied by different styles of dance and songs. Then he should worship Lord Sankara for the healthy growth and nourishment of sons and grandsons (of the village or city). At the end of the juncture of the noon, he should worship Siva with the recital of mulamantra ending with ‘vaushat’. This should be done for the attainment of longevity and health and for the attainment of victory by the king. Such worship should be performed daily, if the resources are available in plenty.
The Guru should complete the activities such as taking the ceremonial bath and the subsequent rites according to the directions, just before the sunrise (before the morning juncture). After that, all the necessaries required for the worship such as water and other things should be collected and kept ready, by those appointed for doing various services. Water flowing in the sacred rivers such as the Ganga and others, water springing up in the sacred tanks and such other sources, water which is naturally tasty and pleasant- should be collected and rendered to be sweet smelling with flowers; should be filled in the new earthen pots; should be filtered with clean cloth; should be kept pure; should be made to be associated with the sweet fragrance of ela and other ingredients.
The water should be mixed up with ela, usira and three spicy fruits; with karpura, kumkuma, srikhanda (candana), agaru, leaves, flowers, perfumes and others. Such water with spiceness and pleasant aroma has been well recommended for the ablution for Lord Sambhu. Or, whichever materials are available among those groups of substances mentioned here, they should be collected by those who are not with sufficient wealth.
For the purpose of bathing the Linga,the Guru should well prepare the water to be with spices and perfumes, such water being efficacious enough to end the cyclic phenomena of repeated birth and death. In the case of the Linga installed afresh, the measure of ablution-water should be from one ‘bhara’ to nine ‘bharas’, for the most inferior type of ablution. Nine different kinds of measure are available, by increasing from one bhara to nine bharas, the increment being one bhara each time. Or, eight dronas, sixteen dronas or twenty-four dronas of water may be used for the Svayambhulinga, Banalinga and others, as desired by the Guru. These are the possible measures of water for the ablution. For the personal worship of the Linga, the measure of ablution- water may be as desired by the sadhaka.
The mixture of five kinds of nectarine fruits (pancamruta), mixture of five substances got from the cow (pancagavya), water with kusa-grass, kalasa-water – all of these should be prepared so as to be with the corresponding measures told earlier.
Cloth designed with yellow gold, soft woollen cloth, cotton cloth, white silk – all these are suitable for attiring the Linga. The cloth should be with recommended fitting measures. Yellow gold cloth is of superior category; white silken cloth is of medium category. Cotton cloth is of inferior category. The cloth, with a length of 12 hastas and a breadth of 2 hastas, with a quality of charming the mind and with softness is considered to be of specific variety. Or, the cloth whose length may be three times its width, with evenly woven threads and associated with charming features may be used. The clothes bitten by mouse, burnt by fire, tangled with hairs and with such other defects should be abandoned. These are the lineaments of cloth and such cloth should be made use of by the sadhaka.
The padya-water associated with saffron flower, sandal, durva-grass, white mustard, usira (a kind of fragrant) and sesame is said be of superior kind. The padya-water associated with white mustard, usira and durva-grass is of medium type. The padya-water associated with usira and sandal is of lower variety.
The water associated with cardamom, cloves, camphor, varala (another kind of clove), three kinds of myrobalan fruits (gall-nut, myrobalan and tanri), usira and sandal should be used for acamana. O, the twice-born Sages!, the water mixed with three kinds of myrobalan fruit, camphor, leaves of truti-plant may also be used for acamana. Or, the acamana-water may be with cardamom and usira.
Water, milk, broken tips of kusa-grass, barley, white mustard, rice, sesame, husked rice (paddy grain) – these eight ingredients constitute arghya-water. Or, water, milk, broken tips of kusa-grass, rice, flowers, sesame, barley and white mustard – these eight substances may be taken to prepare the arghya-water. Alternately, rice, paddy-grain, white mustard, sesame and water or simply flowers and water may be taken for the preparation of arghya.
Sandal, agaru (black-sandal) and saffron – these three constitute the sweet-smelling perfume (gandha). Out of these three, one, two or all the three may be used. Camphor is the fourth ingredient of gandha. Or, this gandha may be prepared with saffron flower, aromatic camphor and sandal, each one with a measure of one nishka, half a nishka or quarter of a nishka. Such specific perfume may be used for the foremost among the superior type of Lingas and such others for the attainment of benefits from the minimum to the maximum. Those who are with insufficient resources may make use of the ingredients as available to them and as per the recommended measures. Thus, the measures of padya and other materials have been explained.
O, the foremost among the supreme Sages!, now, I will tell briefly about the specific details related to the flowers to be used for the worship. White lotus, punnaga, sankha pushpa, mallika, nandyavarta, sriyavarta, mandara, bahukarnika, dvikarni, kurava, jati, laxmi, vakula, svetarka, malati, drona, atasi, sveta lodhraka, vishaka, sisakusuma, bhadra, mahati, vyaghri, campaka, karavira, asoka, halika, satapatra, unmatta, kusa pushpa – these belong to the group of white flowers suitable for the worship of Lord Siva.. Among these some flowers are of very much importance and some others are not so very important.
Red lotus, palasa, red utpala, patali, mausali, dhuttura, bruhati, karavira, vyaghri, rakta mandara, pattika, vaijika, muni pushpa – these belong to the group of red flowers suitable for the worship of Siva.
Saunakyam, karnikara, campaka, hemadhuttura, aragvadha, koranda, sairisha, girikarnika – these are the flowers with whitish-yellow color, suitable for the worship of Siva. Nilotpala is the best among the flowers with the color of blue-black. Bilvapatra, tapasvi, maha bhadra, dhataki, apamarga, kusa, durva, panca bilvas, sami, tulasi, candrapa, danta, jambuka, naganandika, eka-patraravinda, vishnukranti, sahakara, krishna tulasi, gandha patrika – these are the leaves recommended for the worship of Siva. Worshipping with these leaves is capable of rendering growth and health to the descendents (sons and daughters). Usira, hribera and such other materials belonging to the group of roots are of the nature of yielding auspicious benefits.
Baka-flower is considered to be more significant than one thousand arka-flowers. Sami-flower is more significant than one thousand baka-flowers. Of all the varieties of flowers, the honored nilotpala is the most superior. Jati-flower, vijaya-flower and patali-flower are considered to be equal to karavira- flower. The white mandara-flower and and satapatra-flower are also equal to karavira. Naga-flower, campaka and punnaga are considered to be equal to dhuttura-flower.
The flowers of ketaki, atimukta, yuthi, navamallika, sirisha, sarja and bandhuka should be abandoned; the leaves and flowers of ankola and the leaves of the asvattha tree (nrupa taru) should be neglected. Similarly, those leaves and flowers which cause a sense of fear and aversion should be abandoned. Flowers which are without fragrance and which are with the smell of high intensity should be neglected. The impure flowers should be abandoned, even though they may be with agreeable smell. Flowers and other materials which are pure should be accepted for the worship, even though they may be without smell.
The flowers of kanaka and kadamba should be offered to Lord Sankara, in the night. In the daytime, all flowers may be offered to Him. Both in the daytime and in the night-time, mallika-flowers may be offered to Him. Jati-flower may be offered to Him in the midnight. Karavira-flower may be offered, both in the daytime and the night-time.
Flowers rendered to be unsuitable by hairs, worms and insects, which have withered and dried, the flowers which have fallen on the ground of their own accord and the flowers which have become damaged should be abandoned. The sadhaka should never worship the Linga with the buds; never offer the foods which have not been cooked well.
If suitable flowers are not available here, he may worship with the leaves; if even the leaves are not available, he may worship at least with fruits; even if fruits are not available, he may worship with grass, leaves of bushes, herbs and such other things. Even if the herbs and others are not available, he can simply worship the Lord mentally, being with devoted heart.
Flower made of gold yields the fruit which is ten times greater than the fruit granted by each flower mentioned before. Flower made of each gem of the nine gems, diamond others, will yield fruit which is ten times greater than the fruit given by the gold flower. If the flowers mentioned earlier are offered after making them as garlands, the sadhaka would derive the fruit which is twice the fruit attainable with those flowers.
The sadhaka should worship the Lord with the flowers collected from his own garden or with the flowers blossomed in the forest. He should not worship with the flowers and other materials bought for money.
One part of black-sandal (agaru), two parts of niryasa, three parts of candana slightly mixed with camphor- the incense got by the mixture of all these ingredients and sprinkled with honey drops is called ‘sitari’. One part of nakha (a kind of perfume), two parts of sandal, three parts of payasa (exudation from the devadaru tree), four parts of turushka and five parts of samhita – if these ingredients taken in this order are mixed together and sprinkled with honey, the incense produced by the mixture is also known as ‘sitari’. (sitari is considered to be of the foremost variety of incense)
Or, turushka, karpura, nagara, agaru, candana, mura, mamsi and sita may be mixed together and sprinkled with honey. Such incense may be offered to the Lord. Usira and candana may be mixed together and sprinkled with honey. Such mixture of incense is of medium variety and it is a favorite incense to Siva. Guggulu mixed with ghee is considered to be the incense of lower variety. Or, agaru alone or mahishakshi alone may be used for the sake incense.
In the inferior kind the of the lower variety, the number of lamps should be from one to ten. The lamps may be from 100 to 1000; from 10,000 to 1,00,000; from one million to ten millions; from ten thousand to one hundred million. The number of lamps should be ascertained based on these varieties. Twice this ascertained number should be in the night. All the lamps should be shedding light without getting extinguished. The number of the lamps may be half or half of the half of aforementioned number. Thus the details about the number of lamps and others have been told.
The lamp lighted with the ghee got from the tawny colored cow is said to be ‘sattvika’; lighted with the sesame-oil mixed with the clarified butter got from the she-goat is considered to be ‘rajasa’. The flame of the lamp may be with a height of one, two or three angulas corresponding to the inferior, medium and superior types respectively. The lamp lighted with the clarified butter got from buffalo is considered as ‘tamasa’. The lamp lighted with the oil got from seeds of trees is considered as ‘paisaca’. Tamasa and paisaca lamps are considered to be unsuitable for the worship.
Many directions for the preparation of havis and for the nice preparation of naivedya are there to be explained. The fire-ritual, substances needed for its completion, bhuta-bali, daily festival – all of these should be understood according to the directions given for the daily worship. I will speak about the dance to be performed by male (tandava) along with the features of the dance to be performed by female (nrutta) and with features of the songs set to music, in the chapter dealing with tandava. Different kinds of tandava will also be made known there.
A person who holds his body for the sake of enlightenment and performs the worship of Siva with utmost diligence according to the direction given here for the worship and its essential aspects attains the greatness of being eulogized in all the three worlds by the supreme celestial beings; he illumines all the directions with the effulgence of his own lordship; he evolves to be in the form of the bliss of consciousness; becomes firmly established in the exalted state; gets liberated from the bonds of anava, karma and maya which are the source of the cyclic phenomenon of creation and destruction of all the worlds and finally reaches the eternal abode of Siva propelled by his due merit.
This is end of the 5th chapter titled “On the essential Aspects of Worship” in the kriya-section of the Great Tantra called Kamika
Chapter Ten: Examining the Omens (17 verses)
Having first examined and ascertained the auspiciousness of time, the Acharya should proceed to do the intended auspicious activities. Having observed the omens, prognostic visions and such other indications, he should commence the proposed works. The knower of vastu, Guru, Silpi, Daivajna and the Yajamana (Master) should be pure and attired with white dress and adorn themselves well with ornaments. Having meditated on Lord Sadasiva, they should look for the appearance of omens and prognostic birds when they are to travel, when they are to come out of the house, and when they are to enter the site in which they have planned to construct house or temple.
Two learned person or brahmins, house-wife with her son or daughter, sturdy man, lady well adorned with ornaments, lady coming with her son, delighted lady – these persons are considered to be specifically good to indicate auspicious omens. A charming and beautiful woman, pregnant woman, virgin, playing children – indicate specially auspicious omens. Eatable things, varieties of food, drinkable items, meat, light, fragrant substances such as sandal, garlands and others, ghee, curd, srivatsa, purna kumbha, conch, gorocana, mirror, flag, milk and other items which are held to be excellent – indicate auspicious omens, if they are viewed while setting out.
Mouse, fox, lizard, hog in reddish-brown color, cuckoo – if these go from left to right on the commencement of travel and of all kinds of auspicious activities, such incidence is considered to indicate auspiciousness. Birds which arrive in short time, which are living near the rivers, which come from a distant place, which go to a very long distant place and which have taken shelter in the houses of rich people, palace, temple, auspicious places and charming locations and which have their nestles in the trees which are yielding sweet juice, white sap, fruits and flowers are very good in indicating the auspiciousness of the forthcoming event.
In view of auspiciousness, one should not have the vision of forest-cow within a village; should not have the vision of village-cow in the forest. In the night, one should not have the vision of those which are roaming in the daytime; in the daytime, one should not have the vision of those which are roaming in the night. Vision of two animals (of same category) is taken to indicate auspiciousness. Vision of raven which is desirous of all things to eat, of the birds which have come after crossing the river and which are excited with joy should never be taken as indicative of auspiciousness. Sneezing is inauspicious, everywhere. Sneezing of cow is indicative of impending death. Vision of molasses, bones, black grains, cotton, container of charcoal and firewood would yield unbearable misery. Vision of shoe-maker or a worker in leather, of the one whose head is with loosened hair, of the one who has become exceedingly fatigued due to hungry, one with a shaven head, of the one who is in dirty clothes and presents a despicable appearance, atheist and unclothed would certainly give distress and unpleasant result. Vision of the one who is crying loudly and the one who is shedding tears, vision of the incident of strife – would yield distress and agony. Vision of pig, buffalo, camel and such other animals also would yield inauspicious result.
If the omens indicate adverse effects, the Guru should abandon all the intended activities. The learned Acharya belonging to one of the five gocaras should look for the omen once, twice and thrice and if the omens observed three times are of the nature of yielding defective results, he should relinquish the proposed activity.
This is the end of the 10th chapter titled “Examining the Omens” in the Great Tantra called Kamika
Chapter Twenty-Six: Directions for Allocation of Appropriate Places for the Deities in Villages and Other Settlements (41 verses)
Now I will speak on the appropriate location for the Deities to be allocated in the villages, towns and such others according to the system maintained traditionally from the remote past. The location for Vis”n.u is the north-east of brahma-stha’na.
In the west, on the north side of the east-west line (brahma sutra), location for the temple of Siva is to be allocated. The temple of Siva may be in the middle of the village or in the north-east or in all the eight directions of the village.
The village in which temples for both Vis”n.u and S’iva have been built is the place of celebrity and auspiciousness. The village which has Siva temple alone is with much divinity and uniqueness. The location for all other Deities could be allocated from the places recommended in the Agamas as desired by the devotees and the experts. Such places are now being told in this Agama.
The location for the shrine of Sun should be in the west or east or between the east and the north-east. The same places are recommended for the shrine of Indra also.
The location for the shrine of S”an.mukha (Skanda) should be in the west or east. South, south-east, south-west, the grid of Sugri’va, the grid of Varun.a – in any one of these directions and places, the location for the shrine of Skanda may be allocated.
The location for the shrine of S’a’sta should be in the west or south-west or east. In this Agama it is maintained that the location for the shrine of Gan.es’a should be in the west or south-west or between the north-west and the north. Or, the location for Gan.es’a may be in other directions also.
The location for the Goddess Durga is said to be in the south or south-west or north-west; it may also be in between the east and the north-east or between the south and the south-west. O, the Sages deeply devoted to Lord S’iva, the location for the shrine of Sarasvati is to be in the west.
The shrine for the Saptama’tr’ka’s (Seven Mother Goddesses) is to be in the north-east or north or in between the north-east and the north. The location for the shrine of the Goddess Mot’ika (a form of Ka’li) is to be in the south-east. The same location is recommended for the shrine of Ka’madeva (Manmatha).
The Goddess Jyes”t”ha’ is to be installed near the bank of the temple tank; or, may be installed in some other place outside the temple. The location allocated for Skanda is also applicable to Kamadeva and Su’rya (Sun).
The location recommended for the Saptama’tr’kas is also applicable to Skanda. For all other Deities who are not mentioned here, the location may be allocated as desired by the experts. In a village where more than 1000 brahmins live, there may be a temple for Vis”n.u at the center of that village. With regard to the village specifically dedicated to the worship of S’iva, the exact rules and regulations for the rituals such as installation and so forth could not be ascertained by the Scriptures other than the S’aiva’gamas.
The daily worship of Vis”n.u creates the welfare and healthy growth of the people. The daily worship of Su’rya (Sun) nullifies the unfavorable effects inflicted by the planets. The worship of Indra bestows valor and efficacy upon the people.
The daily worship of Subrahman.ya (Skanda) will bring into effect all the best things to the youngsters. The worship of S’a’sta inspires and impels the people of the village to accomplish the works undertaken by them.
The worship of Ka’madeva bestows elegance and gracefulness to all those who are living in the village or city. The worship of Uma’ (S’ivas’akti) appreciably bestows commendable success in all the endeavors.
If Mot’i’ (a form of Ka’li S’akti) is duly worshipped, She becomes favorably disposed to ward off the diseases which afflict the children. By the worship of Lord Gan.es’a all the works undertaken by the people get accomplished without any impediment.
The worship of Jyes”t”ha (Sister of Goddess Laks”mi) enables Her to be favorably disposes to ward off the diseases which afflict the people of the village. The worship of Laks”mi bestows riches and wealth upon the people. It also drives away misfortunes and poverty.
The worship of Sarasvati constantly bestows eloquence and command of language. O, the twice-born Sages!, the worship of Saptama’tr’kas (Seven Mother Goddesses) continuously yields all prosperities and success.
Lord Mahesvara (S’iva) abundantly bestows all those auspicious benefits which are obtainable by the worship of all other Deities. Therefore Lord S’iva is to be worshipped daily by all those who are desirous of auspicious and eternal benefits.
It is well declared that S’ivalin’ga installed in the north-east of the village is of the foremost type and most favorable. O, the twice-born Sages!, S’ivalin’ga installed in other directions is of intermediary type.
It is well declared here that the Vis”n.u temple located in the central space (brahma tha’na) of the village is of foremost kind. It is to be known that the Vis”n.u temple located in the west is of intermediary type. Vis”n.u temple located in other places is of lower type.
The divine forms of S’iva and Vis”n.u are of two kinds. They are the subduing forms (ugra mu’rti) and the sublime forms (s’a’nta mu’rti). Of these two, the subduing forms are much intent on doing fierce activities to control the evil forces.
The benign forms are much intent on doing gentle activities to benefit the devotees. The fierce forms of Vis”n.u and S’iva are to be installed outside the village or city. Their benign forms are to be installed in the middle of the village. This rule is applicable to all types of villages and cities.
The subduing forms of Lord S’iva are Gaja’nataka, Ka’madahana, Tripura’ntaka, Ka’la’ntaka and such others. All other forms of S’iva are known as the benign forms.
The subduing forms of Vis”n.u who once appeared as reposing on the leaf of fig tree are Vis’varu’pa, Nr’simha and Parasura’ma.
The fierce forms of S’iva and Vis”n.u are to be installed in the outskirts of the villages and cities. They may be installed in the forest and such other places. The effect of installing the fierce forms is now told.
If it is installed in the east side, destruction of village will occur. If installed in the south-east, the character and activities of women living in the village will become corrupted. If installed in the south, much destruction will be brought by the evil groups of pretas (evil spirits having a hold on corpses) and asuras.
Installation of fierce forms in the south-west direction will result in decay and death by diseases. If installed in the western side, people will be engrossed in grief. If installed in the north-west, life-system will be affected by insurmountable difficulties. If installed in the north, nation-wide calamity and distress will occur.
Installation of such subduing forms in the north-east direction will yield all sorts of prosperity. It bestows healthy growth and longevity to the descendents such as sons and grandsons. These points are to be held in mind while installing the fierce forms in a village. Same directions are applicable to other places also.
Fierce forms may be installed very near the defensive wall built along the village boundary in all the eight directions. Such frightful forms are not to be installed in the interior of the village. This rule is to be strictly observed. If a frightful form is installed even in the recommended locations of villages and other places, the foremost Priest should install a benign form in front of that fierce form. Or, a tank may be constructed in front of the installed frightful form. By doing so, the violent force of that form gets appeased.
Except the agraha’ra type of village, in all other places such as stha’ni’ya and other types of villages, the temple of S’iva may be built in all the four directions form east. Or it may even be built in the north-west or the north-east. Alternately, it may be built in the grid of S’es”a or Parjanya or Jayantaka.
While installing a benign form in front of the fierce form, care should be taken with regard to the charming look of that benign form. The eyes of that benign form should be rendered gracious and beautiful. Such grace-yielding look of the benign form is productive of abounding wealth and prosperity. Generally it is held that the elegant look of the divine forms is efficacious in bestowing all the comforts of this world and of the heavens.
In the shrine of the fierce form, the corresponding benign form may be installed at a distance of one by sixteenth, one fourth, half or three fourth of a rod from the fierce form. Alternatively, it may be installed at a distance of one rod to fifteen rods from the fierce form. Thus the process of installation of fierce form and its benefits
have been explained.
Now the benefits of installing the benign forms is explained. S’ivalin’ga installed in the central space (brahma stha’na) will bestow virtuousness and fortunes upon the brahmins and ks”atriyas (administrating community).
Lin’ga installed in the east will yield all the benefits and comforts; installed in the south will give constant growth and longevity; installed in the west will give healthy life; installed in the north will give wealth and prosperity.
Lin’ga installed in the south-east will yield the blissful state of well-being; installed in the south-west will bestow success; installed in the north-west will give prosperity in every kind; installed in the north-east will bestow all those which are essentially needed for a comfortable life.
Similarly, the benefits of installing the Lin’ga or any other benign form in all directions of the inner enclosure of S’iva temple is now told. If S’ivalin’ga is installed in the north, north-east, between the north and the north-east or between the east and the north-east, there will be increasing growth for the villages and such other places. The king and the kingdom will be much benefitted. Auspiciousness in every phase of life, health and longevity will be bestowed upon the people. There is no doubt about this.
This is end of the 26th chapter titled “Directions for Allocation of Appropriate Places for the Deities in Villages and Other Settlements” in the Kriya Section of the Great Tantra called Kamika
Chapter Sixty-Two: Characteristics of Sivalinga (75 verses)
O, the excellent Sages among the twice-borns!, now I will tell you the characteristics of Sivalinga which gets shaped from the clay, wood, stone, metal, precious gems, ba’na-stone and others. Listen to these.
Sivalinga made of clay is of two kinds – baked and unbaked. The baked Sivalinga is worshipped in the rituals meant for malevolent purposes. Such Sivalinga should be with a height of more than 2 hastas. Having collected the clay available in white and other colors, the Guru should mix it and purify it with milk, oil, flour of barley and wheat, powdered bark of the latex trees, creamy curd, fragrant materials and knead it. Then he should add sriveshtaka, sarjarasa, guggulu, sarkara, five kinds of wax and other well-known substances to the kneaded clay. The Guru should take sufficient quantity of clay, its quantity being equal to the mixed materials and design the form of Sivalinga.
The Guru should collect the materials needed for the making of Sivalinga from the mountain, fields near the mountains, forest, gardens, river bank, trees, stony area and such others.
Those stones which are with pleasant colors, compact and sturdy, shining and smooth, gone deep into the earth amidst the mountain clusters, which remain under the river currents being their dirt washed away and purified, which remain concealed by the shades of the auspicious trees, which are settled in the sacred waters and monasteries, which are with excessive width and breadth, which are in red, whitish yellow, pure white and black colors which are pleasant and captivative to the mind and which are youthful and mature – are considered to yield upliftment and prosperity. Only such stones should be procured for making the images.
Those stones which remain deformed by the heavy winds and sunshine, very light, lying under saline water, which have already been used for some other purposes, extremely impaired, which are collected and brought by the people of the least caste (candalas), which are in the open space near the rivers and mountains, which are rough surfaced and which are aged and much immature should be avoided. Trees which are with same characters also should be avoided.
Kha’dira, candana, sa’la, madhuka, sarala, asana, bilva, kadamba, khadira, deavadaru, simsupa, panasa, arjuna, asoka, kshiravrukshas, rakta candana – these are the trees fit for the making of images. Such trees should be with shining colors, with large and abundantly grown branches, should be of the nature of yielding auspicious benefits and should have grown in auspicious places. The collection of materials for making of the images should be done in such a specific way as told here.
To obtain the lower most height of these, six angulas should be reduced from each of these maximum heights. The intermediate height is obtained by dividing the difference between these maximum and minimum. If not possible in this way, the intermediate height could be obtained by reducing one angula from such maximum height.
In a temple with a width of 100 or 90 hastas, the height of the linga equal to the width of the main shrine is considered to be of lower level. Height which is equal to half this width is of medium level. Height which is equal to one out of fifteen parts of this width is of superior level. Apart from these, nine kinds of height of the linga could be obtained by dividing the difference between the superior height and the lower height.
O, the foremost among the twice-borns!, with regard to the superior level, if one fourth is gradually reduced from the highest measure, 33 levels of height could be obtained for the height of the linga.
Or the proportionate heights of the linga with reference to the width of main shrine are set forth in a different way. The lowermost level is the total width of the main shrine. Three quarters of this total width is of superior level. As before, by dividing the difference between the superior height and the lowermost height into eight equal parts, the height of medium could be obtained in 33 levels. For the purpose of setting right the ayadi factors, the total height should be divided by ‘manangula’ units.
Or, even one part of the total height may be divided by manangula unit. Now the process of setting right the correctness of ayadi factors is told. The total height should be divided into 100 equal parts and one part may be added by Guru to the existing height, if needed. The process of dealing with six factors, aya and others, for the attainment of auspicious benefits has been already explained well while speaking on ‘bhumilamba’ (chapter 50). Here it is not fully
explained due to concern for the excessive elaboration.
O, the twice-born Sages!, if the height of the linga is divided into 16 equal parts, 4 parts are for the bottom, 5 parts are for the middle portion and 6 parts are for the upper portion. The entire height consists of three parts known as brahma bhaga, vishnu bhaga and rudra bhaga. (The remaining one part is for the moulding of the top). This kind of arrangement of the parts is applicable to ‘Suredya linga’ and ‘Ana’dhya linga’. Apart from these, there are ‘A’dhya linga’ and ‘Sarvasama linga’ adored as of having special features.
If the difference between the superior height and the lower height is divided into eight equal parts, each mode of height gets differentiated into nine kinds. If the total height of the linga is divided into 24 equal parts, the height of the brahma bhaga, vishnu bhaga and rudra bhaga are 7, 8 and 9 respectively. The characteristics of such linga are common for all types of lingas.
The Guru (sthapati) should design ‘Samakhanda linga’, ‘Vardhamana linga’, ‘Saivadhikya linga’ and ‘Tribhagika linga’ as applicable to all the four castes, brahmins and others, respectively.
The Vardhamana linga and Saivadhikya linga are suitable for all the four castes. If the total height of the linga is divided into three equal parts, then one part is for the brahma bhaga and one part is for the vishnu bhaga and similarly one part is for the rudra bhaga. Since all the parts are with the same height of one part, it is called ‘Samakhanda linga’.
If the total height of the linga is held to be of 4, 5 and 6 units, then the three portions of the linga take 5, 6 and 7 parts respectively. If it is held to be 6, 7 and 8 units, the three portions take 7, 8 and 9 parts respectively. Since the height gets increased according to the basic units. it is called ‘Vardhaman linga’. This is suitable to the first three castes brahmins and others, in due order.
If the height of the three portions of linga is of 7, 7 and 8 parts, then 5, 5 and 6 units are to be added to each part. If the height is of 4, 4 and 5 parts, then 3, 3 and 4 units are to added to each part. Since the rudra bhaga is with excessive height in each case, it is called ‘Sivadhikya linga’. This is suitable for the first three castes, brahmins and others.
Having divided the total height of the linga into 9 equal parts, 3, 3 and 3 parts are to be given for rudra bhaga, vishmnu bhaga and brahma bhaga respectively. The circumference of the linga shaft is 6, 7 and 9 in the same order. The linga portion is round, eight sided and four sided at the top, middle and the bottom respectively. Such type of linga is called ‘Trairasika linga’. Now the characteristics of Svastika linga are told.
Of the nine parts of the height of the linga, 2 parts are for the square brahma bhaga, 3 parts are for the eight sided vishnu bhaga and 4 parts are for the cylindrical rudra bhaga. This kind of Svastika linga is particularly recommended for the agricultural people (sudras).
A’dhya linga, Ana’dhya linga, Suredya linga, Dhara linga and Sahasra linga – all these types of Sivalingas are common for all the four castes, brahmins and others.
Sivalinga whose linga-shaft is square from top to bottom is known as Eka Dhara Linga. Keeping the brahma bhaga in the form of square and the vishnu bhaga as eight sided, the facets of the rudra bhaga may be increased from 8 to 100 facets. Such lingas are known as Dhara lingas. Now the features of Sahasra linga are told.
In the Samakhanda linga, the rudra bhaga should be divided into 11 equal parts. Then each part should be divided (horizontally) into 91 equal parts. Again, each part of the horizontal stretch should be designed so as to appear like a linga, making its rudra bhaga to occupy one division. This Siva linga would appear with 1001 lingas in its rudra bhaga.
Then, I will explain the features of ‘mukha linga’ (linga having faces in the rudra bhaga) which is capable of bestowing the worldly enjoyments as well as the fruit of liberation. There are four-faced linga, three-faced linga and one faced linga. If the height of the rudra bhaga is divided into two parts, the face should be designed leaving out 3 parts downwards from the top.
O, the learned Sages!, the designing of forehead, nose, mouth, chin, lips, neck and shoulders in the rudra bhaga is now told.
Having divided the height of the linga into 16 parts, the sthapati should arrange for the projection of four faces around the circumference of the rudra bhaga. The remaining part should be rendered in the form of linga conforming to the vishnu bhaga. The neck is considered to have gone four angulas inside, coinciding with the knee-part of the vishnu bhaga.
It should have the length proportionate to these parts. Other parts should be designed in the way as explained for sculpting of the images. The iconometric system of six-span (shat tala) should be divided into 9 equal units and more, in four different ways. For the projection of faces on the four sides, he should design a band around the rudra bhaga. He should hold the width to be of six and three-fourth units.
For the designing of three-faced linga, the height of rudra bhaga should be divided into 6 equal parts. The arms and shoulders should be with a measure of one and a half parts; the neck should be set with a measure of two parts and eighteen digits; crown should be set with a measure of two parts. The remaining portion should be divided into four equal parts with units of angulas. Head, forehead, nose, mouth and chin should be with a measure of one part each. The crown should be designed conforming to the thickness of the vishnu bhaga. The projection of each face should be with a measure of eight units (matras).
For the designing of one face, the height of rudra bhaga should be divided into three equal parts. The length of the face should be one and a half parts. Crown should be one part. If the remaining portion is divided into two parts, the Guru should design the neck and shoulders in proportion to these parts. The projection of the face should be with a measure of nine units (matras). For the linga whose height is held to be of 108 parts, then the measure of each part may be taken as the reference unit.
Then I will explain the process of rounding off the top portion of the linga. Such rounding is done in many different ways. There are four types of the rounded appearance of the linga. They are: Pundarika, Visalakhya, Srivatsa and Satrumardana. The top portion of the linga should be divided into four equal parts. By increasing one part successively, the proportionate measures of Pundarika, Visalkhya, Srivatsa and Satrumardana are obtained. Such different roundings are meant for the attainment of different fruits.
Through the worship of Pundarika, celebrity is achieved. Through the worship of Visalakhya, abundant wealth is achieved. Through the worship of Srivatsa, the devotee gains all those as desired by him. Through the worship of Satrumardana, victory is achieved.
For the Sivalinga, rounded head in the form of hen’s egg is designed by chiselling round one part of the top. The worship of such Sivalinga (having its top in the form of hen’s egg) capable of increasing and preserving the population. Brahma, the creator God attained the skill of creating the embodied souls through the worship of such linga.
By chiselling round three parts of the top portion, the head of the Sivalinga assumes ardhacandra form comparable to half moon. Through the worship of such linga, longevity is gained. Being in this world for a very long time, the worshipper gets blessed with auspicious and supreme wealth and fortunes.
By chiselling round six parts of the top portion, the head of Sivalinga is rendered to be in the form of cucumber. By worshipping such linga, various groups of demi-gods such as Sadhyas, Siddhas, Maruths and others attained supreme powers and supreme state.
The process of rounding off the top of linga is now told in a different way. The perimeter of the rudra bhaga should be divided into eight parts. By chiselling round the top by one and a half of these eight parts, a parasol-like top gets formed (chatra sirsha). By dividing the perimeter into six equal parts and chiselling the top by two and a half parts of these six parts, a cucumber-like top gets formed. By chiselling round the top by half of the diameter of rudra bhaga, the top of the linga is rendered to look like hen’s egg. By chiselling round the top by one third of the diameter of rudra bhaga, the top of the linga is rendered to look like the halfmoon. By dividing the diameter of rudra bhaga into eight equal parts and by chiselling round the top by three and a half parts of these eight parts, a bubble-like top of the linga is formed. These variously shaped tops of all types of lingas have been accepted and applied by the experts from a very long time.
The Sivalinga rendered very accurately with the application of aya and other factors which give auspiciousness to the product is capable of accomplishing all those desired by the worshippers. If aya and other factors are not auspicious for the linga, the worship of such linga will yield inauspicious results. Therefore, some additional units are to be added to the measures obtained, for the sake of auspiciousness.
For the linga of one hasta height, a maximum of one digit (angula) may be added (after calculating the aya and others). For the linga of two and three hastas height, a maximum of three digits may be added. For the linga of four hastas height, a maximum of five digits may be added. For the linga having a height of five, six or seven hastas, a maximum of seven digits may be added.
For the linga having a height of eight or nine hastas, a maximum of nine digits may be added. In the portion meant for the rounded top, one part out of four parts or one part out of six parts may be added. One digit, two digits and three digits may added to the brahma bhaga, vishnu bhaga and rudra bhaga respectively. Above the portion meant for the ceremonial worship (rudra bhaga), three parts may be added to the top portion
Such addition of units could be done to the height of the linga. If six digits are to be added, one digit is to be added to the brahma bhaga, two digits are to be added to the vishnu bhaga and three digits are to be added to the rudra bhaga. O, the foremost among the twice-born Sages!, the additional unit could be added to the proportions of the top alone, if needed.
At the level where the rudra bhaga and top portion meet together, keeping the two sides of the rudra bhaga as base, the Guru should draw two circles, their diameter being equal to the height of the top. With the same diameter, he should draw the third circle on the center of the top. By the conjunction of these three circles, there occur two fish-like designs. Lines are to be drawn from the face and tail of these fishes. The rounding should commence from the points where these lines joins the level where the rudra bhaga and the top portion meet. Such rounding off would be perfect.
The head portion is considered to be of two kinds from the perspectives of caste and image. For the brahmins, Sivalinga whose rounded top is in the form of parasol is suitable. For the administrators and warriors (kshatriyas), Sivalinga whose rounded top is in the form of hen’s egg is suitable. For the traders, Sivalinga whose rounded top is in the form of half moon is suitable. For the agricultural people, Sivalinga whose rounded top is in the form of cucumber is suitable. Sivalinga whose rounded top is in the form of another type of half moon belongs to the second category, linga bheda.
If the diameter of the linga is divided into 16 equal parts, the parasol-like top could be rendered in four different ways, as occupying one part, two parts, three parts and four parts. The first type of parasol, occupying one part, is fit for Samakhanda linga. The third type of parasol, occupying 3 parts, is suitable for the Saivadhikya linga. The fourth type of parasol, occupying 4 parts is suitable for the Vardhamana linga. The combination of one type of parasol with a linga which is not recommended for that would give inauspicious results and misfortunes.
O, the twice-born Sages!, for the self generated Sivalinga, such characteristics are not applicable. But, for the divisions as to its varieties and parts, the directions given in the authentic and well established statements of the enlightened Sages should be taken into consideration. The Sivalinga associated with all kinds of auspicious characteristics will accomplish all the desired fruits.
This is the end of the 62nd chapter titled “Characteristics of Sivalinga” in the Great Tantra called Kamika
Chapter Sixty-Seven: Exact Locations for the Installation of Various Deities (32 verses)
O, the supreme Sages!, now I will tell the exact locations for the installation of various Deities. Such location may be in the village, city (in the interior land), pattana (city, situated near the sea shore), capital city and such others, banks of sacred rivers, temples already constructed, sea shore, vicinity of dams, banks of large tanks, the vicinity of the confluence of rivers. the vicinity of a place frequented by the people of all castes, flower garden or a place sanctified by the saints. In such locations, either the image characterized by nishkala aspect or the image characterized by sakala aspect may be installed.
Images made of granite, metals. woods, gems, clay or stucco, half-relief images, semblance-images (pictures), images associated with suitable base – should be installed by the learned Acharya according to the divisions such as brahma bhaga, daivika and others.
The interior of the main shrine (garbha gruha) should be reticulated into 5×5 rows. Increasing the number of the rows by one each time, the maximum number of rows may be up to 32×32. The central area covered by one row, two or three rows should be taken for the brahma pada. The rows lying outside the brahma pada belong to the daivika pada. The rows lying outside the daivika pada belong to the arsha pada. In the same way, manusha pada and paisacika pada should be identified. Sich padas should also be identified within the brahma bhaga (main shrine) of the temple.
Such divisions as to brhama pada, daivika pada and others should be identified in the entire area of the village and other settlements. The nishkala-image should be installed in the brahma bhaga. Images belonging to the sakala type should be installed in the daivika pada. At the entrance point of the villages and other settlements, where such divisions have been identified, the manusha-linga may be installed in the lengthy side of the brahma pada. Under some circumstances, images of sakta-linga may be installed.
Even in the paisacika pada lying outside the manusha pada occupying the bordering rows, images associated with fully exposed limbs may be installed. Images of rakshas, gandharvas, yakshas and others, images belonging to the group of paisacas, images associated with fully manifest features of the form of Deity may be installed.
It is recommended that the dwellings of brahmins may be located in the manusha pada or the paisaca pada. In all the four corners, north-east and others, edifice meant for public utility may be located. Or, the brahma bhaga should be divided into four equal parts. In the north-east quarter, edifice for public utility should be built. In the south-east corner, a tank should be constructed so as to be associated with cow-stable and well. The south-west may be allocated for market pace. It may be associated with a temple. In the north-west, temple for Skanda should be constructed. If this order of allocation is not maintained and a different order is followed, the village will be affected by disasters.
In a small village of insignificant area, such divisions as brahma bhaga and others are not desirable. The whole area may be allocated for the dwellings of brahmins or such dwellings may be restricted to the north-east. The temple for Vishnu should be in the west. Or, this may be allocated for the temple of both Vishnu and Siva. O, the foremost twice-born Sages!, the minimum number of rows (of vastu mandala) for the construction is 5×5. The number of rows may be increased so as to reach the maximum number of 32×32. The paisacika pada extends gradually up to 1024 grids.
Shrines for Surya, Skanda, Ganesa, Durga and other Deities should be located according to the orderly presence of Vastu Devatas. In the rows belonging to the paisacika pada, shrines for Moti, Kama Deva and Sapta Matrus should be built. Shrine for Sapta Devas may be given importance, without building shrines for Moti and Sasta.
In a village where more than 1000 brahmins live, edifice meant for the public utility may be built in the brahma pada and other adjacent belts. If the number of brahmins is very much less, then the construction of elongated, small four-pillared hall, courtyard and other such buildings should be left out. In a village where the number of brahmins extends up to 1000, shrines for Gauri and Laksmi may be constructed. The shrines for Brahma, Kubera, Candra, and Kamadeva should be in the interior sections. The shrines for Kshetrapala, Jyestha and other Deities mentioned earlier should be in the exterior sections. In a village where more than 2000 brahmins live, construction of the shrines for all the prominent Deities who grant all the desired fruits is highly recommended.
In these sections, shrines for other Deities, not mentioned here, may also be constructed. In the brahma bhaga and other sections, temples for Siva, Gauri, Vinayaka and Skanda may be built. The shrine of Sasta may be built in the interior or exterior grid-belts. Shrines for the Deities belonging to the Rudra Gana should be in the exterior sections. These Deities installed in a settlement remain pleased and favorably disposed, if the application of the chosen vastu-mandala has been performed carefully prior to the installation.
Either in the locations mentioned before or in other locations, these Deities do not become occupants of the shrines, if such shrines are built in the area, not identified according to the vastu-mandala. Therefore, apart from the installation of the Deities, there is a separate and specific activity known as the‘vastu nyasa’ (accurate application of the selected vastu-mandala). Therefore, creating the vibrant presence of the vastu-deities is very much essential. This ritual should be performed with all efforts and care. The Deities belonging to Rudra Gana should be invoked subsequently and the Acharya should see that auspiciousness is effected in all respects.
The locations prescribed for the ascetics should be left out, as it is done in the case of construction of the temples. The ‘vastu-vinyasa’ should be carried out, adhering carefully to the uninterrupted traditional process and analysing the consummate benefits. The process of vastu-vinyasa and other related activities have been already explained. But, even now it is explained with additional specific details.
In the villages and other settlements, all the sections from the brahma pada to paisaca pada should be ascertained well. In such sections, the decrease or increase in the recommended rows of residential buildings, is permissible here. Either in the length or in the width, asymmetrical adjustments are not excluded. Either in the small street or in the small area of a larger settlement, there may be asymmetrical adjustments in the outer and the inner sections. Such adjustments should be mutual, in view of the exterior and interior arrangements. In the process of vastu-vinyasa, asymmetrical adjustments in the measurements are admissible.
In the same way, either in the manusha pada or in the temples, the six vulnerable points (marmasthana) need not be observed. They need not be excluded, as done before. Similarly, the six vulnerable points observable in the brahma pada and the daivika pada are not to
be considered as defective in this context. Therefore, these vulnerable points observable in the places mentioned here may be accepted; they are not negligible. Having accepted these, the Acharya should install the images of Siva and other Gods in the temples listed here, specifically taking into consideration the different types of linga such as nagara and others and the characteristics of different directions.
This is the end of the 67th Chapter “Locations for the Installation of Various Deities” in the Great Tantra called Kamika
Chapter Sixty-Eight: Directions for Installation of the Images (106 verses)
Now, I will explain briefly the process of installation of the images within the shrine. The installation is performed through a series of 22 activities. The first one is the collection and arranging of the required materials. Second is the structuring of the image. Then, construction of the pavilion. Next, fixing the gems. Opening of the eyes of the image, purification of the image, circumambulating the village, keeping the image immersed in water, decoration of the pavilion, fire-ritual related to the vastu deities, designing the couch, perfecting the image, tying up the protective thread, placing the image to be in recumbent pose on the couch, arranging the vessels (kumbhas), dedicating the image, doing the nyasa of the actual form of the Deity, offering the oblations, offering the ceremonial fees, the nyasa of the mantra, preparation of snapana and adoration – these are 22 activities prescribed for the installation. I will give the details of these activities, one by one.
When the images made of granite, clay, metal, wood, gems, minerals, stucco, painted image or the image depicted in thick cloth, image made of ivory are to be installed, the Acharya should take hold of the image to be installed through the prescribed ritual. The process of that ritual is now told. Upon the approach of auspicious time characterised by beneficial muhurta and lagna and conjoined with auspicious star and karana, the Acharya who has purified himself should sit near the place where the image is kept and worship the Lord on the raised platform (sthandila), invoke and worship the consecrated fire, offer necessary oblations into the fire and offer the balls of cooked rice (bali) to the guardian deities of the cosmic elements.
Having sprinkled the drops of consecrated water over the image and other objects with the accompaniment of astra mantra, he should wrap the image with a new cloth reciting the kavaca mantra and worship it. Having covered the tools such as hatchet and others with a cloth reciting the hrudaya mantra, he should sprinkle the honey and clarified butter over them and striking over the left palm three times, snap the fingers with the accompaniment of astra mantra. Getting the instruction from the Guru to do so, the Silpi should strike over his left palm three times and snap the fingers, as done by the Acharya.
First, the Acharya should consecrate those substances which are drenched and liquefied by sprinkling the consecrated water with the accompaniment of astra mantra. Having designed a raised platform in the sacrificial pavilion, he should place those objects over it. Having worshipped the tools with sandal, flowers and other such materials reciting the hrudaya mantra he should wrap them with a cloth with the accompaniment of astra mantra and hand them over to the Silpi. Through him, the Acharya should carry out the related works so as to render the image to be associated with good features.
During the time of the performance of the works concerned with the image, the Guru should be seated facing north and recite the mula mantra of the image concerned for 108 times. In the north side of the Guru, fire-ritual meant for alleviation should be performed. The chief patron should worship the Acharya and the Silpi, honoring them with gold and other valuables.
When the Acharya is about to cut the selected tree for getting the needed wood for making the image, he should worship that tree and recite these lines: “O, the Lord of the forest, you are here being resorted to by the celestial gods. You are the abode of Lakshmi.
Prostrations to you. Be pleased to shift your residence from this tree to some other tree which is associated with good features and charming to the mind”. Covering himself with upper garment, he should recite this mantra loudly and bid farewell to the Deity of the tree.
With the hatchet, slightly anointed with ghee, he should cut the tree, reciting the mantra of mrutyunjaya. If the severed branch falls in the south-west, east or north-east, it will yield all the desired fruits. If it falls in the south-east, it will lead to agony, death, grievous malady, chronic spleen enlargement and cause the residents to move out of the village. Assembling of the wood and other materials should be done in this way. The preparation of the image for installation should be carried out as explained before.
The features of the image have been told. Now, the designing of the pavilion is explained. In the four directions of the temple, in the front or in the sides of the temple, the pavilion may be constructed. Its width may be from 3 hastas to 15 hastas, increasing the width by one hasta each time. The pavilion should be designed in such a way that it appears as associated with all the features and lineaments. All other small details which are not told here should be observed as explained before.
Either nine fire-pits, five fire-pits or one fire-pit may be designed in the pavilion, as detailed earlier. All the fire-pits may be square or circular. Or, each fire-pit may be designed so as to be in the geometrical form suitable to each direction. For all the female Deities, the fire-pits should be in the form of vulva.
Having beautifully decorated the pavilion, he should design an altar in its middle. This altar may be provided with nine or five mouldings (bands) or one moulding. The Acharya should worship the altar with sandal, flowers and other materials. He should invoke adhara-sakti and ananta asana in the middle of the altar and worship them.
The directional deities should be worshipped in all the four sides, corresponding to the eight directions. Nine gems or five gems or one gem may be taken. Gems are manifold. Ruby, sapphire, beryl, coral, pearl, diamond, topaz, hessonite and emerald – these are the nine gems prescribed here. The five gems should be chosen from these nine gems. In the case of one gem, it may be ruby or diamond. This should be placed in the central square. Consecration of these gems is known as ‘mahavesa’.
These gems should be placed in the due order, starting from the middle and proceeding in clockwise direction to reach the north-east, with the accompaniment of the mantra pertaining to each. Then he should place the image over the gems arranged in the due order so that
it stands straight and motionless. If the image is made of granite, these gems and other items should be arranged according to the prescribed directions, during the time of installation. If the wooden frame of the image is to be installed, these gems should be arranged on the levelled stretch of clay. For other idols, the placing of gems may be avoided, specifically.
The eyes of the image should be opened in an auspicious day in which the lunar mansion is in conjunction with ‘two eyes’. The pavilion designed for this activity should be protected well from being seen by others, should be charming to look at with its interior ground being smeared with diluted cow-dung. It should be decorated with all kinds of beautifying materials and should be provided with concealing screen. There, the Acharya should design a raised platform (sthandila) with eight dronas of paddy grains. Sesame, unhusked rice, parched paddy, and such others should be used for the designing of the sthandila.
The foremost Acharya should place the image at the center of the sthandila in such a way that it faces east. Then, with gentle strokes of the needle made of gold and reciting the netra mantra, he should draw the right eye first and then the left eye. Thirdly, the eye located in the forehead should be drawn. Having drawn the three eyes, the Guru should worship them. First, the lines defining the eye-lids should be drawn. Then, the circles, defining the eye ball should be drawn. Then, having drawn the luminous spots, he should unfold the eyes of the image.
In the same way, the Silpi should open the eyes of the image with the needles made of diamond and gold. He should make the eyes to unfold by striking with a small hatchet on the spots identified with flowers. All other parts such as nose, ears, mouth, genital organ, anus and others should be exposed. Even for the images of retinue deities, ‘opening of the eyes’ should be done according to the directions set forth here. For the images belonging to the types of ‘citra’ and ‘abhasa’, the Guru should make the eyes unfold, using the colors applicable to each and using the pencil made of gold.
Having sent off the Silpi with due honors, the Acharya should design a sthandila in front of the image and place that at the center of the sthandila with the accompaniment of hrudaya mantra. He should place eight pots around the image. These pots should have been wound round with thread, closed with lid, covered with new cloth, filled up with consecrated water, furnished with a bunch of darbha-grass and tender leaves (of mango tree). These are meant for the eight guardians of the directions and these should be arranged with the accompaniment of mantra pertaining to each guardian-deity. Then, the Acharya should worship these directional deities. For the images of minor deities, eight pots need not be arranged. All other rituals should be performed for the images of these deities.
The foremost Acharya should effect the fullness of the event by offering the drops of honey and ghee consecrated with the hrudaya mantra or the netra mantra, by using durva-grass made of gold. Such ritual should be performed in the same way for the images made of metals, granite, wood and gems. For all other images, such tarpana (effecting of fullness) should be done. Wearing the nails made of gold on the index finger, the ring finger and the middle finger which represent sun, moon and fire respectively, the Acharya should do the nyasa of netra, reciting the seed mantra pertaining to each of these.
He should take up two saravaka-vessels (hollowed plates) made of gold, silver, copper or brass and fill them up with ghee and honey, each being in the measure of one prastha, half or quarter of a prastha. He should hold the ghee-filled saravaka and show it to the image, reciting the netra mantra. Then, he should hold the honey-filled saravaka and show it to the image, reciting the mruyunjaya mantra. The Acharya, who has known well the significance of such mantras should show them to other limbs of the image, reciting the hrudaya mantra.
Then, he should show the varieties of grains, reciting the mantras pertaining to the seeds of each variety of grain. The grains may be in the measure of one drona. The measure may be decreased up to one tenth of a drona, according to availability. Then, he should show the presence of learned brahmins, reciting the pavamana sukta. With the recital of same sukta, he should show the presence of maidens, well adorned with all kinds of ornaments.
Having removed the concealing screen, he should enable the assembled people to have the gracious vision of the image. Then he should purify the image with clay, sacred ash, cow-urine, cow-dung, five substances got from the cow which have been proportionately mixed and consecrated and with the juice of the barks of recommended trees. For the citra-image and mirror-image, he should perform tarpana (imparting fullness of event). Purification should be rendered to the image with turmeric powder, myrobalan fruit, flour of rice and such others. Then, he should adorn the image with new garment, sandal paste, garlands and the ornaments suitable for the image. Having rendered the image so as to be pleasant and charming with all kinds of ornamental things, he should arrange for the circumambulation of the village. Circumambulation of village may be dropped for the citra, abhasa and such other images. The circumambulation should be left out also for the image which is very large in size. Having circumambulated, the image should be brought near the bank of river or tank.
Having erected a thatched shed in the tank or river so as to be associated with four entrances, the Acharya should decorate it with rows of darbha-grass, garlands and others. Again, he should design a sthandila on the evenly-levelled ground near the bank of the tank or river and worship it with sandal, flowers and other materials. Having designed another sthandila in front of the previous one, he should place eight pots over it.
The Acharya should invoke the directional deities on the pots and worship them. He should worship the image adorned with ornaments of gold. Upon the completion of worship, he should remove all the ornaments and cover the image with a suitable cloth, reciting the kavaca mantra. Then, having placed a lamba-kurca designed with 32 darbhas of even length on the image, he should safely place the image so as to be recumbent on the wooden pedestal or wooden plank kept in the water.
Having placed eight pots in due order around the central image, the Acharya should invoke the sacred water of the holy Ganga river. The activity known as ‘jaladhivasa’ (keeping the image immersed in water) should be last for one to nine nights or for 4, 3, 2 or 1 yama. Such ‘jaladhivasa’ need not be done to citra-image or mirror-image.
Then, having covered the pavilion completely with a larger cloth and having decorated it so as to be charming, he should arrange for the feeding of 10 to 1000 brahmins. Then he should purify the interior of the pavilion and declare the auspiciousness of the chosen time and perform the fire-ritual related to vastu. Having come around the pavilion with a burning effigy of the evil force (paryagni karana), he should purify the area by sprinkling the drops of sivatirtha. Once again he should purify the interior and declare the auspiciousness of the chosen time. Then he should design a sthandila over the altar with 8, 4 or 2 dronas of paddy grains, sesame, parched paddy, darbhas, flowers and other substances.
Above the sthandila, he should design a couch making use of fine hairs got from skin and other materials, according to the prescribed order. For the citra-image and such others, couch should be designed in a place adjacent to the bottom of the image. Upon the approach of proper time, he should awaken the image reciting the tatpurusha mantra and worship it with sandal and other materials, reciting the hrudaya mantra. Having lifted the image from the water, he should carefully place it in the pit meant for the ceremonial bath.
Having removed the cloth, bunch of darbhas (kurca) and other things from the image, he should perform the snapana bath as explained earlier. Having covered the image with a new cloth, he should worship it with the accompaniment of hrudaya mantra and tie up the protective band of thread in the right hand, reciting the hrudaya mantra. For all the female Deities, the protective band may be tied up in the left hand or right hand.
Then he should place the pots (kumbhas) in an orderly way. Such pots should have been wound round with thread, covered with cloth, associated with gold coin or plate and bunch of darbhas. These should have been filled up with perfumed and consecrated water. They should be very pleasant to look at, beautified with coconut fruit and tender leaves. Having placed such pots around the central one, he should worship them with sandal, flowers and such other materials. Then, the Acharya should do the murti-nyasa, in a way similar to the nyasa prescribed for the installation of Sivalinga. Atma tattva, vidya tattva and siva tattva should be contemplated from the feet to the knee, knee to ears and ears to the head respectively.
After the nyasa, fire-ritual should be performed, according to the directions explained before. Palasa, udumbara, asvattha and vata – these are applicable to the fire-pits in the east, south, west and north respectively. Sami, apamarga, srivruksha and pippala – these are for the fire-pits in the south-east, south-west, north-west and north-east respectively. Palasa is for the primal fire- pit. Faggots, clarified butter, cooked rice, parched paddy, mustard, bamboo-rice, yava, priyangu, saali. mudga, masha, kulttha, honey, milk, molasses, flour, fruits, water – these are the substances recommended for oblations. Out of these, three, five, seven, nine, eleven, thirteen, fifteen or seventeen substances or all the substances may be offered as oblations.
In all the four main directions, oblations should be offered with the brahma mantras. In all the intermediary directions, oblations should be offered with the anga mantras – hrudaya mantra and others. In the principal fire-pit, oblations should be offered with the mula mantra associated with brahma mantras and anga mantras. If there are five fire-pits only, hrudaya mantra and other anga mantras are to be left out. If there is only one fire-pit, all the substances (dravyas) should be offered in that same fire-pit. Oblations should be offered 1000, 500, 100, 50, 25 or 10 times with the accompaniment of mula mantra. One tenth of the oblations done with the mula mantra should be offered with brahma mantras and anga mantras.
As done before, oblations should be offered with tattva mantras and tattvesvara mantras. At the end of dravya homa, oblations should be offered with vyahruti mantras. At the end of all kinds of oblations, consummate oblation (purna ahuti) should be offered. Oblations for effecting the direct contact with the image to be installed (sparsa ahuti) should be done as before and this should be followed by the sprinkling of the consecrated water contained in the santi kumbha. All those activities which have not been told here should be carried out as explained in the section dealing with the installation of Sivalinga.
The systematic recital of the Agamas should be done in the four main directions. The recital of samhita mantras and mula mantras should be done in the intermediary directions. The initiated priests should recite the Agamas, being seated in the north-east. There should be dance-offering associated with melodious songs, recital of hymns and auspicious statements of benediction.
Then, having spent the rest of the night, the Acharya should get up in the fresh and pure early morning and take bath along with the assisting priests (murtipas), as done before. Having rendered his body to be composed of mantras, he should enter the sacrificial pavilion. The Guru whose form is in total identity with the actual form of the Deity, should lift up the image and fix it to be east faced. Having removed the cloth, lamba kurca and other materials from the image, he should worship it with sandal and other substances, reciting the hrudaya mantra.
Then, the Acharya should worship the kumbhas (pots) and the consecrated fire in the fire-pits. Subsequently, he should offer oblations for the sake of expiation with the accompaniment of aghora astra mantra. Finally, he should offer the consummate oblation with the recital of the mula mantra of Siva terminating with ‘vaushat’. After this event, the chief patron should worship the Acharya and honor him by gifting new garments, gold ring and others. The sacrificial fees for him should commence from 5 nishkas, and increased by 5 nishkas for 9 times, reach up to 45 nishkas. Or if the patron is an indigent person, the fees should be from one nishka to five nishkas. Offering of the fees below one nishka should be averted. The sacrificial fees of the Acharya has been told. Such fees for the other officiating priests should be maintained as set forth earlier.
For all the images, installation should be performed within the duration of one muhurta (one and half hour). The Acharya should arrange for the carrying of sivakumbha along with vardhani (sakti kumbha). Being associated with the retinue pots which are provided with all kinds of decorations, the Acharya and the assisting priests should circumambulate the temple and place the kumbhas in front of the image.
The Acharya should collect the seeds from the sivakumbha and place them on the heart of the image. With the consecrated water of the same sivakumbha, he should perform the ceremonial bath for the Supreme Lord. Then, he should collect the seeds from the saktikumbha and place them on the pedestal of the image. If the image of Sakti is associated with the image of Siva, then he should place those seeds on the heart of Sakti image. If the image of Sakti is associated with a separate pedestal, then the Acharya should commence the process of installation separately.
In respect of the images made of clay, images in half-relief, abhaasa-image, screen-image or painted image and stucco image, there is some specific change in the process of offering the kumbha-water. The Acharya should install a mirror in the shrines designed for them and perform the ceremonial bath to that mirror. The officiating priests may perform the ceremonial bath either in a pedestal (wooden plank) or in a bunch of darbha-grass (kurca), placed in the shrine.
The Acharya should worship the Lord (whose image has now been installed) with all the paraphernalia such as cloth, ornaments, flowers and such others, according to the directions given in the section dealing with the process of arcana (puja or worship). Then he should offer the balls of cooked rice (bali) to the cosmic elements (prabhuta) which govern the environment, along with piper-betel leaf and areca nut. Then a special ceremonial bath (snapana) should be performed. A festival (utsava) may be conducted in addition to snapana. Those directions which have not been given here, should be followed according to those set forth for the installation of Sivalinga.
Installation is said to be ‘as related to svapradhana’ and ‘as related to paranga’. Installation of the primal image associated with the corresponding retinue Deities is known as ‘svapradhana’. Installation of the primal image without the retinue Deities is known as ‘paranga’.
The images installed in a temple are grouped under two categories – inner associates and outer associates. Stationary images, movable images which are seen in the main shrine and sub-shrines of a temple, relief-images designed in the wall, citra-images, images made of granite, images installed in the shrines which are meant for the retinue Deities and which are in various locations of the village – these belong to the category of inner associates. Images designed in various parts of the temple, pavilions, halls, gopura, bali-pitha, arches and such others come under the category of outer associates.
There is a speciality with regard to the bahiranga (outer associates). O, the twice-born Sages!, now listen to this specific direction. The images belonging to the category of bahiranga may be installed without performing jaladhivasa (keeping the image inside the water), ratna nyasa, circumambulating the temple (dhama pradaksina), and designing of the couch (sayya kluptam, sayanadhivasam). All other activities should be performed as explained before.
Ploughing the selected ground, placing the first bricks, construction of main shrine, daily worship, grand festival, snapana, monthly festival, expiatory rituals, renovation, temporary shrine, installation, rituals for alleviating the effects of supernatural occurrences and others should be performed in respect of a temple in which all such images have been installed. These should be carried out according to the directions set forth in the Mula Agamas.
This is the end of the 67th Chapter “Directions for Installation of the Images” in the Great Tantra called Kamika