Translated by Dr. S. Sabharatanam
- Knowledge Section
- Chapter 1: Introduction (27 verses)
- Chapter 2: Refutation of the Concepts of Liberation as held in the Systems other than Saiva Siddhanta (29 verses)
- Chapter 3: An Analysis of the Essential Nature of the Supreme Lord (15 verses)
- Chapter 4: On the Absolute Lordship of Lord Siva (15 verses)
- Chapter 5: On The Principles and the Process of Fivefold Function (18 verses)
- Chapter 6: On the Nature of the Bound Soul (7 verses)
- Chapter 7: On the Nature of Bonds (23 verses)
- Chapter 8: An Inquiry into the Nature of Karmas (6 verses)
- Chapter 9: On the Essential Nature of Maya (22 verses)
- Chapter 10: On the Nature of Kala and Other Tattvas (31 verses)
- Chapter 11; On the Nature of Dispositions (pratyayas) and Others (27 verses)
- Chapter 12: On the Nature of Organs and Others (34 verses)
- Chapter 13: Description of the Worlds Existing in Different Planes of ‘Bhuvana Adhva’ (199 verses)
Chapter 1: Introduction (27 verses)
O, the Sages deeply involved in austere observances! Having offered reverential salutations to the Supreme Lord Siva and then to the sage Bharadvaja, I now proceed to speak on the contents of this Agama which has come down from Lord Srikantha through Indra in an orderly way. Listen to my instructions.
In the most meritorious and auspicious hermitage called Narayana Asrama (also known as Bhadarika Asrama), the twice-born Sages such as Bharadvaja and others, having installed Sivalinga and invoked the vibrant presence of Lord Siva there, were worshipping Him with concentrated mind and were leading a pure life of austerities.
After some time, Indra, the king of the devas (celestial beings), having recognized that an intense desire and diligence in studying the Agamas and in contemplating the principles set forth in them has dawned in the mind of those sages, took upon himself the form of an ascetic and approached the hermitage.
He was welcomed with reverence and worshipped by them. Having inquired of their well being and austere activities, Indra asked: “For what reason the activities and disciplines ordained in the Vedas and the Sutras have not been performed and followed by you?”
The Sages replied: “O, Sage!, the worship of Sivalinga being performed by the ascetics in order to attain the desired goals is indeed an inevitable sadhana ordained in the Vedas and the Sutras themselves. Our performance of Linga-worship is indeed in accordance with the directions expounded in them. Moreover, even in the four Vedas, only Rudra has been mentioned as the principal Lord existing as the very purport (vacya) of the words and the mantras. And, even in the Kalpa-treatises, directions for invoking the immediate presence of Rudra have been set forth evidently.”
Even though the Sages maintained their view on the importance of Linga-worship, Indra, being very much desirous of knowing their spiritual maturity and perfection and of ascertaining their competency in receiving instructions on the Agama, argued with them: “Your scripture which directs you to undertake the activities such as the worship of Sivalinga and others is only an outcome of misapprehension; the knowledge gained through that scripture is only a myth; fruitless. Because, the God who revealed that scripture is not different from the words which constitute that scripture. The articulated word itself should be considered as the principal Deity. Moreover, if it is claimed that the Deity exists as different from the word, it cannot go and presents itself simultaneously in various places where the yajnas are performed since it is associated with concrete form comparable to our own form. The existence of God cannot be established even a little through valid proofs. All the proofs stated by those who argue for the existence of God (such as direct perception, inference, verbal testimony and others) do not become established even to a little extent. They do not serve the intended purpose. Even the verbal testimony becomes fruitless, since apart from the word there does not exist a thing distinct from that. How could the common worldly usages (loka vada, based on baseless beliefs called aitihya) establish the existence of God?
The conscious-mountain of the Sages, being very strong, unmovable and unassailable remained absolutely unaffected, even though it was incessantly dashed against by the surging waves of the ocean of statements centered on the atheistic arguments put forth by Indra.
The Sages replied: “The all-powerful Divine form of Isvara is associated with specific and matchless capacity in performing the cosmic activities. That divine form of the Lord never gets deteriorated, deformed or degenerated like our own bodies. Therefore, your statement that ‘a person associated with a concrete form cannot present himself simultaneously in various places’ is not justifiable. Or, your argument that there is no deity such as Indra as different from the denoting word ‘Indra’, holds good even with the words such as pot, moon and so forth. But, neither the mere word ‘pot’ could fetch the water (since, apart from the word ‘pot’, there does not exist the visible and actual pot) nor the mere word ‘moon’ could diffuse the cool and bright rays. Therefore, apart from the words such as Indra and others, there do exist the things as indicated or intended by them, as different from the articulated words. How could the words which denote actions and forms be inseparably one with those actions and forms themselves? All the courses of action would be deprived of their intended purpose, if there is inseparable oneness between the words and the things or actions indicated by them. Your declaration that all things are unreal does not stand to reason, since everything is governed by the relation of cause and effect. If the elements such as the ether, air and others are unreal, how is that they are dissolved and created again? They are evolved from certain causal sources and absorbed into them after a lapse of considerable duration. So they are real. Even the common worldly usages cannot be set aside as baseless, since they are rooted in an age long and valid tradition.”
In this way, the Sages became delighted and inspired in the arguments and counter arguments centering on the nature of Isvara. Consequently their eyes were filled with tears of joy and their words became exceedingly choked and stuttering, exposing their inner bliss. Having seen them in such delighted state, Indra became very much pleased. Having become pleased with the Sages, Indra, the bearer of thunderbolt and the accomplisher of hundred yajnas, revealed himself before them, manifesting in his divine form endowed with the brilliance of the young rising sun and being adored by the hosts of celestial beings known as ‘Marudganas’. On seeing Indra, those Sages praised him with the recital of the hymns of Rg, Yajus and Sama Vedas and prostrated before him.
Then Indra spoke to them: “O, Sages!, choose a boon according to your wish, a boon considered to be the most supreme in the world.” The Sages chose the boon of receiving instructions on the principles set forth in the Saivagama. Then Indra said: “Look, listen to this. Let there be one questioner among you, as chosen and agreed upon by all of you, who are going to be the recipients of such instructions.”
Then, Sage Bharadvaja who was highly eloquent and bold in speech, became the chief questioner as chosen unanimously by all other Sages. He reasonably questioned Indra who was being worshipped the devas: “How did this Supreme Agama come down from Lord Mahesvara? Keeping what motive in His mind, Lord Siva, the Bhagavan, revealed this Agama?”
“At the time of creation, Lord Mahesvara first revealed the Agama in order to enable the souls gain worldly enjoyments (bhogas) and achieve the final liberation (moksha). Originally, He revealed this Primal Scripture in an undivided form so as to be free from various divisions and sections. Subsequently, having assumed the form of Sadasiva, revealed the Agama in the form of five scriptural streams through five faces.
Consequent to this, He brought into existence eight Vidyesvaras, from Anantesvara to Sikhandi, whose forms are considered to be constituted of the very sense of multitudinous mantras which have been well expatiated upon in the Agamas. He also brought into existence seventy millions of Mantras in the realm of Pure Path (suddha adhva). Subsequently He created one hundred and eighteen Mantresvaras (such as Mandalesvara, Krodha and others) and invested with them the power of wielding authority over the realm of Impure Maya. They are with the same resplendence as that of Vidyesvaras who are existing in the Pure Path.
Lord Mahesvara instructed the Agamas to those Mantras and Mantra Mahesvaras in whom high perfection was in its fullness enabling them to be fit enough for the transmission of the Agamas and who were intent on attaining the celebrated beatific state comprising both the enjoyment (bhoga) and further upliftment (sreyas). For those who were with less spiritual perfection, He revealed the scriptures befitting their level of perfection (such as Kapila Sastra and others). As said before, this Agama is the one which has come down from Lord Siva. It was transmitted in various ways to various competent high souls by Mantresvaras and Mantra Mahesvaras. Because of its supreme efficacy in granting the desired fruits and supreme goals, this Scripture is significantly called Kamika. This Kamika was revealed very elaborately and extensively to Anantesvara and other Lords existing in the Pure Path (suddha adhva).
Lord Umapati who set the tree of Manmatha to be engulfed by the flames of fire emitted from His forehead eye received this Agama from Anantesvara. He, in turn, revealed this Agama to me in an abridged way, reducing the number of the verses to 11,000. Avoiding the elaboration as much as possible, I now proceed to instruct the principles set forth in this Agama which are free from inconsistency and ambiguity. I reveal to you the important principles largely through the same statements as employed in this Agama.”
Chapter 2: Refutation of the Concepts of Liberation as held in the Systems other than Saiva Siddhanta (29 verses)
Lord Siva who, by His own nature, is eternally free from the veiling impurity known as anava mala, who is the all-knower and all-doer, removes the host of constricting bonds from all the three kinds of souls whose power of all-knowing and all-doing has been beginninglessly obstructed by anava mala. Lord Srikantha Paramesvara who is the Lord of the world, first quintessentially expressed through one verse the import of the Scripture in which three categories – Pati, pasu and pasa – have been explained under four divisions (carya, kriya, yoga and jnana); subsequently, he explained it in an elaborated way.
Creation, sustenance, dissolution, obscuration and bestowal of grace which results in the ultimate liberation – all these are the five functions of the supreme Lord Siva who is associated with Saktis which serve as His instruments and body and who is holding the fruits in the form of enjoyments (bhogas) and liberation (moksha). These five actions are being performed only by Him.
Since the power of knowing and doing pertaining to the souls is beginninglessly obstructed by anava mala, the souls cannot perform the fivefold function. Since the bonds (pasas) are inert, they themselves could not have come to exist. So there should be a supreme Lord who is eternally self-existent, having no causal source for Him. If such a source could be admitted, then it would lead to infinite regress. Or, the liberation should occur without any reason or effort, since all become equalized. Or, alternatively, there could not be liberation to anybody. (Therefore, there is Pati who is self-existent, all-knower, all-doer, supreme and eternal)
Caitanya (consciousness) is of the nature of pure knowledge and pure action and that caitanya is always present in the soul, since in the state of liberation, it manifests within the soul as all-pervasive and all-cognizing. It is heard so through an all-knowing authority. But, in spite of its pervasive nature, the caitanya does not evidently manifest in the souls. So it is deduced that it should have been veiled or obstructed by something else. In this way the soul’s veiled state is well ascertained. Therefore, up to the time of removal of this veiling factor, this soul is dependent on Isvara who is with unobstructed power and prowess.
By virtue of its nature of veiling the caitanya of the souls, anava mala is also known as avarana (covering, obscuring, screening). Avarana, Sakti of Isvara known as Tirodhanasakti, karma and maya – all these four are collectively called ‘the host of bonds’ (pasa jala). The characteristic functions of these bonds are distinctly made known through their characteristic names themselves.
These three categories – Pati, pasu and pasa – have their well-grounded expositions in the first section of this Agama known as jnana pada. These three categories should be considered as involved even in the other three sections, namely carya, yoga and kriya. The ultimate purpose of understanding these three categories as associated with and as applied in the carya, yoga and kriya is the final liberation. The enjoyments (bhogas) occur to the souls as the concomitant fruit of such understanding. Liberation and enjoyments of worldly pleasures (bhoga) are of two kinds – supreme (para) and non-supreme (apara). They are further differentiated into many different ways according to the nature of different planes of existence.
O, Lord!, the state of liberation along with relevant means (upayas) has been well declared in the scriptures of Vedanta, Sankhya and of various other systems (such as Kanada) which propound different views on the categories of existent (sat) and non-existent (asat). If so, what is the specific nature present in the Agamic concept of liberation?
Since the expounders of those systems and authors of those scriptures were not the all-knowers (were not endowed with fullness and perfection of knowledge) and since, for the same reason, they were inferior to the Supreme Authority, they did not know the exact nature of the Reality as ascertained and as expounded in the Agamas, Therefore, ascertainment of the Eternal Existent (vasut niscaya), effective means and the fruits thereof have not been vividly and irrefutably set forth in their scriptures. But, since this Agama has been revealed by Paramesvara who transcends the limitations and incapacitated nature effected in the souls by the bonds and who is with the power of all-knowing and all-doing, the concepts set forth in the Supreme Scriptures (Agamas) stands always unexcelled and irrefutable.
“The one and the only self is seen projected as the intelligent and the non-intelligent. The visible world in all its entirety of moveable and immovable existents is this self only. Apart from this supreme self, nothing exists.” So say the followers of Vedanta. This view is untenable. Without giving due consideration to the knowledge gained by reasoning (upapatti) and the contrary of that (anupapatti), this view may be accepted as mere proposition (prima facie). What authentic means is there to ascertain this proposition through reason and example? If it be said that there is scriptural testimony to validate this view, then, is that scripture the self or different from the self? If it is different from the self, then it is non-existent and therefore it cannot be a pramana. If it be one with the self, then there is the inconsistency of one and the same thing serving as pramana (which proves) and prameya (which is proved). Where there exist both the means of knowledge (pramana) and the knowable (prameya), both the knower (pramatru) and the knowledge (pramiti) also should essentially be there.
In that case, there occurs the total obliteration of this advaitic view of the Vedantins. Or, if it be said that there is no such scriptural authority, then there is no valid proof for this advaitic view. Since there is no karmic effect in the form of merit and demerit apart from the one and the only self, there should be equal enjoyments (bhogas) to all the individual souls. But this is not seen. Moreover, if absorption into the Supreme Self is considered to be the liberation, such liberation does not prevail since the re-appearance of cit and acit is seen. If there is no liberation, then all the ordained means and practices and the scriptures which explain them become purposeless. If the Supreme Self is considered to be the material cause also, then He should be both cit and acit. But, both darkness and light cannot exist simultaneously in one and the same place. Therefore, in view of all these defects and contradictions, the non-dual self cannot be accepted.
Even the knowledge gained through the treatises of Sankhya system is to be considered as untruth, since they observe causal state even in the effected products. Since they maintain the view that the purusha who experiences the enjoyments is not the performer of actions and the non-intelligent prakriti is always independent of an intelligent Being, their view on the liberation cannot be accepted. (Caitanya is both knowledge and action. So if there is no action on the part of purusha, there is no knowledge even. In the absence of knowledge, the could be neither enjoyment nor liberation. Without immediacy and instrumentality of an intelligent being, a non-intelligent substance cannot function.)
The followers of ‘anekanta vada’ (the Jains, who are intent on maintaining sevenfold conclusion) propose the concept of seven categories – jiva (souls), ajiva (non-souls), asraya (organs such as the eyes and others), samvara (activities concerned with penance), nirjara (karmic fruits which decay upon experience), bandha (eight qualities such as delusion and others) and moksha (liberation). Do these seven categories exist before the embodied state or after the embodied state? To this question, they, being centered on the concept of syadvada (‘this was like that’ – an argument based on seven possibilities), do not state anything with certitude either negatively or positively. How could one accept the proposition that that which exists in a particular place and time cannot be admitted of its presence? If it is said that it is ‘sat’ (existent) in the form of jiva before the embodied state and ‘asat’ (non-existent) while in the embodied state, then it affirms our own view of the soul and it becomes a case of ‘siddha sadhana’ (ascertaining the opposite view). Otherwise, in this state, even their concept of ‘syadvada’ becomes acceptable. There does not occur any inconsistency in their state. They maintain the view that the self is non-pervasive due to the fear that if the self is pervasive, then there would occur the intermixture of karmic effects. How could it be that an entity which was not pervasive earlier becomes pervasive at a later stage? If it be said that the soul is associated with the qualities such as getting unfolded at a particular stage, then the soul should be considered to be in the continuing stream of defects. In the embodied state, the pervasive nature of the souls is obstructed by the beginningless veiling impurity and it becomes pervasive in the state of liberation since the obstruction is completely removed. Since they are ignorant of this view, they are considered as ‘those who have not known the truth’ (ajanins). Therefore, their ‘syadvada’ cannot be accepted.
“Through the knowledge of six categories – dravya, guna, karma, samanya, visesha and samanvaya – ignorance is removed; consequently, other vices such as attachment, aversion, ego, mine-ness and others get removed. Buddhi (intellect), sukha (pleasure), duhkha (pain), will (iccha), alienation (dvesha), effort (prayatna), merit (dharma), demerit (adharma), samskara (lingering impressions) – all these nine qualities of the soul occur in due order in the embodied state. Since all these are removed as soon as the body gets annihilated, such cessation of bodily existence itself is liberation.” These are the views proposed by the system formulated by Kanada. This kind of liberation is, indeed, of the nature of inertness (jadatva), since the presence of knowledge is not seen there. It becomes equalized with the state of being a corpse. Therefore, even these views are not acceptable.
Due to the functions and operations of those instruments which help for the manifestation of consciousness, cit (knowledge) appears to be momentary, since those functions are of fractional duration. Not knowing this, the Saugatas say that consciousness is momentary.
This view of momentariness is untenable. If consciousness itself is momentary, the experience of meritorious and sinful effects and the remembrance of previous experiences cannot occur. Because, consciousness which occurs at one moment perishes at the next moment itself. How could the effect of karmas done by one man be experienced by another man? Or, how could the experience attained by one man be remembered by another man? Because of the ascertained occurrence of the karmic effects and remembrance, it is to be deduced that the self is essentially eternal; not momentary. There is another defect in the concept of momentariness of the self. Can the occurrence of uninterrupted continuity of momentary-self be considered as liberation? Or, can the pacified and stilled state of consciousness itself after knowing the object, just like the extinguished beam of lamp, be considered as the state of liberation? If it is the case of former, then, even in the state of liberation, the continuity of the momentary self frequently gets destroyed. If it is the case of latter, then, there is no experience of bliss in the extinguished state of the self. Therefore, when compared to this kind of blissless liberation, ‘to be enmeshed in the transmigratory phenomena’ is more preferable; more superior.
To accept and desire for the state of liberation by resorting to the systems propounded by the ignorant and dull-headed thinkers who uphold such insignificant views of liberation as discussed above, is indeed, as futile as willing to get fire from the firefly.
Liberation attainable through the discriminative knowledge of prakruti and purusha, through the awareness as to ‘Brahman is all’, through knowing that the time, mind and such others are the causes for both bondage and liberation – all these states of liberation are temporal and they are rendered ineffective at the beginning of next creation.
He who attains liberation through the path of Saiva Siddhanta becomes superior to the Lords of all the bhuvanas; shines forth as the one immersed in pure and eternal bliss, as the one endowed with the eight kinds of beatific state such as anima, mahima and such others; shines forth as Isvara Himself even at the beginning of next creation. But, in spite of his fully manifested sivatva, he remains free from the actions whatsoever. Holding the entire range of existents within his own form, he exists associated with an absolute independent state. For him, there is no superior Lord to him as his controller. He exists on par with Lord Siva Himself.
Chapter 3: An Analysis of the Essential Nature of the Supreme Lord (15 verses)
Any object associated with parts is a product. Since objects such as body, instruments, worlds and worldly objects are associated with parts, these are known to be with the nature of being effects or products. They should have been created by an intelligent Being. We infer that there should be a Doer endowed with the exalted power of knowing-all and doing-all.
The ultimate and ever-existing Reality (vastu) is eternal, being not conditioned by time. It is all-pervasive being not conditioned by space. It creates the bodies, instruments, worlds and the worldly objects in a successive order (involving time) and simultaneous order (not involving time). So it should be known that the Supreme Reality is endowed with matchless power (sakti) of effecting such creation.
Since that power of creation (sakti) is basically of active nature and since action could be possible only when associated with necessary instruments (organs), it is ascertained that the Ultimate Lord who performs five functions is possessed of instruments. Moreover, since action and instruments are beginninglessly present in Him, it should be known that such presence of body and instruments has not occurred to Him in some intermediate stage and such occurrence is spontaneous to Him. They are naturally manifested in Him. Even such body and instruments are constituted by Sakti only. Even that Sakti, the very essential conscious form of Isvara is not a non-intelligent entity. Even though this instrument (karana) is only one, it becomes innumerable in view of the countless things to be known and countless actions to be done.
Karma cannot be the causal force for the creation and maintenance of the world. Nor, the prakruti could be the cause. Since karma and prakruti are inert, they cannot function without being activated by an intelligent being. Nor an individual self could create the world, since it is dependent on some other source for knowing and doing. So, by the process of elimination, it is ascertained that the Great Isvara is the Ultimate Cause. For the liberated souls, He presents Himself as Siva only (Siva being free from the fivefold function). (From the point of view of the liberated souls, Siva shines forth as the Ultimate Transcendental Reality alone, being not involved in the cosmic functions)
Some persons object: “Since the relationship between the effected things (products) and the Supreme Lord of the world is not evidently proved, this inferential process of ascertaining an Ultimate Doer is impaired with a defect (of non-apprehension of the relationship between the cause and the effect). There cannot be relationship between the smoke in a kitchen and the fire on a mountain. Their argument goes like this. True. Even though there is no relationship between the kitchen-smoke and the mountain-fire, certainly there is an irrefutable relationship between the fire and the smoke. So there is no defect in inferring the presence of fire from the smoke.
Another objection is raised: “It is evidently observed that an action is possible only for him who is associated with a body. Isvara may be the Ultimate Doer (Karta). But He is not to be considered as bodiless. He should be an embodied Being. Even in the worldly phenomena, action is seen only in him who is an embodied being. So, in that case, Isvara, being an embodied Lord, becomes like us.
Since there are no body-creating seeds such as mala, karma and others for the Supreme Lord, His body is not like our own bodies. His body is of the very nature of Sakti only. The body of Siva is constituted of five mantras so as to be instrumentally useful in performing the five cosmic functions. With these five mantras are designed the head and other parts of the body of Siva. The five constituent mantras are: Isana, Tatpurusha, Aghora, Vama and Sadyojata.
Because of the nature of bestowing grace upon all, because of its existence and function in the higher plane of pure adhva (pure realm of maya) and because of its highly elevated state comparable to the head-portion, Isana mantra is considered to constitute the head of Lord Siva.
Since it exists as the activating and energizing source in the bodies of the higher souls (devas) and of other beings, since it manifests and illumines the knowledge of the beings, since it dispels the fear related to the continuing transmigration and since it protects the souls, Tatpurusha mantra is considered to constitute the face of Lord Siva.
The word ‘hrudaya’ is synonymous with consciousness. Siva`s form which is of the nature of that consciousness is pure and tranquil. Being free from the state of dreadfulness (aghora), the mantra assumes the form ‘aghora hrudaya’. Since the assumptive energy (parigraha sakti) otherwise known as ‘adhikara sakti’ related to impure maya is very dreadful, the form of Siva has been figuratively told to be dreadful.
Since the three goals – dharma, artha and kama – are of inferior nature when compared to the highest state of liberation (moksha), they are collectively known as ‘vama’. That effulgence (deva) of Siva which enables the souls to experience dharma, artha and kama according to their karmic fruits becomes known as ‘vama deva’. Since, by its own nature, it remains very subtle and secret (guhya, not exposed to vision), the ‘Vamadeva’ mantra is considered to constitute the privy part of the form of Lord Siva (vamadeva gyhya).
By its mere will (volition, iccha), the ‘Sadya’ matra creates bodies to the souls instantaneously and it creates the mantric forms befitting the contemplations of the yogins. Because of this power and because of its quickness of action (sadya), the mantra assumes the form ‘Sadyojata Murta’. Siva is called Murtin (possessor of form), not because He assumes forms, but because of this mantra.
In reality, there is no body for Lord Siva, since all the actions to be carried out by the body are all fulfilled by His Sakti itself. The form as constituted by Sakti is said to be body, only in the secondary sense. Even though this Sakti is Only One, the enlightened Sages maintain that Sakti is associated with different states such as Vama and others in view of the varied actions concerned with the pure path (suddha maya).
Chapter 4: On the Absolute Lordship of Lord Siva (15 verses)
For Lord Siva whose form is constituted in this way with the five mantras, Sakti who is with invincible power which could never be obstructed, serves as the instrumental force (karanatva). Being with such instrumental force, He always performs the fivefold action. He performs the five functions in such a way as to befit the time and place.
First, He installs Eight Souls known as the Vidyesvaras in the isvara tattva. These Vidyesvaras are free from the bonds of karma and maya and are fit enough to be stationed in the plane of Lord Siva. He makes them to be associated with Vama, Jyestha and other Saktis and appoints seventy million mantra-souls (called Mantras) as their retinue.
The eight Vidyesvaras are – Ananta, Sukshma, Sivottama, Ekanetra, Ekarudra, Trimurti, Srikantha and Sikhandi. These Vidyesvaras are the Lords wielding their authority over the Rajarajesvaras such as Satarudras and others, Rajesvaras such as Indra and others and Isvaras such as Mandali and others. These Vidyesvaras are associated with only one bondage known as ‘adhikara mala’ (a lingering taint of anava mala) and so they are slightly inferior to the sate of Paramesvara. According to the gradation of the mature state of ‘adhikara mala’, these eight Vidyesvaras are installed in a graded state in the isvara tattva.
Even though they are endowed with the power of all-knowing (sarvjantva) and such other significant powers, each one of them is having a different state of maturation of adhikara mala. From Anantesvara to Sikhandi, each one is superior to the succeeding one, in the installed order. Even the Mantras who are in the region below the plane of Vidyesvaras are with graded maturation and perfection. These Mantras, being commissioned and directed by Sivasakti who distinctly manifests Herself within the Mantresvaras, bestow grace upon the souls (sadhakas performing the mantra japa) existing in the realm of impure maya, according to their fitness and perfection.
Among the seventy millions of Mantras (Mantra Murtis), the Mantras belonging to the later half (numbering to thirty-five millions), depending on and occupying the body of the Gurus, wield their authority of bestowing grace upon the befitting souls existing in the entire range of impure maya. Having fulfilled their designated function (as guided by Sivasakti), they enter into the state of Siva along with Mantresvaras, at the time of the dissolution of the worlds of impure maya. Those Mantras who belong to the first half (numbering to thirty-five millions), without depending on or seeking any support or location such as the Guru`s body and others, wield their authority of bestowing grace upon the befitting souls existing in the plane of impure maya which is just below the plane of pure maya. They bestow grace as willed and guided by Lord Siva. Having fulfilled their function assigned to them according to the will of the Lord, they attain the supreme state of Siva, at the dissolution of their own plane of existence.
Then, manifesting Himself within Anantesvara and others, Lord Siva appoints 118 Rudras such as Mandali and others whose bodies are designed with kala and other tattvas which evolve from the seedy knot of impure maya. These Rudras are known as ‘Maya-garbhadikarins’. Being actively manifesting Himself within the body of Mandali and other Rudras, Lord Siva creates many worlds comprising the movables and immovables. There are refined souls such as Brahma and others associated with the impurity of mala characterized by the attitude of wielding authority over the worlds of impure maya. They are endowed with Sakti which observes the nature of the karmic bond of the souls. The Supreme Lord, being present within Mandali and others, commissions Brahma and others into their respective cosmic functions. He illumines and strengthens their power of knowing and doing so as to enable them perform their deeds assigned to them.
Further, He bestows grace upon those thinkers (such as Kapila, Arhat, Kanada and such others) who are the authors of scriptures which are ineffective in removing the obscured state of the souls and upon those who follow the tenets set forth in those scriptures. He makes them endowed with the means and fruits thereof, pertaining to their own pursuits and enables them live in the worlds up to Kalgni bhuvana existing in the lowest plane. He brings all of those who are associated with tattvas and bhuvanas to His own plane of existence through Iccha Sakti. Being not perceived by all the existents, He unites the fruits of their austere deeds with them for the attainment of all the desired powers.
In order to give rest to the souls which are enmeshed in the repeated cycle of birth and death and which have suffered greatly by such transmigration, Lord Siva, who grants the blissful state to all the beings, absorbs back all those things which have evolved into body, instruments, worlds and enjoyments into their own respective causal sources. He keeps the souls within the range of maya according to their matured state. At the point of such absorption, He exists pervading the absorbed state of both maya and the souls. At the termination of the period scheduled for the dissolved state (characteristically known as svapa kala, time of sleep), He proceeds to create the worlds again, as done before.
As has been done during the wakeful state (period of maintenance), even during the state of sleep (svapa kala), Lord Siva illumines the consciousness of the souls according to the gradation of their matured state of anava-mala; He obscures the consciousness of those fit for such obscuration, through His Rodha Sakti (Tirodhana Sakti); effects maturation to the karmas pertaining to the souls bound with the karmic bond; enables the potencies of the maya to be in readiness for the next evolutional process. He exists in His own unique and blissful state, indiscriminately looking at the existents, both the cit (conscious beings) and acit (worlds and worldly objects)
Chapter 5: On The Principles and the Process of Fivefold Function (18 verses)
Lord Siva,who lovingly shines forth as the affectionate Father and Mother of the world and the worldly beings, who is the ultimate Lord to free the souls bound with three impurities, brings out the fullness of unfolding of the power of knowing-all and doing-all, in all the souls. He effects such unfolding, when the potencies of the fettering bonds are at the verge of removal. Such state of removal is consequent to the removal of the veiling factors which were kept in operation by the Tirodhana-sakti of the Lord.
These souls who are left out with an insignificant tint of anava-mala and on whom Lord Siva bestows His grace instantaneously become endowed with the full manifestation of ‘ sivatva’ (the twin power of knowing- all and doing-all). Those souls upon whom Lord Siva bestows His grace at the time of total dissolution and at the time of consequent creation attain either the liberation free from ‘adhikra mala’ (desire for wielding authority) or attain lordship associated with the power of wielding authority over the souls of higher and lower planes.
Those perfect souls upon whom the Lord bestows grace presenting Himself in the body of the Guru reach the worlds of Rudra ( who control the five groups, each group consisting of eight worlds), Mantras, Mantresvaras, isvara tattva, sadasiva tattva and so forth according to their state and nature of ‘saktipata’ (descent of the grace-bestowing Sakti).
In those souls on whom the descent of Sakti occurs for the sake of arresting the occurrence of future birth, some symptoms would occur indicating their refinement. These symptoms are: intent desire for liberation, aversion towards the repeated process of birth and death and towards existence in this world, devotion to the devotees of Lord Siva, diligence in the study of Saiva Sastras and in observing the rules enshrined in them. Through these indications, even those persons who are imperfect, who are not trained enough to look at the aspects of truth, could inferentially realize the fact that the host of bonds which is responsible for the continued series of birth and death is at the state of removal in the persons of such high refinement.
There is what is known as the equanimity of the mind; the state of mind being unaffected by happiness aroused by the effects of previous good deeds or misery aroused by the effects of previous evil deeds. Cannot this equanimity of mind be considered as the fitting indication for the desire to attain liberation? Why another symptom ‘saktipata’ should be considered as the proper indication? If this be asked, that equanimity of mind could be a sufficient indication for those who are in the pursuit of systems other than Saiva Siddhanta. Indeed, there are differentiations in the liberated states characterized by the power of wielding the authority. These differentiations are due to the differentiations prevailing in the process of diksha and due to the differences in the means (upaya). The attainment of the state of Mantramahesvaras, of the state of Mantresvaras and of the state of Rudras are of the supreme, medium and lower category respectively. For those who are fit enough to attain each of these three states, there should occur these symptoms mentioned above, in addition to the equanimity of mind characterized by two factors – to remain unaffected by joy and to remain unaffected by sorrow. So, these symptoms of ‘saktipata’ are considered to be essential.
These symptoms occur to those souls in whom the Tirodhana-sakti of Vamadeva, the Sakti who veils the power of knowing and doing of the embodied souls, exists in a slightly withdrawn state, in a half-withdrawn state and in an almost completely withdrawn state (the state at which the veiling is at too insignificant state). These three essential requisites are necessary for the attainment of a state associated with authority-wielding. At the time of total dissolution, Lord Siva bestows His grace upon those souls whose attitude is absolutely free from the authority-bound state, without looking for such occurrence of ‘saktipata’.
Those souls which are to be uplifted to the state of liberation by Lord Siva in the beginning of future creation and at the time of the contiguous dissolution of the worlds, immediately attain the exalted nature of ‘sivatva’. In this way, each soul remains in the state of being uplifted to the higher states in all the three times – past, present and future. The soul associated with that impurity by removing which the Lord enables him endowed with ‘sivatva’ is characteristically known as ‘anu’ (atomic in size, as opposed to its pervasiveness).
In the same way, during the period of complete stillness (free from any cosmic function), He imparts maturation to the karmas which are responsible for the embodiment of the souls so as to enable them yield their fruits to the concerned embodied souls up to the time of creation of another body. If the karmas do not mature enough, they would not yield their fruits immediately, just like an immature herbal plant.
Even the karma which has attained maturation could not have attained that, of its own accord. It is not capable of making itself mature. Therefore, the Supreme Lord should be there to make it ripen. Since Lord Siva is known as the All-doer, it suggests that He is also an All-knower. Since it is well ascertained logically that only he who knows a thing with its relevant means (sadhana), parts (angas) and the fruits (phalas) is capable of designing it, it becomes evident that the all-knowing Siva alone is capable of performing all the deeds.
Even the all-knowing power of Lord Siva does not expect an internal illuminating source such as kala tattva and others, since His power of knowing is eternally free from the veiling bonds. Moreover, His power of cognition does not get defiled by the defects such as doubt and others, as in the case of the knowledge of the bound souls (which is vitiated with defects). Never does it become erroneous even.
Since all the instruments of cognition of the embodied souls are shrouded and incapacitated by the potencies of anava-mala, they are in need of illuminating instruments; they very often get variegated according to the nature of the illuminating tools (assisting factors in knowing the things).
Therefore, this Isvara Jnana (consciousness of Siva) is beyond the knowledge ascertained through perception (adhyaksham), inference (liangam) and scripture (sabdam). Always and in all existents, it shines forth unobstructed and unconditioned.
The perfect knowers (of Saiva Siddhanta) who have known Isvara, the eternal and ultimate Tattva, through the exact understanding of the real nature of existence (satta), His essential nature characterized by eternality, His instrument known as Sakti, the ultimate purpose of His cosmic deeds resulting in enjoyment (bhoga) and final liberation (moksha), His fivefold function, His supreme knowledge capable of cognizing all the things simultaneously – uplift the souls which have gone deep into the mire of the repeating cycle of birth and death. But, those who perceive the Supreme Self in the form of the bound souls and perceive Him in the form of fettering bonds in spite of their extensive knowledge, neither reach the shore of liberation by themselves nor enable others reach that shore of liberation.
Chapter 6: On the Nature of the Bound Soul (7 verses)
For the creation of the world as inclusive of body (tanu), instrument (karana), sources of enjoyments (bhoga) and so forth, soul is the necessitating factor. Even while expounding the nature of Siva, the specific nature of the soul has been told. The soul, in its embodied state, is with a knowledge shrouded by the darkness of anava-mala. It is not independent. Such characteristics were expressed there. Now, the essential nature of the soul is succinctly established.
It has been ascertained that the earth and other objects are the created ones (they are basically products) and ascertained that the creator of all these products is Isvara. Since that Isvara is a Supreme Being associated with perpetual contentment (nitya trupta), the created objects could be of no use to Him. Nor the created worlds could utilize themselves, since they are non-intelligent. Since Lord Siva is with such a greatness and lordship, he cannot perform purposeless actions; He cannot create purposeless objects. Therefore, through the process of elimination, it is ascertained that the creative function and the created worlds are neither for their own sake nor for the ever-content Lord who has created all these, but only for an intelligent being existing apart from the created and the Creator. That intelligent being is known as the kshetrajna or the atma.
Here, there is such a view: “What has been said as the self, as different from the Creator and the created is this body itself. Only for the sake of this body, all things such as the earth and others have been created”.
Such materialistic view is not acceptable. It is well observed that even this body is non-intelligent. So, it is deduced that the created things are for the use of another existent. Since this body and other objects such as those in the earth and so forth are for the sake of another entity, it is inferred that the soul is different from the body. If it be said that body itself is of the nature of intelligence, that is untenable. Since it is well observed that the body is that which is experienced, that which undergoes modifications and that which is ever in cyclic transmigration, it cannot be intelligent. Things which are experienced and which sustain modifications are seen to be inert, like the objects such as cloth and others. It may be argued: “Since upon the coordinated action of the four elements – earth, water, fire and air- consciousness arises in a body and in the absence of such coordinated presence of these four elements, consciousness is not seen in the body; so the body, beyond doubt, is intelligent only”. Such argument does stand to reason, since intelligence is not observed in the dead body in which there does prevail the aggregate presence of these four elements. So it is ascertained that the body is not intelligent. “The elements frequently undergo changes right from the childhood. Except the change into a dead body, in all other changes knowledge is seen in the body. So, body is intelligent”. If it be argued in this way, it is not true. In that case, since the body itself differs very frequently from its previous state, there cannot be the remembrance of previous experiences. And the experiences of one person cannot be realized by another person. Moreover, it cannot be said that the soul may be bereft of any remembrance. It is well observed that remembrance occurs to everybody. Therefore, it should be admitted that there should be a soul, as different from the body occupied by itself and as the remembering entity.
Since this self is not conditioned by space and time, it is not non-pervasive. It is not momentary; not one; not inert; not inactive. It is ascertained that it is with fully blossomed consciousness, since there is the scriptural authority according to which the soul is endowed with the power of all-knowing and all-doing, upon the complete removal of the bonds.
Chapter 7: On the Nature of Bonds (23 verses)
After the detailed exposition on the nature of the bound souls, the nature of bonds (pasa) – anava, karma and maya – is now explained. The bonds are the constricting factors, getting disentangled from which the souls evolve into the Lords of the worlds existing in the pure path (suddha adhva) and attain the final liberation.
If these bonds were not there for the souls, then what reason could be adduced for the state of dependency (para tantrya, being under the control of superior force or authority) which has occurred to the souls? If it be said that the state of dependency is a self-originated (svabhavika) one, then the specific name ‘mukta’ (the liberated one) could not have been attained by the souls (which remain liberated). Only upon the removal of bondage, one becomes, indeed, ‘the liberated’. If such bondage is inherent in the souls, it cannot be removed by any means.
It is observed well that one who is free from the constricting bonds exists always self-controlled and independent and the one who is fettered with limiting bonds subjects himself to the control of another person and functions as a dependent being. So it is ascertained that the dependent soul is fettered with the limiting bonds. This is the difference between the bound soul and the liberated soul: One who is dependent is the bound; and one who is independent is the liberated. Therefore, only the state of being in dependency is considered to be the state of being in bondage. This bound state is not permanent to the souls. If this bondage is considered to be eternal for the souls like the power of all-knowing and the power of all-doing which unfold within the liberated souls and present eternally, then all the means (upayas) enjoined for the attainment of liberation would become purposeless, since the state of bondage being eternal cannot be removed. Therefore, enough with this insignificant knowledge which fails to liberate the souls from the bound state.
If the atomic soul had not been obscured by the beginningless impurity called anava mala, then why such soul is in the inevitable need of assisting instruments such as kala and other tattvas to experience worldly enjoyments and why is it in search of Siva’s grace for the attainment of liberation? In spite of being in association with conscious power (cit sakti) which is eternal and pervasive, why is it in the need of assisting factors and grace?
In the Saiva Scriptures which emanated as five streams from the five faces of Lord Siva, this anava mala, the beginningless obscuring factor of the souls, has been called by different appellations which are synonymous. The exact nature of such mala has never been known as it is by the imperfect souls. Pasutva, pasunihara, mrutyu, murcha, mala, anjana, avidya, avruti, rug, glani, papamula, kshaya – these and such other terms are various appellations given for the veiling impurity known as anava mala.
This anava mala is one; beginningless; extremely dense and vast; being only one, it is capable of obscuring all the souls without any single exception; it exists in each soul; though one, it is associated with innumerable potencies, each one of which ceases to exist at the time of maturation.
This mala exists beginninglessly in each soul. If it is argued that the obscuration by anava mala occurs to the souls adventitiously, then there should be a reason, a necessitating cause, for that occurrence. If it be said that it occurs without any reason or necessitating cause, then it is quite reasonable to say that the obscuration which occurs without any reason could occur even to the liberated souls. What inconsistency is there if they are obscured? They would descend ultimately to the bound state. All the efforts undertaken for the attainment of liberation become futile.
What defect is there in considering that anava mala is not one; it is manifold? All those which are manifold and inert have a beginning; they are products. Therefore, that which is beginningless and which is not a product is only one. Since on its removal liberation does not occur simultaneously to all the souls, it is ascertained that this anava mala is with innumerable potencies, each potency (mala sakti) obscuring each soul.
There is one Sivasakti known as Tirodhana Sakti as being included in the series of bonds. In reality, this Sakti is of the nature of bestowing grace upon the souls and It is pure and auspicious. Since Its mode of action is to take control over the potencies of anava mala and to act in conformity with them, It is figuratively called ‘pasa’. As long as the obscuring power exists, this Tirodhana Sakti brings about maturation to the potencies of mala gradually, by holding control over them. When the same Sakti brings about unfoldment of consciousness (caitanya) within the souls through the effulgence of conscious-sun known as Isana mantra which is in the form of grace, this Sakti becomes known as Anugraha Sakti (Sakti which bestows grace).
Some objections: The unfailing responsibility of bestowing grace upon both the intelligent beings and the non-intelligent substances lies with Lord Siva. Since these intelligent beings and inert things are with mutually opposed characteristics, Sivasakti cannot bestow grace upon all at one and same time. Therefore, how could it be said that Sivasakti is of the nature of bestowing grace upon all? Moreover, why does Lord Siva, the supreme Lord of the worlds who involves Himself in the uninterrupted activity of rendering help to all the beings and existents bestow grace upon the obscuring bonds and at the same time make the souls to get entangled in the repeated process of birth and death and make them suffer?
The views of Siddhanta: It is true that Sivasakti is of the nature of bestowing grace upon all. There is nothing improbability in bestowing grace upon the intelligent beings and the inert things at one and the same time. It bestows grace upon the potency of mala, not with the intention of making the soul to suffer. Whatever action is being done by Lord Siva or Sakti, is indeed an effective and unfailing help to the souls. It cannot be considered otherwise. As long as there exists the preponderancy of mala, liberation cannot occur to the souls, since liberation is nothing but the complete removal of obscuration effected by mala. This preponderant state of mala would be nullified only when the potency of mala attains a fitting maturation (for removal).
Even though the potency of mala becomes fit enough for such maturation, the maturation pertaining to the potency of mala cannot take place of its own accord, since it is seen that always and by all means, the non-intelligent object is kept in action only by an intelligent being. (Therefore, bestowal of grace and inducing maturation to the potency of mala are not mutually opposed actions) Just as the activities of a physician, such as applying pungent medicinal substances like black-salt and others to the wounds sustained by a person result in the healthy and happy state of that person, just as his actions are not considered as the aggravating and cruel ones, even so the experience of pain, misery and so on meted out by Siva through the karmic effects for the sake of the removal of mala should not be considered as afflicting or aggravating activity.
Since Siva is all-pervasive, His immediate and active presence in all the objects cannot be set aside. But, where there is no need for His action, there He remains neutral and free from any action.
What is known as the bestowal of grace upon the inert objects and the intelligent beings (both being the dharmins, holders of qualities) is nothing but to be in conformity with the fitting qualities pertaining to them (dharnas). Never and nowhere is a property or quality pertaining to each existent that remains unnoticed by Lord Siva.
In those souls from whom the potency of mala which obscures the absolute power of knowing-all and doing-all pertaining to the souls is on the phase of its removal, Sivasakti descends immediately and unfolds Itself in the form of grace. Grace is indeed the compassionate function of making the potencies of the bonds to ripe enough. What is the effect of such function, it may be asked. When the potency of mala is on its removal phase along with the preponderant state of obscuring the soul, the Tirodhana Sakti also sets Itself on the phase of removal and incessantly assumes the form of grace. Grace is actually to be in conformity with the cognitive power of the bound soul and with the maturing process of the inert bond.
Even when this occurs simultaneously, it should be considered as the bestowal of grace only. Occurrence of grace in due order conditioned by time is, indeed, very common and simple. The same explanation holds good with the preponderant state of karma and maya, since it has already been told in a general way that all the inert things are being activated only by the intelligent beings.
Chapter 8: An Inquiry into the Nature of Karmas (6 verses)
It is inferred that there is a necessitating cause (nimitta) for providing to the souls relevant body, organs of knowledge and action and so forth. Since organs, body and others are products, they should have originated from a cause. All those which are seen to be products are associated with a necessitating cause. That which is not motivated by a cause never comes into existence.
The union with organs, body and so forth which has occurred to the soul is conditioned by place; as associated with each soul, it is in diverse forms; it is perishable; it is conditioned by the activities of the souls. It is in continuity right from the previous births. Since its products – organs, bodies and so forth – are seen to be associated with these characteristics, it is presumed that even the cause of these products is associated with these characteristics.
Moreover, in yielding its fruits, that cause is in expectancy of Tirodhana sakti of Lord Siva, anava mala and so forth. So it is dependent. It is always a co-operating bond (not the primal bond known as anava mala). It is called karma, since it is originated by activities. It is called ‘adrushta’ (the unseen) because of its extremely subtle nature and its imperceptibility.
Being the cause, this karma is capable of providing the relevant bodies (janaka); capable of supporting and sustaining the bodies (dharaka). It expresses itself in the form of enjoyments (bhogya). It is of the nature of being effected by mind, word and deed. Since it has truth and falsity as its originating sources, it presents itself in the form of merit and demerit.
This karma attains maturity during the state of total absorption (pralaya). It becomes fit enough for providing the enjoyments at the time of next creation. It exists in maya stored in the form of impressions (samskara). Without being experienced, karma never goes out of existence.
This karma whose nature has been explained in this way is capable of creating the bodies, organs and such others pertaining to the impure path in which many worlds from the Maya bhuvana up to Kalagnirudra bhuvana have their existence. It is beginningless like the billowing waves of a river whose point of origination cannot be observed. Even in its pleasure-yielding state which enables the soul experience happiness, this karma is considered to only as a constricting bond, since there is no liberation while the karmic bond is in operation.
Chapter 9: On the Essential Nature of Maya (22 verses)
Now, I will explain the essential nature of maya, the subject matter of which comes next in the order of the subjects mentioned before, in the Agamic aphoristic statements revealed by Lord Siva, the knower and doer of all. Such nature is now explained succinctly through valid proofs and reasoning.
Maya is one; impure (asiva); it is the seed-source for the creation of the worlds; it is endowed with diverse potencies. It is of the nature of binding the souls as long as the preponderant state of karma exists as the co- operating bond (sahakari). It is of the nature of being pervasive and eternal.
The existence of the ultimate Doer (karta) is inferred through the proposition that the world is, by all means, a product. Through the same proposition, it is inferred that there should be maya serving as the material cause of the world, since it is seen that the product such as cloth cannot be produced without the thread, the material cause.
Since all the products of maya are seen to be non-intelligent, it is ascertained that maya itself is inert. If it is not held to be so, then there would occur the defect of absence of constant and ordained relationship between the cause and its effect.
If it be held that maya itself goes out of existence at the time of total dissolution (maha pralaya), then, from which source this world would be created again? Therefore, maya is eternal. If it is non-pervasive, there cannot be unlimited actions and effects comprising all the ranges of the worlds. Since such actions are there, it is ascertained that maya is all-pervasive.
All those which are inert and manifold are considered to be with the nature of being products. Since maya is not a product, it is deduced that maya is only one; a single reality. If it is manifold, then, it cannot be an ultimate material cause of the worlds and the worldly objects.
It may be argued that a single cloth is produced from many threads which serve as the material cause of the cloth and so it is evident that all the products are brought out from innumerable material causes and therefore there is no defect in considering that maya is manifold. Such argument is not reasonable. Because, it is obviously seen that such innumerable threads are produced from one single source of cotton. So, there is no defect in holding that all the worlds are created from one single maya, the ultimate material cause.
Some persons hold the view that only from the conscious self, the non-intelligent world is created. If, from a cause which is of the nature of consciousness, an effect which is of the nature of being inert, as opposed to consciousness, could be created, then they could infer the presence of water from the smoke, being under the impression that smoke is produced from the water. Why they are not inferring so?
Some others maintain the view that the ultimate cause of the world, right up to the extent of the gross elements such as earth (pruthvi) and others, is the invisible subtle atom (paramanu). They are of the view that only through the knowledge of six categories, dravya and others, liberation could be attained. Does not their sharpness of knowledge get exposed through such conceptions? Let this argument be ignored. Paramanus are inert and many; so, paramanu cannot be the ultimate cause)
Since it is obviously perceived that the bodies are created from other bodies (that is, body of a son from the bodies of the parents), there need not be another cause as maya for the creation of bodies. If such view is held to be true, what body was there in the beginning of creation subsequent to the dissolution of all the created objects, to give rise to another body? If total absorption is held to be myth, then the all-knowing Isvara also is a myth.
If an attribute of an object existing in a particular place is known well, then, it could be well understood that the same attribute is present in that same kind of object seen in all other places also. What objection could be there to this view? Smoke and brightness of fire observed in a particular place could be seen as related to each other in the same way even in all other places. Likewise, since there are countless intermediary dissolution for all the embodied souls, it is inferred that there should be a final and great dissolution in which all the created objects and the worlds get absorbed into their relevant causes. Such total absorption is known even through the Agamas.
Thus, through reasoning, reflection and inference, maya has been ascertained to be the material cause of the universe. All the effects are contained in the maya in the form of subtle potencies, during the time of total dissolution. Again, in the beginning of next creation, these potencies are brought out from maya in order to create bodies, instruments, worlds and enjoyments.
A doubt: When a cloth is not available, a person who is in need of a cloth makes use of the threads and produces the cloth. After the production of the cloth, the name ‘thread’ vanishes of its own accord. Since the material cause, namely the thread, has now become a non-existent, the effect, namely the cloth, also belongs to the variety of non-existent. Therefore, even the world, which is a product, is a non-existent. So it is observed that the purpose of a materializing substance (vastu) is to give rise to the emergence of a non-existent effect. Therefore, maya, the vastu, is the cause for a non-existent world. Is it not?
Reply: If a non-existent could be produced from an existent, then, everybody could create all the desired products from all the causes which are innumerable. Since each effect is produced from each relevant cause, all objects cannot be produced from a single cause. If it be said so, it is not correct. There is no such restraint (niyamaka) on the part of creation as to hold the view that one cause should give rise to only one effect and it cannot give rise to another product. If it is held that the potency contained in the cause is capable of producing one effect alone, then it confirms our own view that all the effects are contained in the cause in the form of subtle potencies.
If it be claimed that a non-existent effect could be brought out from a cause, it cannot be so. Creation of the son of a barren woman would not be possible even through a host of instruments. There is an authentic statement that the instruments are essentially needed to bring out the effects from a cause. Assemblage of tools and instruments and making use of them lead to creative activities. All such statements would become meaningless if it is claimed that a non-existent could be produced from a cause and consequently there would be no world also.
“There is a potency in each cause so as to make the effects emerge out. So the effect itself is not contained in the cause in the form of potency.” If this be said, then, the specific nature of that potency should have been stated. But no such specific nature has been declared.
Therefore, in each materializing existent (vastu), there is the potency related to the effect, functioning as the restraining power (niyamika). If such potency is there, then there is the effect; if such potency is not there, effect also is not there. Through such sort of affirmative and negative assertions and through well-observed worldly phenomena, this truth should be known.
Creation is the evident, external manifestation of the effect contained in the cause in its potential form, through the operation of instrumental causes. The form as contained in the thread is concealing the form of the cloth. Such concealment is removed by the instruments such as the shuttle, loom and others and consequently the exact form of the cloth is manifested. In the same way, all the products are brought out from the cause.
Just as the pot concealed by a cloth presents itself to visibility as soon as the concealing cloth is removed, even so, kala and other tattvas which are kept concealed in maya are brought out and manifested, after the removal of the concealed state. Such removal is effected through the activities undertaken by Anantesvara. That which is non-existent could never be produced.
Chapter 10: On the Nature of Kala and Other Tattvas (31 verses)
Kala’, kaala, niyati, raga, purusha, prakriti, guna, buddhi, ahankara, citta (manas), indriyas, five tanmatras (subtle elements) and five bhutas (gross elements) – all these are the maya-born tattvas. These are evolved from the maya in two orders – the primary order and the secondary order.
Anantesvara is the Lord of impure maya. The order in which he creates all these tattvas from the impure maya, after effecting vibrant and creative convulsions in the field of impure maya, is now explained. He creates these tattvas in order to provide bodies, instruments, enjoyments and so forth to all the bound souls.
Like the Cit-sakti (of Lord Siva), the absolute knowing-power of the soul is eternal and pervasive. Since that power is obstructed by the beginningless impurity called anava-mala, the soul is not able to do the essential deeds, without being graciously enkindled by Siva’s grace. Therefore, in view of bestowing grace upon the souls, Anantesvara first stimulates maya and creates the effulgent kala tattva from it to enable the souls perform the essential activities.
Through that kala tattva which is like a lighted lamp, Anantesvara partially manifests the conscious power (knowing power) of the soul whose consciousness (caitanya) is veiled by the darkening impurity called anava mala. The term ‘kala’ means that which removes and regulates (or fixes). The kala tattva partially dispels the darkness, regulates and fixes the enjoyments (bhogas) to the souls through another tattva known as niyati.
O, the Brahmin Sage!, the kala tattva is united with the soul in this way by Anantesvara. The kala tattva and the individual self get united together as if they are non-different from each other. With regard to the enjoyments, the soul functions as the doer and the kala tattva functions as the inducer of the soul’s action. The soul, whose power of action has been now partially manifested and activated, is dependent on Siva’s grace for the manifestation of its power of cognition, since at this stage there is no instrumental potency for the soul to cognize the object. So, for the benefit of the soul’s power of cognition, Anantesvara activates the kala tattva and creates from it another tattva known as the vidya tattva which serves as an important subtle instrument for the soul.
Through the resplendent vidya tattva which partially manifests the power of cognition, the soul cognizes the objects to be known with the help of all other assisting instruments such as the organs and so forth. The soul whose conscious power has now been manifested and illumined by the vidya tattva cognizes the objects. But, in spite of such conscious power, the soul is not able to be motivated and persevere towards the varied enjoyments (bhogas), since it is without the inclination towards desiring (abhilasha). At this stage, Anantesvara creates raga tattva (from the kala tattva) in order to instill the sense of intention and desire in the soul.
In spite of being impure, the soul, which has now been infused with the sense of desire eagerly experiences various kinds of enjoyments. While experiencing, it does not become associated with the sense of detachment. The soul becomes associated with these tattvas in this way and also with the organs and others in due course, to experience the enjoyments (bhogas) afforded in various planes of existence called the ‘bhogs bhumis’ located in different tattvas. But, in these fields of enjoyments (bhoga bhumis), all the bhogas are in conformity with the principle of time known as the kaala tattva. Souls cannot experience the bhogas without the intervention of this kaala tattva.
The kaala tattva which gives rise to the knowledge of various modes of time and divisions of time such as ‘truti’ and others is originated by Anantesvara from the impure maya. The soul is regulated and restrained to the experience of its own karmic fruits, right from the birth up to the time of dissolution through another tattva known as ‘niyati’. Since the ‘time’ induces the bound souls towards worldly pursuits and perseverences, it is characteristically called ‘kaala tattva’.
A doubt: Enjoyments pertaining to the bound souls and the entire means thereof are within the purview of karma. So such karma is needed for the enjoyments of the bound souls. Let this karma itself perform the regulation and restraining of the enjoyments. Why another tattva called ‘niyati’ is needed, which seems to be redundant, in excess of the karma?
Reply: Then, since even all tattvas such as the organs of knowledge and action, mind, buddhi and so forth are helpful in experiencing the bhogas, they are also to be considered as within the purview of the karma. So karma itself becomes sufficient for the souls to experience the bhogas. Then where is the need for the kala and other tattvas? The body, instruments, organs – all these become redundant and purposeless.
So, if it is maintained that karma itself is capable of accomplishing all the four goals of human life -dharma, artha, kama and moksha – for the souls depending on body, instruments and others, then that karma is to be held as depending on niyati tattva also. So, it is niyati tattva that is responsible for the regulation and restraint of the karmic fruits.
Purusha tattva which is responsible for the disposition related to the awareness of ‘purusha’ (that is, the cognition as to “I am the experiencing soul”) is then originated from the kala tattva. It fills up the entire range of tattvas from prakruti onwards (which are originated after the evolution of purusha tattva) and it serves as the location of various bhuvanas which are under the control of Vamadeva and other Rudras.
After the creation of purusha tattva, Anantesvara creates the prakruti tattva from the kala tattva. It serves as the material cause for the evolution of guna tattva which, in its turn, serves as the causal source of seven tattvas- mahat, ahankara and five tanmatras.
From the avyakta tattva, Anantesvara creates guna tattva in which the three gunas – sattva, rajas and tamas – are in manifest but undifferentiated state. The function of these three gunas are – illumination (parkasa), enabling to persevere (pravrutti) and restraint (niyama) respectively.
Even though the gunas are three in number, guna tattva is only one, since the three gunas are present there in the undifferentiated state. But each guna is spoken of separately in view of the predominant function of that particular guna.
There is not even a single or smallest object in the world as not pervaded by all the three gunas, or one guna or the gunas in their mixed state.
From the guna tatva, Srikantha (as directed by Anantesvara) creates the buddhi tattva which is characteristically associated with varied modes (bhavas) and dispositions (pratyayas). This buddhi tattva, being refined and associated with the evolutes mentioned in the sequel, becomes the direct enjoyments for the souls.
The modes (bhavas) are the attributes of buddhi tattva. They are eight in number – dharma, jnana, vairagya, aisvarya, adharma, ajnana, avairagya and anaisvarya. Out of these eight, dharma, jnana, vairagya and aisvarya are satvic in nature. Adharma, ajnana and anaisvarya are tamasic in nature. Avairagya is of rajasic nature.
O, Sage!, the dispositions (pratyayas) of the buddhi tattva are those such as siddhi, jnana and so forth, as effected by the modes – dharma, jnana and others. Eight dispositions evolve from the dharma; nine dispositions evolve from the jnana; twenty-eight dispositions evolve from the vairagya; and, five dispositions originate from the aisvarya. These are elaborately explained in various Agamas and they are well known.
The modes (bhavas) pertaining to the bound souls are classified into three – samsiddhika, vainayika and prakruta. Owing to the meritorious and auspicious deeds such as the construction of a temple, tank and such others performed by good-minded persons, a well-illumined consciousness dawns on them, free from the limitation and imperfection caused by anava mala.
Samsiddhika is the constant manifestation of such perfect consciousness in them, even after the cessation of their bodily existence, in the same way as it was present during the embodied state. Vainayika is that consciousness which gets illumined and vitalized through Guru’s instructions (upadesa), study of the Scriptures and the knowledge gained through experience and intuition. Such vainayika is earned through mind, word and deed. Prakruta is that consciousness which occasionally manifests in the mind like a dream while being in embodied state.
The fruits which are effected by the modes related to the vainayika and prakruta are: Through dharma – heaven; through jnana – liberation; through vairagya – absorption into the prakriti tattva; through aisvarya – unobstructed and unassailable state; through adharma – occurrence of birth in the categories of animals and others; through ajnana – hell; through avairagya – bondage; through anaisvarya – obstructions, limitations.
The fruits effected by the modes as related to the samsiddhika are: through dharma – holding the Devata in one’s control; through jnana – jnana yoga; through vairagya – free from desire for the worldly enjoyments (aversion towards the bhogas); through aisvarya –removal of the obstacles and the constrained state; through adharma – desire for the bhogas; through ajnana – degraded state; through avairagya – continued embodiment; through anaisvarya – impediments and bondage.
Chapter 11; On the Nature of Dispositions (pratyayas) and Others (27 verses)
Earlier, the general nature of dispositions (pratyayas) comprising the groups known as siddhi, tushti, asakti and viparyaya has been told briefly. In order to know them elaborately, their specific nature is now explained, with all the differentiations involved in them.
That particular aspect of intellect (buddhi tattva) which manifests as related to the principles (tattvas) known as purusha, prakruti and guna is called ‘siddhi’. In spite of not being benefited or successful, the thought which arises as to ‘I am benefited, I am successful’ is called ‘tushti’.
Asakti is the state of not cognizing an object in spite of the existence of that object, due to non-functioning of the internal and external organs (karakas). To cognize an object differently (erroneously), by simply observing an insignificant quality present in two or more objects is known as ‘viparyaya’.
Of these, siddhi is of sattvic nature when it illumines gunas and others; it of rajasic nature, when it functions as related to the cognizable objects.
Since tushti is of the form of unreal, it is tamasic in nature and when it manifests in the form of happiness, it is sattvic in nature. Asakti is of tamasic nature since there is the absence of perseverance towards experiencing the objects. It is of rajasic nature when it manifests in the form of pain. Since a property of a cause is manifested in its effect also and since pain, which is the quality of rajas, appears through asakti, it is ascertained that asakti is of rajasic nature.
Since viparyaya is of the form of unreal, it is of tamasic nature. But, generally, it is illuminative and so it is held to be of sattvic nature.Thus, the effulgent state of buddhi tattva which functions through its modes (bhavas) and dispositions (pratyayas) is the field for the full manifestation (vyakta bhumi) of the knowledge of the souls in bondage. So, from this perspective, buddhi tattva itself is sometimes mentioned as the ‘bodha’ (knowledge).
An objection: If, in this way, the buddhi tattva is responsible for the manifestation of knowledge, then, the vidya tattva which is also responsible for the manifestation of knowledge becomes redundant. Moreover, since non-detachment (avairagya) which is one of the modes (bhavas) of the buddhi tattva is capable of instilling intense desire (abhilasha) in the bound souls, then what is the use of raga tattva born of kala tattva? (The function of the raga tattva also is to arouse desire)
Reply: If it be said that since buddhi tattva itself is enough for the manifestation of knowledge and by that reason vidya tattva becomes redundant and purposeless, then, even it is held (in the system of Kapila) that the knowledge occurs through the function of the organs (jnanendriyas) along with the mind and so in this case the buddhi tattva itself becomes redundant and futile. Among the manifold factors which are responsible for the manifestation of an effect, one factor cannot be rejected in view of the other factors.
Some persons maintain the view that the buddhi tattva is of the nature of being an instrument (karanatva) for manifesting the knowledge and since the vidya tattva is told to be instrumental for the manifestation of knowledge, vidya tattva becomes purposeless. Even in respect of this objection, the same point as explained in respect of the organs and the mind holds good for countering this objection. (Just the buddhi tattva is needed even though there are organs of knowledge and the mind, even so, the vidya tattva is needed even though there is buddhi tattva)
When two sources are responsible in respect of one effect, one source is redundant – if it be argued so, then, in respect of apprehending the object of enjoyment, eyes, ears, hand, feet – all these should apprehend different objects of enjoyments. But this does not happen. They are not different, since the enjoyment (bhoga) as experienced by the soul is only one. (Enjoyment is only one; eyes, ears, hands and others are different instruments which are useful in apprehending it. Nothing is superfluous) Furthermore, these two tattvas, vidya and buddhi, are the sources not for the only one effect. Each one has its own characteristic purpose. Therefore, there is nothing defect in manifesting an effect through various instruments or sources.
The function of vidya tattva is different from that of the buddhi tattva. The function of vidya tattva is to partially manifest the cognitive power of the bound soul. The function of the buddhi tattva is to ascertain and take hold of the object already apprehended by the organs (of knowledge and action) and to effect the determinate cognition of the object through vidya tattva associated with purusha tattva. Raga tattva which manifests intense desire towards enjoyment cannot become the avairagya, one of the modes of the buddhi tattva, since the nature of these two differs considerably. The nature of avairagya is to exist as the enjoyment present in the flowers, sandal and such other pleasurable objects. Raga tattva is that which, being the one which enables to enjoy, creates intense desire towards that enjoyment. Avairagya is concerned with the external objects. Raga tattva is concerned with the internal desire. If these two are one, then, as long as there is the object of enjoyment, there should be desire. In that case, no person could become the one free from desire (vitaraga). No person could become an ascetic. Raga tatva which is the cause for the desire towards the objects of enjoyments cannot become the avairagya, one of the modes of the buddhi tattva and cannot become the external objects meant for the enjoyments. If the raga tattva becomes aviragya, then it itself would come to the position of being a bhogya ( experiencing the enjoyment). It cannot become so. If it becomes or if it assumes the forms of external objects, then there could be no possibility for a person to become an ascetic free from desire.
An objection: Let the raga tattva be there. Since karma is accepted to be the cause for the diverse nature of enjoyments, let the karma itself be the cause for the desire towards enjoyments. Why then the raga tattva is needed for such manifestation of desire?
Reply: While speaking on the niyati tattva, it has been told that karma cannot be an independent factor in affording the multitudes of enjoyments. Karma is responsible only for the bodies, instruments and so forth but it cannot create desire which is the product of raga tattva. But, in that case, let aversion (dvesha) also be a different tattva like the raga tattva. If it be argued so, no, aversion cannot be a separate and different tattva. Aversion is only a specific mode of perseverance effected by the raga tattva; it cannot be a separate tattva. “Since raga tattva and dvesha (aversion) are mutually opposed, they cannot exist in one and the same location.” If this be said so, no; they can exist so, because raga and dvesha do not occur simultaneously in one and the same location. So there is no defect in their existence in one and the same place.
This is so because, for all persons and at all times all the perseverences concerned with the objects occur due to the awareness of pleasure. After the due perseverences, either pleasure, pain or delusion occurs according to the context of time and karma.
Dvesha occurs subsequent to the continued activities (pravrutti); but, raga has already occurred prior to the perseverences (pravrutti). Upon the cessation of dvesha, again raga re-emerges. Of these two – raga and dvesha – that which is more powerful than the other manifests out. Therefore, for these two, existing in one and the same location is not a defect; not an impossibility.
From the buddhi tattva is evolved ahankara tattva which is responsible for the occurrence of effort. By the various functions of this ahankara tattva, five bodily airs (vayus) are kept in operation. The bodily airs get differentiated into five based on their functional differences. Prana, apana, vyana, udana and samana – these are the primary five bodily airs. O, Sage Bharadvaja!, now listen to the brief exposition on the functional aspects of these five vital airs.
The functions of the prana (the primary vital air) are: to elevate the breath from the heart space up to the plane of dvadasanta; to sustain the life-force; to manifest the inferring consciousness within the soul when it is involved in search of truth, like a blind man; to maintain the bodily existence; to transmit strength and vigor to the consciousness, to the subtle body formed of the tattvas from the kala to the pruthvi, to the energy (sakti) present in the body in the form of strength and to the ida and pingala nadis.
To force down the excreta and urine which are the modifications of those which have been eaten and drunk, is the function of apana. To diffuse uniformly the essence of food and drink on all sides of the body, is the function of samana. To effect bendings and movements in the joints of the body, is the function of vyana. To render the distinctly articulated letter-form to the sound as assisted by the tongue, depending on the urge to articulate the sound which emerges from the heart-space, is the function of udana. The exact locations of these vital airs, successful completion of dharanas, the benefits thereof and other specific details – all these are explained in another section known as yoga, by Lord Siva.
Chapter 12: On the Nature of Organs and Others (34 verses)
Then, Lord Siva who actively presents Himself in Anantesvara and Rudras such as Srikantha, Mandalikas and others (who are in the sphere of impure maya) creates three sections of mass in the ahankara tattva which is replete with the modes of three qualities –sattva, rajas and tamas.
The three sections of mass in ahankara tattva are – taijasa (resplendent section) vaikarika (section sustaining modifications) and bhutadi (elemental section). From these are evolved the organs of knowledge (jnana indriyas), organs of action (karma indriyas) and subtle elements (tanmatras) respectively. From the tanmatras are evolved five gross elements.
The sense of hearing (ears), sense of touch (skin), sense of sight (eyes), sense of taste (tongue) and sense of smell (nose) – these five organs of knowledge and mind (manas) are of the nature of cognition and hence they are sattvic in nature. The section of ahankara from which these are evolved is also sattvic in nature. This section of ahankara is called taijasa ahankara.
Speech, feet, hands, anus, genital organ – these are the organs of action. Since these are endowed with qualitative power of action, they are rajasic in nature. That part of ahankara which is the causal source of these organs is also rajasic in nature and it is called vaikarika ahankara.
Sound, touch, color, taste and smell –since all these exist in subtle state without manifesting their specific qualities and exist simply in the form of causal source of space, air and others (bhuta prakruti), these are called ‘tanmatras’. Being different from the organs of knowledge and the organs of action, these tanmatras remain to be grasped (organs belong to subject class; tanmatras belong to object class). So, the tanmatras are tamasic in nature. That section of ahankara from which these tanmatras arise is also tamasic in nature and it is called bhutadi ahankara (elemental and others).
Manas is that which induces the sense of hearing and others to perform their respective functions, which is with swift movement and which has ‘sankalpa’ (resolving) as its quality. Sense of hearing, touch, and others apprehend sound, touch and others respectively.
The functions of five organs of action are speaking, moving, grasping or holding, excreting and delighting in. All these organs of knowledge and organs of actions are different from their respective locations (asrayas) in which they exist. Because, in spite of the existence of these locations, apprehension of sound, touch and others does not take place in the absence of the innate potential power of each organ.
Even though there is constant relation (or union) between the soul’s consciousness and the cognizable objects, the cognizing activity does not take place at all times; it occurs occasionally. There should be a cause for such cognizing activity which is occasional and not constant. That cause should be understood as manas (mind). Thus, the existence of manas is ascertained through reasoning.
The action known as ‘sankalpa’ (resolution or ideation) is, beyond doubt, different from the functions of other tattvas such as kala tattva and others. So it is inferred that there should be a cause for such an action of sankalpa. Since sankalpa cannot be performed by all other tattvas, then, by the process of elimination (parisesha anumana), it is ascertained that it is manas tattva that performs sankalpa.
Due to the union of manas with the organs, the cognition of sound, touch and others takes place. Since this union takes place in a successive order, even the cognition occurs in successive order, not simultaneously. The seeming appearance of simultaneous occurrence is due to the specific quality of manas, this quality being its extreme swiftness in movement.
Objection: Since the organs, such as the sense of hearing and others, apprehend different objects in a separate and distinct way, they should be held as born of separate and distinct causes. Moreover, since they are productive of qualities like smell, taste and others, they should be held as the effects arising from the gross elements such as pruthivi (earth) and others. So they are of the nature of the gross elements, the sources. (They are not to be considered as evolved from taijasa ahankara)
Reply: If an organ does not apprehend the elements along with their qualities other than the one which is its source, your view is acceptable. But that does not happen. Because, the sense of touch apprehends all other three elements such as pruthivi and others. In the same way, eye, the sense of sight apprehends in addition to its own, other two elements. If it be said that the sense gets evolved from the elements then it should be held that the eye is evolved from the three substances since it apprehends three elements. But this is not so. Even the disputant would not accept the view that the eye is born of three elements.
Moreover, it it be said that the organ which gets evolved from a particular substance (element) apprehends the form of that element alone, then that organ should not cognize other features such as the activity, class, inseparable relationship and such others of that element. But it cognizes these features also. So this kind of objection would create unwanted series of deliberations which are tiresome.
If it be said that the space (akasa) which is present in the cavity of the body apprehends sound which is the quality of space, then what is obstructing the apprehension of sound by the space present in the cavity of nose? If it is said that in the cavity present in the ear there exists an unseen potency enabling the cognition of sound and such unseen potency is absent in the cavity present in other parts and so such cognition does not take place, what objection is there in holding the view that for the organs evolved from ahankara there is no such unseen potency and so there does not occur the cognition of other qualities. Why should it be held that each organ is evolved from each element? If our view that the organs are evolved from ahankara is not accepted, then there could be no answer for our objection that the space present in the cavity of nose should also apprehend the sound.
Even under the circumstances where reasoning is not possible, there is nothing wrong in knowing a thing through the Agama which is essentially a collection of authentic statements given by a trustworthy person (apta vakyas). Eminent persons maintain that the Agamas revealed by Siva Himself are more valid than the proofs such as inference and others which provide only insignificant knowledge.
The five gross elements are: space, air, fire, water and earth. They possess the qualities beginning with sound (sound, touch, color, taste and smell), the quality increasing by one successively for each succeeding element. Sound is present in air and other three elements. Agitated sound like ‘saka saka’ is present in the air; blazing sound like ‘dhaka dhaka’ is present in the fire; spreading sound like ‘cala cala’ is present in the water; rough sound like ‘khada khada’ is present in the earth. In space, there are sounds in echoes of the same kind as the original sounds. Gathering the substances (vyuhana), giving room for movement (avakasa dana), burning, holding together and supporting – these are the functions of air, space, fire,water and earth respectively.
Objection: O, Bhagavan!, some persons maintain that since sound manifests in another place, leaving behind its own place of generation such as drum and other objects, it is to be accepted that the sound is the quality of space only. So how could it be said that sound is the quality of all other elements also?
Reply: Some say that the sound manifests in another place. What is that ‘another place’? If it is said that the sound appears in the ear-space, then how has the quality of space appeared there? It may be said that it appears there, since the ear-space is also considered as the locus of the sound. But, in this regard, the actual worldly phenomenon is the valid testimony. ‘Sounds originate in this drum, in this lute…’ – such statement is very often heard. So, even the drum, lute and such others are the locations for the origination of the sound. But, again it may be argued that the sound manifests at times even in the ear-drum (srotra mula). Then, even in that place, let the sound manifest in a modified form! What defect is there?
Moreover, the reason, as adduced here, is falsified by the actual perception and by the scriptural testimony. Those who have known well the logical significance maintain that a reason or a view which is falsified and refuted cannot prove the intended proposition. It has been told in all the Agamas that the sound manifests in all the elements. Even perceptually it is observed that the sound, apart from the space and in addition to the space, appears in all other four elements. The demonstration which runs counter to this actual phenomenon does not stand to reason. “Just as the fragrance of flowers manifests at a long distance, after leaving behind its own source, even so the sound manifests in another place, after leaving behind its source and locus.” If it be argued so, then, in that case, it has to be conceived that even the smell is the quality of space. But such conception is against actual perception and scriptural testimony.
How the sound is manifesting in all the five elements – this has been explained so far. Touch manifests in four elements starting from the air. In the earth and in the air, touch is present being neither cold nor hot. It presents in the water as cold and it presents in the fire as hot. Color is present in three elements starting from fire. Bright color is present in the fire; white color, in water; several kinds of color like white, yellow and others are present in the earth. Taste is present in the water as sweet. Six kinds of taste are present in the earth. It is observed by the learned persons that the odor present in the earth is of two kinds – fragrant and non-fragrant.
In a physical body, earth is present in bone, flesh, hair, skin, nails and teeth. Water is present in urine, blood, phlegm, sweat, semen and others. Fire is present in the heart, gastric fire, sight, bile and others. The property of fire is seen in all these. Through various modifications such as prana, apana and other bodily airs, air-element is present. About such modifications, it has already been told. Space is present within all the nadis. Such presence of the five elements in the physical body is maintained by the constant operation of the ahankara tattva.
All the tattvas from kala to pruthvi function as the instruments, in affording the enjoyments to the souls. Since the enjoyments (bhogas) are in diverse forms, not being in generality, it is ascertained that these tattvas exist separately in each soul. The subtle body which is constituted of the tattvas from kala to pruthvi is not pervasive, since all of its functional modes occurring in the form of enjoyments born of karmic fruits do not take place simultaneously. Even though these tattvas evolve from different causes such as maya, kala, mahat, ahankara and others, the subtle body which is constituted of these tattvas is provided for the only one purpose of experiencing the bhogas brought out by the karmic fruits, just as in the lamp all the varied associates of the lamp such as the wick, oil, container and others by which the flame is maintained indicate the only one purpose, namely, illumination of the place.
The subtle body is of the nature of the tattvas from kala to pruthvi. It carries out the function of affording to the souls various enjoyments born of the karmic fruits. It appears to be intelligent owing to its conjoining with the conscious self and it flourishes as emerged from the womb of maya. Such characteristics of the subtle body have been detailed here succinctly. Since this itself is not enough to realize the vastness and inexhaustible nature of the bhogas, let me explain the order of the tattvas and bhuvanas (worlds existing at different planes) which serve as the abodes, gross bodies and the objects of enjoyments.
Chapter 13: Description of the Worlds Existing in Different Planes of ‘Bhuvana Adhva’ (199 verses)
In order to provide the necessary enjoyments, bodies and instruments for the bound souls so that they could be disentangled from the bonds of maya, karma and mala, Lord Anantesvara creates many worlds at various levels from the kala tattva and prakruti tattva known as the common causal sources.
There are many worlds, from the Kalagnirudra bhuvana up to those which are in the uppermost level of kala tattva. The knowers of the tattvas declare that these worlds which are the sources and proper places of various enjoyments constitute what is known as ‘samsara’ (transmigratory path). It is said that Mandalesas, Gahanesas and other Lords are functioning even in the maya tattva as the Lords of the worlds existing in that tattva. And even in the process of initiation (diksha), purification of maya tattva in view of the bhuvans existing there has been instructed. But it does not mean that the worlds are existing in the maya tattva. Actually, the worlds are existing in the uppermost level of kala tattva only. In view of the close proximity of the maya tattva, it has been figuratively mentioned that there are worlds in the maya tattva. Maya tattva is eternal and pervasive. But the worlds which are the sources of enjoyments are with features of forms and it is known that they get dissolved into the causal source, Maya. So the formed and destructible worlds cannot exist in a formless and eternal Maya. Therefore, there is nothing wrong to say that the worlds are up to the upper level of kala tattva.
Even in the pure adhva, there are Lords of the worlds which are evolved from the pure Maya. These worlds are to be known as existing in the upper level of each tattva of the pure adhva. They are not actually existing in the pure Maya.
The minute particles seen floating in the rays of the sun which enter through an oblique window are generally known as ‘paramanus’. Eight paramanus make one ‘trasarenu’. Eight trasarenus make one ‘kacagra’. Eight kacagra make one ‘liksha’. Eight liksha make one ‘yuka’. Eight yukas make one ‘yava’. Eight yavas make one angula. Twenty-four angulas make one hasta. Four hastas make one bow (dhanu). Two dhanus make one danda. Two thousand dandas make one ‘krosa’. Two krosas make one ‘gavyuti’. Two gavyutis make one ‘yojana’. (The extent of brahmanda is calculated in terms of yojana).
The thickness of the shell (wall) of the brahmanda measures 1000 yojanas. Within this brahmanda, at its bottom level, there is a mansion designed with gold. The height of that mansion is, likewise, 1000 yojanas. Kalagnirudra whose effulgence equals the brilliance of ten million suns arising simultaneously at the time of final dissolution exists in that mansion, being surrounded by ten Rudras, each Rudra surrounded by ten million Rudras.
The heart of all the beings living in all the worlds of bhuvana adhva get terrified when Kalagnirudra intensifies his unbearable effulgence at the time of dissolution, being instructed and directed by the annihilating Sakti of Lord Siva. By nature, the flames of Kalgnirudra rise to the height of 100 million yojanas. The dense and dreadful smoke of the flames rises to the height of 50 million yojanas.
Above the world of Kalagnirudra, there are 33 layers, each layer covering a height of nine millions of yojanas. There is an interspace between each layer, measuring a height of one hundred thousand yojanas and so the total number of interspace between all the layers is 32, covering a total height of 32 laks (one lak is equal to one hundred thousand). The hellish worlds created by Anantesvara for the sinners to undergo the torments inflicted by Yama, lie there distributed over these layers. O, the eminent twice-born Sage!, I will tell you the names of these hellish worlds, to enable you acquainted with the knowledge of bhuvana adhva.
Raurava, Dhvanta, Sita, Ushna, Santapa, Ambuja and Mahambuja – these eight hells are known well as belonging to the category called Naraka. Sucimukha, Kalakhadga, Kshuradhara, Ambarishaka, Taptangara, Mahadaha, Santapa and Bhibhatsa – these eight hells belong to the category known as Mahanaraka. O, the great Sage!, Lakshapralepa, Mamsada, Nirucchvasanasocchvasa, Yugmadri, Salmali, Lohapradipta, Kshutpipasa, Krumiinicaya – these eight hells are belonging to the category known as Rajanaraka. Lohastambha, Vinmutra, Vaitaraninadi, Tamisra, Andhatamisra, Kumbhibhaga, Maharaurava and Avici – these eight hells belong to the category known as Rajarajesvara naraka.
O, the foremost twice-born Sage!, the total height of these 33 layers along with the hells is 33 crores and 2 lakhs. Above this level, there is a mid-space whose height measures 30 thousand yojanas. Above this mid- space is a layer with a height of 9 lakhs of yojanas. The lower half of this layer is of the nature of iron and its upper half is of the nature of gold. Half of the lower half is of the nature of earth and the remaining half is of the nature of iron.
There exists Kushmanda, the Lord of all these 32 narakas mentioned here. He is with the resplendence of the sun and the fire which appear at the time of final dissolution. He appears with a dreadful face expressing his fierce nature through his rounded and protruding eyes. His hand is holding the hatchet. He is surrounded by the Bhutas who are of the same nature as of Kushmanda.
Above the layer whose half is iron and another half is gold, there is this world (bhu-loka), the eighth one. Six worlds are below the bhu-loka, each one measuring a height of 9000 yojanas. In between these six worlds and the bhu-loka, there is the seventh world. The height of mid-space between each of the six worlds is 1000 yojanas. The height of the seventh world is 10,000 yojanas. The layer above the seventh world is with a height of 2 crores and 88 lakhs of yojanas. These seven worlds are specifically called ‘Patala saptaka’ by the learned people.
O, Sage!, for your understanding, the names of these seven worlds and of their governing Lords are now told. Abhasa, Paratala, Nitala, Gabhastimat, Mahatala, Rasamka and Patala. In each world, there are Asurendras, Nagesvaras and Rakshasas. Asuras are in the lower section; Nagas are in the middle section and Rakshasas are in the upper section (of each world). The names of seven Asuras are: Sankusruti, Prahlada, Sisupala, Karkanduka, Hiranyaksha, Bruhadgarbha and Bali. The names of seven Nagesvaras are: Kutilaka, Vasuki, Kambala, Karkotaka, Kalanga, Durdarsa and Takshaka. The names of seven Rakshasas are: Vikata, Lohitaksha, Yama, Vikatanana, Karala, Bhimanihrada and Pingala. Above these Patalas, there exists the Lord of all these seven worlds.
Hatakesvara, the Lord of all the seven patala-worlds exists in a splendid mansion and region which appear with the luster of gold. He is being extolled by the ladies belonging to various Ganas such as the Daityas, Yakshas, Suras and Nagas. They are praising him with musical songs composed with soft sounding words being rendered in three phases –fast, middle and slow – in order to attain all those which are endearing to them. Above the world of Hatakesvara is the Pruthvi-loka (the Earth) raising up to the height of 100 crores of yojanas. It is resorted to by the people of various denominations.
This Pruthvi-loka is beautified and enriched by the islands, mountains, rivers and oceans. Jambu, Saka, Kusa, Kraunca, Salmali, Gomeda and Pushkara –these are the seven islands. Jambudvipa is with an extent of one lakh of yojanas. The extent of Sakadvipa is twice that of the Jambu. In the same way, the extent of each succeeding island is twice the extent of the previous one. These dvipas are surrounded by salty ocean and other oceans. Beyond the seventh ocean is the land which is of the nature and luster of gold. Beyond that land is the mountain known as ‘lokaloka’. Beyond the ‘lokaloka’ mountain, only dense darkness prevails. Beyond the dark region is the ocean called ‘garbhoda’ extending up to the wall of the brahmanda.
Sage Bharadvaja: “O, Indra, the Lord of the devas, you are the one who could explain well the principles set forth in the Agamas and you are the one who has seen well all the perceptible things. Being forcibly pulled by the taste of hearing and understanding the complete details, my mind runs fast towards you. I desire to hear the greatness of this Pruthvi which is in the likeness of Sakti and which is embellished with various mountains, rivers, islands, forests and oceans.” Indra: “O, the foremost twice-born sage!, a perfect description of a structure appears as a well-formed image. I will explain the islands, rivers and the forests of this great land. Listen to these details with one-pointed attentive mind.”
The Jambudvipa appears as the navel of the earth-sphere (bhu mandala). It is with an extent of one hundred thousand yojanas. It is surrounded by the salty ocean whose extent is the same as that of the Jambudvipa. At the center of the Jambudvipa, there is Mount Meru which is the Supreme King of all the mountains and which is of the nature gold. It is with an effulgence which excels the brilliance of the sun. It is honored and frequently resorted to by the Devas. It is with a height of 100 yojanas. Up to the height of 16,000 yojanas at its bottom level, it has gone into the earth. The remaining part having a height of 84,000 yojanas is raising above the earth. Its extent at the bottom measures 16, 000 yojanas and at the top it measures 32,000 yojanas. It is with three sections one above the other, each measuring a height of 25,000 yojanas. At the top of each section, there is a projection around the mountain looking like a girdle or bracelet, appearing with exceeding resplendence. The height of each projection measures 9 yojanas. The extent of each projection gets increased by 4000 yojanas. The extent of the girdle which is at the top of the bottom section is 10,000 yojanas. The extent of the middle girdle at the top of the second section is 14,000 yojanas. The extent of the top girdle of the upper section is 18,000 yojanas.
The girdle at the top of the upper section serves as the dwelling place of the eight Lokapalas (Directional Deities). The knowers of the Scriptures call it ‘Cakravata’ and is shimmering with the resplendent rays of all the gems. At the girdles which are below the cakravata, there is the residence of the Siddhas, Gandharvas and Maruts. On the eight summits of the Cakravata, there are eight cities.
These cities belonging to Indra and other Lokapalas are in the eight directions starting from the east. For your understanding, I tell you the names and descriptions of these cities. The city called Amaravati belonging to Indra is in the east. It is beautified with the clusters and shimmering arrays of the rays of various precious gems. It is frequently resorted to by various groups such as the Siddhas, Sadhyas and Maruts and it is with a stretch of golden land. The city called Tejovati belonging to Agni is in the south-east. It is abounding in gems which are in red color and whitish-yellow color. It is provided with enclosures and gopuras constructed with gold. It is frequented by the Devas who are in the likeness of Agnideva.
The city known as Samyamini belonging to Yama is in the south. It is provided with highly raised ramparts and surrounding enclosures constructed with iron. It is served by various troops of Yama such as Kalapasa, Pitru, Vyadhi, Preta, Mari and others. The city called Krishnavati belonging to Nirruti, the Lord of the Daityas, is resorted to by the Daityas. Its mansion appears like the mansion of Yama. It is richly decorated with wonderful canopies associated with the cluster of resplendent rays emitted by sapphire. The city known as Suddhavati belonging to Varuna, the Lord of water, is in the west. It is constructed with crystal stones (sphatika). It shines forth with bright buildings whose color is comparable to the white clouds. It is resorted to by various aquatic beings such as tortoise, fishes, sharks and others.
The city known as Gandhavatibelonging to Vayu is in the north-west. It is richly decorated with clusters of highly raised flags designed to be in white and yellowish-white color. It is constructed with all kinds of gems. It is served by the Bhuta-troops known for their strength and vigor. The city called Mahodaya belonging to Kubera is in the north. It is constructed with white stones such as the moon-stone, pearls and others. It is resplendent with mansions whose brightness is comparable to the effulgence of the Himalayan mountains. It is extolled by the hosts of brahmins and sages. The city called Yasovati is in the north-east. It belongs to Isana who attained prominence and glory by incinerating Manmatha and Yama with the flaming sparks emitted by his fiery eye in his fore-head. It is constructed with all kinds of precious gems and it is served by the Rudras. These cities are capable of yielding the sources of pleasures which could be gained in all the seasons. These are with the extent measuring the half extent of the Cakravata.
These eight cities which appear reddened by the pollen of parijata-flowers diffused over by the wind have been created by Brahma. “These are indeed heavens designed for the sake of Lokapalas and for the sake of those who carry out their orders and who follow their directions to attain rich resources.” – in this way these cities are praised by the poets in this earth.
At the top of the Mt Meru and in its middle, there is a city called Manovati, having an extent and height of 14,000 yojanas. This is the city of Brahma and it is honored by the Lokapalas. The effulgent clusters of the brilliant rays emitted by the precious gems of this city redden the routes of space. Increasing the desire of attaining the heavenly pleasure, it appears as if vying with Savitri (the spouse of Brahma) in attaining intimacy with Brahma. The Devas and the sages who are endowed with great splendor and glory, are doing penance there, observing yamas and niyamas, meditating on Brahma, the Lord of yogins. They are involved in penance to attain the supreme goals as desired by them.
Upon this mountain, in the north-east of Manovati, there is a summit with resplendence of the sun. The yogis call it ‘Jyotishka’. It is always endearing to Siva, the Lord of the beings. Skanda, Nandi, Mahakala and others who belong to the retinue group of Siva are present there on the evenly stretched ground at the top of that summit, embedded with gold and various gems. The abode of Siva who is the controlling and directing Lord of Brahma and others and who conquered the three forts is frequently resorted to by 10,000 hosts of Rudras, Brahma and other Gods who are the foremost among the Devas.
This is the description of Mt Meru. There are four other mountains below the Meru in all the four directions, known as the ‘vishkambha’ mountains. Presently leaving out the description of these mountains, I now describe the nine islands and nine ‘varshas’ lying around the Meru, for your understanding. In the south of Meru, there are three great mountains which are the foremost among the mountains. They are: Nishadha, Hemakuta and Himavan. In the north side of the meru, there are three great mountains – Nila, Sveta and Srunga. These mountains are with a width of 2000 yojanas and a height of 10,000 yojanas. The mid-space between these mountains measures 9000 yojanas. Lengthwise, they are extending towards east and west up to the salty ocean, holding within them prospering lands known as ‘varshas’. There are two great mountains, one in the east of the Meru and the other in its west. They are with a width of 1000 yojanas and a height of 2000 yojanas. The mountain in the east is known as ‘Malyavan’ and the mountain in the west is known as ‘gandhamadana’. Lengthwise, they are extending towards north and south. Covering the stretch of land which is not occupied by the Nishadha and others and the varshas, these mountains in the east and the west are extending lengthwise up to 34,000 yojanas.
The vast stretch of land known as Ilavruta varsha is lying in the west of Malyavan, in the east of Gandhamadana, in the south of Nila and in the north of Nishadha around the Meru. The land known as Bhadrasva varsha is lying in the east of Malyavan and in the west of the salty ocean and it is inhabited by virtuous people. The land known as Ketumala varsha is lying in the west of Gandhamadana and in the east of the salty ocean. It is provided with dwelling houses. The land known as Hari varsha is lying between Nishdha and Hemakuta. The land known as Kimpurusha varsha is lying between Hemakuta and Himacala. The land known as Bharata varsha is lying between Himacala and the southern ocean. The land known as Ramyaka varsha is lying between Nila and Sveta mountains. The land known as Hiranya varsha is lying between Sveta and Srungavan mountains. The land known as Kuru Varsha is lying between Srungavan and the northern ocean.
In order to effect stability to the Mt Meru and to protect it from any convulsive movement or shaking, four supportive mountains (vishkambhas) have been created by Brahma, in all the four directions. Each vishkambha- mountain is with a height of 50,000 yojanas. The supportive mountain in the east is called ‘Mandara’ and its color is white. The supportive mountain in the south is called Gandhamadana and it is in the color of turmeric powder. The supportive mountain in the west is known as ‘Vipula’ and its color is blue. The supportive mountain in the north is known as ‘Suparsva’ and its color is red. In all these supportive mountains there are four heavenly trees known as ‘kalpa vrukshas’, one in each mountain. The height of each kalpa-tree is 1000 yojanas.
Kadamba, Jambu, Asvattha and Nygrodha – these are kalpa-trees growing in the east, south, west and north respectively. A river originating from the juice of the fruits of Jambu-tree flows continuously in clockwise direction around the Meru and having transformed the land-stretch to be of the nature of gold, enters into the ground at the bottom of the Meru. Having drunk the juicy water of that river, the birds, snakes, rats, deers, monkeys and other animals become gold colored. Likewise, all those who take a swim or bath in that river become golden hued. Because of such greatness of the Jambu-tree, the jambudvipa has attained the status of being the Flag-island (Dvipaketu) among the Dvipas. Even though there are other kalpa-trees such as kadamba and others in this island, this island has attained the significant name ‘Jambudvipa’ because of the greatness and astonishing features of the jambu-tree.
At the bottom of the supportive mountain (vishkambha) in the east, there is a pleasure-garden called ‘Caitra Ratha’. A pond known as ‘Arunodaka’ beautified with golden lotus-flowers is there. At the bottom of the supportive mountain in the south, there is a pleasure-garden called ‘Nandana’. A pond known as ‘Manasa’ is there stealing the mind of the visitors. It is frequently resorted to by the Gandharvas, Siddhas and Apsaras-ladies. At the bottom of the supportive mountain called Vipula in the west, there is a pleasure-garden known as ‘Vaibhraja’. A pond, ‘Sitoda’ by name, is there. It is the foremost among such ponds. Being densely covered by lotus-flowers which are with the brightness of the sunlight, it is resorted to by the celestial beings and gods.At the bottom of the supportive mountain Suparsva in the north, there is a pleasure-garden called ‘Dhritimat’. A pond known as “bhadraka’ is there. It is densely covered with the flowers of blue-lotus and red-lotus and it is resorted to by the Pitrus (Ancestral Deities).
Those who are in the Ilavruta varsha are having a longevity of 13,000 years. Drinking the juice of jambu- fruits for their food, seeing the objects illumined by the resplendent rays of the Meru and having a charming lustrous complexion, they are living there. Those who are living in the Ketumala varsha have a longevity of 10,000 years. Having the complexion comparable to the color of blue-lotus and drinking the juice of jack- fruits, endowed with divine body and blessed with everlasting happiness and bodily strength they are living there. Those who are in the Bhadrasva varsha live for 10,000 years. Having the complexion comparable to the moon-light and eating the flowers of blue-lotus for their food, they are living there untouched by miseries, distress and fear.
Those who are in the Kuru varsha have a longevity of 30,000 years. Eating the fruits of trees chosen according to their desire and having the complexion comparable to the color of the flower blossoming in the creeper known as ‘syama’ (means, white color), they are living there. Always they give birth to twins comprising a female and a male. In the proximity of Kuru varsha and situated in a conjunction of directions (dik sandhi) in the salty ocean, there are two islands covering an extent of 45,000 yojanas. Candradvipa is in the north and Bhadrakara is in the north-east. They are frequently resorted to by the Siddhas, Munis and Caranas. The people of Candradvipa are in moon-light color and the people of Bhadrakara are having the complexion comparable to red lotus. They have the longevity of 13,000 years. They are eating various fruits and roots. Since these two islands are situated in the interior of the ocean and the Kuru and since they are in the vicinity of the Kuru, they have been described here.
Those who are in the Hiranya varsha have a longevity of 12,500 years. They are with moon-light complexion and are usually eating the lemon fruits, for their food. Those who are in the Ramyaka varsha are living for 12,000 years. They have the complexion comparable to the blue-lotus and they are eating the fruits of nyagrodha tree, for their food. Those who live in the Hari varsha have a longevity of 12,000 years. They have silvery white complexion and they are eating the sugar cane for their food. In this way, the life-system of the people of nine varshas – Kimpurusha and others – has been explained. The people living in these varshas are not affected by the changes and deviations occurring in the life-system during the cycle of four yugas, kruta and others.
Those who are living in the Bharata varsha are subjected to changes and deviations occurring in the matters related to knowledge, longevity, complexion, strength, wealth and descendants according to the nature of the cyclic yugas. For the food, they are eating those which are obtained by ploughing and by the works other than ploughing. They are affected by three kinds of miseries – adhyatmika, adhibhautika and adhidaivika. But, there is one specific quality for this Bharta varsha. Whatever be the deeds of the people, the fruits of their deeds are never experienced here; they are experienced in other worlds. Because, all other worlds are considered to be the regions related to the fruits only (phala bhumi). Bharata varsha is the land of deeds only (karma bhumi).
In the Bharata varsha, the great ocean is naturally separated into nine divisions and half portion appears as land and the remaining half appears as water. In this way, nine islands have been formed in the Bharata varsha. For your understanding, I am giving you the names of these nine islands. Indradvipa, Kaseru, Tamravarni, Gabhastiman, Nagadvipa, Candramasa, Gandharva, Varuna and Kumarika. In this Bahrata varsha there are various mountains and various rivers; it is inhabited by the people of various castes. Hailing from the lineage of Manu, there was a king by name Agnidhra and was ruling over the Jambudvipa. Nine sons were born to him. He entrusted the rulership of these nine varshas with his nine sons. Consequently, these varshas were called after the names of his sons. The varsha given to his son Bharata came to be known as Bharata varsha.
Ocean of salt, ocean of milk, ocean of curd, ocean of clarified butter, ocean of sugarcane-juice, ocean of wine and the ocean of pure water – these are the seven oceans encircling the nine islands starting from the Jambu. The extent of the Jambudvipa is one hundred thousand yojanas. The extent of Sakadvipa is twice the extent of the Jambu. Likewise, the extent of each succeeding dvipa is twice the extent of the preceding dvipa. The extent of each ocean gets doubled, in the same way. In the Sakadvipa, there is a tree known as Saka, towering to a great height. Because of such significant tree, this island is called Sakadvipa. When Brahma commenced a sacrifice (yajna) in the next island, there appeared a special kind of kusa-grass having the golden color. Because of such special kind of kusa-grass, the island came to be known as Kusadvipa. In the Krauncadvipa, there was a mountain known as Kraunca. Kraunca, who was the king of asuras and who was terrorizing and tormenting the Devas through his deceitful means of war was killed instantly by Skanda, the wielder of Maya, in the golden cave of the Kraunca mountain. The Kraunca mountain belonging to that asura king was pierced with the lance of Skanda and this incident became widely known. Since that incident, the Kraunca became a symbol of that island. So that island came to be known as Krauncadvipa.
In the island known as Salmali, there is ‘salmali’ tree, with its branches in gold color, with a height of 1000 yojanas and with the resplendence of the sun. This is very pleasing to the celestial beings and gods and has become the hallmark of the island. So this island is known after the name of Salmali. In the island called Gomeda, there was a king by name Gopati. When he arranged for the performance of a special sacrifice known as ‘gosava’, his Guru called Gautama who hailed from the lineage of Utathya born as the descendant of Manu went to the place of Indra to invite him to accept the ‘havis’. Meanwhile, Gopati invited Guru Bhrugu to be present in the sacrifice and started the proceedings of the yajna. On his return, Gautama saw the presence of Bhrugu, got angered and cursed the king. All the cows assembled in the vicinity of the sacrificial ground got incinerated by the flames of anger hurled out by Guatama. The entire area of the land got covered by the fatty substances (medas) of the cows (go). Hence the island came to be known as ‘Gomeda’.
In the island known as Pushakarini, a river is flowing, beautified with golden lotus-flowers. That river is called Puskarini. Because of the importance of this river, this island came to be known as Pushakrini and it is resorted to by the celestial beings. Just as the people living in the eight varshas – Kimpurusha and others – situated in the Jambudvipa do not get affected by the changes and deviations which occur according to the change of the yugas, even so the people living in the Saka and other islands do not get affected by those changes and deviations tuned to the changes of the yugas. They are taking milk and such other drinks and vegetables available in each island, for their food. Starting from the Saka and ending with Puskarini, the complexion of the people living there is respectively: frost, moonlight, snow, blue-lotus, grain and crystal. They live for 10,000 years, being completely free from miseries and distress.
From the center of the Meru up to the boundary of the seventh ocean, the distance is two crores, 53 lakhs and 50 thousand yojanas. Beyond the seventh ocean of pure water, there is a great stretch of land infused with the luster of gold. It is abounding in gems, trees and mountains. This golden stretch of land has been created by Brahma for the sports and pastime of the Devas. Its extent is 10 crores of yojanas. At the exterior of this land is the mountain called ‘Lokaloka’ whose width is 10,000 yojanas. The front side of this mountain facing the golden land remains illumined (loka) and its backside remains darkened (aloka). Hence the name ‘Lokaloka’. It is densely covered with highly raised summits. The rays of the sun which are falling on these summits become as cool as the rays of the moon. O,Sage!, counteracted by the lofty height of the summits, the rays of the sun do not scorch the play-houses provided there for the Lokapalas.
Beyond the Lokaloka mountain, a vast region is with dense darkness, extending up to 35 crores 19 lakhs and 40 thousand yojanas. Beyond this dark region, there is a great ocean called Garbhoda, the king of oceans, whose extent is one crore and 27 lakhs of yojanas. This ocean extends in all sides up to the shell of the Brahmanda which is with golden color and whose thickness is one crore of yojanas.
Above the Bhu-loka is the Bhuvarloka raising up to Dhruva-mandala. From the Bhuloka to Dhruva mandala, the height of the Bhuvarloka is 15 lakhs of yojanas. Svarloka, the dwelling place of the prominent denizens of the heaven is above the Bhuvarloka. Its height is 85 lakhs of yojanas. Maharloka, the abode of Marici and such other eminent sages is above the Svarloka, raising to the height of 2 crores of yojanas. Above this is the Janoloka where the Pitrus and the sages such as Jahnu and others are living. Its height is 8 crores of yojanas. Tapoloka is above the Janoloka. The great yogi Sanandana and Rubhu, Sanatkumara and Sanaka who are the great ascetics are living there. Its height is 12 crores of yojanas. Above this is the Satyaloka, the abode of Brahma whose cognitive mind is centered only on ‘satya’ and who has attined lordship over the ‘kalpa’ because of such cognition. It is abounding in all kinds of wealth and awe-inspiring objects and enjoyments. Its height is 16 crores of yojanas. Savitri, the Vedas and the Upa-vedas are there, assuming their relevant forms. Above the Satyaloka, there is the abode of Vishnu who subdued Madhu. Its height is 4 crores of yojanas. The abode of Rudra, the conquerer of Tripurasuras, is above the world of Vishnu. Its height is 6 crores of yojanas. Both these worlds are highly resplendent and are replete with variegated creations. Above the world of Rudra is the shell of the Brahmanda, whose thickness measures one crore of yojanas. Thus, it is to be known that the Brahmanda is with the extent of 100 crores of yojanas. The extent measures almost equally in all directions – below, above, east, south, west and north.
In its east side, Indra is protecting this Brhmanda. Agni is protecting in its south-east. Yama, the annihilator, is protecting it in the south. Nirruti is protecting in its south-west. Varuna is protecting in its west side. Vayu is protecting it, in its north-west. Kubera is protecting it, in its north. Isana is protecting it, in its north-east. Brahma is protecting it, at its bottom side. Vishnu is protecting it, in its upper side. These Lokapalas, Indra to Vishnu are carefully protecting this Brahmanda in all possible ways, being always with attention, cautiousness and diligence.
As the controlling Masters of these ten Lokapalas, there are ten Rudras in all the ten directions. Even though the Lokapalas mentioned above are endowed with guarding power, affluence of enjoyments and wealth, they never move out of their respective places due to the fear of these ten Rudras. Each of these ten Rudras are surrounded by attendants who appear in various forms holding various weapons in their hands, who are with great prowess and valor, and who are as resplendent as the rising sun. For your understanding, I am giving the names of these Rudras installed in the ten directions.
Budhna, Vajrasariri, Aja, Kapalisa, Pramardana, Vibhuti, Avyaya, Sasta, Pinaki and Tridasadhipa – these are the ten Rudras in the east direction. Bhasmantaka, Kshayantaka, Hara, Jvalana, Agni, Hutasana, Pingala, Khadaka, Babhru and Dahana – these are the ten Rudras in the south-east direction.
Vidhata, Dhata, Kartara, Yamya, Mrutyu, Viyojaka, Dharmesa, Adharmesa, Samyokta, Hara – these are the ten Rudras in the south. Nirruti, Marana, Hanta, Kruraksha, Dhumraksha, Lohitaksha, Urdhvalinga, Virupaksha, Damshtri and Bhima – these are the ten Rudras in the south-west.
Bala, Atibala, Pasahasta, Sveta, Bhadra, Jalantaka, Mahabala, Mahabahu, Sunada, Meghanada – these are the ten Rudras who are the protectors in the west. Laghu, Sighra, Marudvega, Sukshma, Tikshana, Kshayantaka, Kapardi, Meghavahana, Pancantaka, Pancasikha – these are the ten Rudras who are the protectors in the north- west.
Nidhisa, Rupavan,Dhanya, Saumya, Lakshmidhara, Jatadhara, Prakama, Sridhara, Ratnadhara, Prasada – these are the ten Rudras who are the prorectors in the north. Vidyesa, Sarvavit, Jnanai, Vedavit, Jyeshtha, Vedaparaga, Vidya, Vidhata, Bhutesa and Balipriya – these are the ten Rudras who are the protectors in the north-east.
Sambhu, Vibhu, Gunadhyaksha, Tryaksha, Tridasesvara, Vicakshana, Nabhas, Lipsu, Samvaha and Vivaha – these are the ten Rudras who are protecting at the bottom of the Brahmanda. Krodhana, Marutasana, Bhogi, Grasana, Udumbara, Isa, Vrusha, Vrushadhra, Ananata and Vajradamshtri – these are the ten Rudras who are the protectors in the upperside of the Brahmanda. (The worlds in these ten directions are called after the names of these Rudras.)
Above this plane, There are various planes of existence in the Jalatattva and the other tattvas, one above the other, in the due order. They are the places meant for the enjoyments of the souls reaching there according to their karmic fruits. There are many Rudras who are installed there to provide the fruits and the resources of enjoyments applicable to the worlds existing there. Five groups of Rudras, each group consisting of eight Rudras, are in the five tattvas, starting from the jala-tattva. Bharabhuti, Ashadha, Dindi, Lakuli, Amaresa, Pushkara, Prabhasa and Naimisa – these are the eight worlds belong to the group known as ‘Guhyashtaka’. (These are also the names of the Rudras under whose control these worlds are) This group of eight worlds is in the jala-tattva.
Srisaila, Jalpesa, Kedara, Bhairava, Amratakesvara, Hariscandra, Mahakala and Madhyamesa – these eight worlds belong to the group known as ‘Ati-guhyashtaka’. This group is in the agni-tattva. Mahendra, Bhima, Vimala, Kurukshetra, Gaya, Naakhala, Attahasa and Nakhala – these eight worlds of vayu-tattva belong to the group called ‘Guhyatarashtaka’. Sthanu, Svarnaksha, Gokarna, Bhadrakarna, Mahalaya, Vastrapada, Avimukta and Rudrakoti – these eight worlds are existing in the akasa-tattva .
The eight worlds in the akasa-tattva belong to the group called ‘Pavitrashtaka’. O, the foremost twice-born Sage!, the group called ‘Sthanvashtaka’ exists in the ahankara-tattva which includes within itself sixteen tattva-bhuvanas – five subtle elements, five organs of action, five organs of cognition and mind (manas tattva). I give you the names of the eight worlds of Sthanvashtaka: Makota, Mandalesana, Dviranda, Chagalanda, Sthala, Sthulesvara, Sankhukarna and Kalanjana. The group called ‘Sukshma bhuvanashtaka’ exists in the buddhi-tattva. The eight worlds of this group are: Paisaca, Rakshasa, Yaksha, Gandharva, Mahendra, Saumya, Prajesvara and Braahma. This group of worlds is associated with affluence of wealth, resplendence and the things in these worlds are with supreme excellence.
The group called ‘Yogashtaka’ is in the guna-tattva. The eight worlds of this group are: Akruta, Kruta, Bhairava, Brahma, Vaishnava, Kaumara, Auma and Srikantha. There is an effulgent world in between the guna-tattva and the prakruti-tattva. It is the world of Virabhadra who is being extolled by the supreme yogisvaras, who is holding authority over the hundred Rudras who are installed in the ten directions (detailed earlier) and who are in the planes lower than the plane of Virabhadra. The celebrated lordship has been bestowed upon him directly by Lord Siva. So his lordship is superior to that of other Rudras.
Vamadeva, Bhava, Ananta, Bhima, Umapati, Ajesvara, Sarvesana, Isvara,Ekavira, Ekasiva, Ugra, Pracandadruk, and Isa – these Rudras are existing in the plane above the guna-tattva. Having done penance meditating on Krodha and other superior Rudras, they have attained such a lordship over the worlds existing there, attained the power to curse or to bestow grace. They are endowed with sharpness of cognition, omniscience and omnipotence with regard to the cosmic function allotted to them.
There are eight lords presiding over the worlds existing in the pradhana-tattva. They are endowed with superior authority and abundant resources ten times greater than those of Virabhadra and others mentioned before. They are: Krodhesa, Candasamvarta, Jyoti, Pingala, Suraka, Pancantaka, Ekavira and Sikheda. In the world of purusha-tattva, there is Rudra as its controlling Lord, endowed with organs, internal instruments and a fitting body as related to those of all the beings. Niyantru is the presiding Lord of the world existing in the niyati-tattva. Kalanasaktiman is the presiding Lord of the world existing in the kaala-tattva. In the kala-tattva which include within itself raga-tattva and vidya-tattva, there are the Lords of the worlds, who are with great effulgence and who are comparable to Paramesvara. They are: Bhuvanesa, Mahadeva, Vamadeva, Bhavodbhava, Ekapinga, Ekekshana, Isana and Angushtamatra. They are the presiding Lords of the 64 worlds of the eight domains (mandalas), each domain consisting of eight worlds.
Ananta, Trikala, Gopta, Kshemisa, Brahmanaspati, Dhruva, Tejodhipa, Rudra and Gahanesa –these are the eight Kings of the worlds contained in the maya-tattva and they are the controlling authorities of the Rudras known as the Mandalesvaras (Lords of the eight domains, mentioned before). Having mounted on the vehicle of ‘samsara’ (the cyclic phenomenon of transmigration), they are rolling the wheel of transmigration on and on and perfectly regulate all those which have come into existence in the worlds. Only this wheel of ‘samsara’ is to be known as the most dreadful. This is the range of multifarious worlds in which the souls are taking birth and experience distress and difficulties. Being ignorant, they get enmeshed in the worldly life and remain emaciated like the cows caught in the mire.
Bhruguni, Brahmavetali, Sthanumurti, Ambika, Rupini, Nandini and Jwala – these seven Vidyesvaris are in the suddha-vidya-tattva, being eulogized by the Mandalesvaras who have been installed in the plane below this tattva. These seven Vidyesvaris are the governing and directing Saktis of the Mantra-murtis who are 70 million in number. Above these seven Saktis, there are eight Vidyadhipas in the isvara-tattva who are commissioned to be there and controlled by Isvara (Siva) and who are with exceeding effulgence and powers. They are surrounded by eight groups (vyuhas) of Rudras, each group consisting of eight Rudras whose power of knowledge and action has been activated and energized directly by Siva. These Rudras are Ucchushma, Abara, Canda, Mahavirya and others. In the same tattva, there are Ganas belonging to the retinue of Siva. They are Vinayaka, Skanda, Devi, Candesvara, Vrushabha, Dikpalakas and others who have been frequently mentioned in the Agamas (such as Nisvasakarika and others). These Vidyesvaras are Ananta, Sukshma and others whose form and function have already been explained while responding to your query.
In the sadasiva-tattva,there is Lord Sadasiva presiding over the world called sadasiva-bhuvana. He is surrounded by the retinue of eight Rudras such as Jvalini and others whose appearance is characterized as the form-and-formless (sakala nishkala), Deities of brahma-mantras and those of anga-mantras. In the plane of bindu-tattva, there are four lords presiding over the four kalas- nivrutti, pratishtha, vidya and santi. In the plane of nada-tattva, there is Nadesvara known as Sushumnesa. In the sakti-tattva, there is Paramesvara who is the foremost among the Lords who are associated with all Powers. In the same tattva, there is the Sakti known as Kundalini who is responsible for the evolution of all the worlds and other Lords known as Vagisvaras are also there. Above the plane of sakti-tattva, there is Parasiva transcending the range of all the tattvas.
Bharadvaja: Just now it has been told that in the range of tattvas from sadasiva to siva-tattva, there are various Lords such as the Kaladhipas, Nadesvra and others, each one endowed with a characteristic divine form. But, previously it was mentioned that the range beyond sadasiva-tattva is of formless nature, transcending the existence of worlds and enjoyments. So how could it be said here that there are Lords such as Kaladhipas in the tattvas above the plane of sadasiva-tattva, presiding over the corresponding worlds?
Reply: It is to be known that the sadasiva-tattva which transcends the isvara-tattva in which eight Vidyesvaras – Ananta, Sukshma and others-exist and which rises above up to siva-tattva is of formless nature. The worlds in this formless range are nada, bindu and other kalas only. Here there is no Lord apart from Lord Siva. But, the mention of the existence of various Lords in these formless tattvas is based on different functions and different locations. Such existence of various Lords has been mentioned in the figurative sense; secondary sense. Such functions and locations are assumed by the formless Lord Siva only.
The Saktis by which Lord Siva unfolds the power of all-knowing and the power of all-doing for Sadasiva and other Lords are known by the specific names Nivrutti and others. The Lords of the worlds in these tattvas are associated with these Saktis and hence are known by the same names. The Sakti by which Lord Siva enables the competent souls to be abstracted from the worlds and the worldly beings (which are of fourteen kinds) and make them to be oriented towards the final liberation is called Nivrutti. Its world is known by the same name and the Lord of this world is also called Nivrutiiman. The Sakti by which Lord Siva obstructs firmly the chances of getting back to the worldly life and transmigration for the competent souls who have turned towards liberation and stabilizes their conviction is called Pratishtha. It location goes by the same name and the Lord of this location is also called Pratishthadhipati. The Sakti by which Lord Siva graciously gives the direct intuitional knowledge related to all the categories to such competent souls, making them to transcend the knowledge based on perception, inference and others, is called Vidya. The world of this Vidyasakti is known by the same name and the Lord of this world is also called Vidyadhipa. The Sakti by which Lord Siva alleviates all sorts miseries and impediments for the sake of such competent souls is called Santi. The world of Santisakti goes by the same name and the Lord of this world is also called Santiman.
The Saktis by which Lord Siva gives great brightness, greater brightness and still more greater brightness to the competent souls enabling them to view the wholeness of all the created worlds and the worldly objects and liberates them from all traces of the primal bond are known as Indhika, Dipika and Rocika. Their worlds also are known by the same names. The Lords are called Indhikavan,Dipikavan and Rocikavan respectively. The Vidyesvaras and other Lords are in the state of being directed and controlled by the Supreme Lord because of the prevalence of the shade of ‘anava mala’ in them. The Sakti by which Lord Siva grants the final liberation known as ‘sayujya’ to such Vidyesvaras and others is called Mocika. The world where Mocika exists is also called Mocika and its presiding Lord also is called Mocikavan. The sakti by which Lord Siva installs such Vidyesvaras at the state of absolute Lordship is called Urdhvaga. The world where this Sakti exists is also known as Urdhvaga and its presiding Lord also is called Urdhvagadhipati. Those who have reached the worlds of pure path (suddha adhva) through the fitting initiation (diksha) based on knowledge and yoga, experience various enjoyments which yield supreme bliss. Upon the complete removal of the residue of anava mala, they attain the supreme state known as ‘sayujya’. Since they are wholly engrossed in the supreme bliss which is their own essential nature, they do not perform the cosmic functions such as creation and others. Thus, the nature of sadasiva-tattva has been briefly explained to you.
Even Sivasakti assumes various states corresponding to the states assumed by Siva. Lord Sadasiva, being associated with 38 kalas such as Tara, Sutara and others, exists in His own plane, performing the fivefold cosmic function – creation and others. Even this fivefold cosmic function is performed by Him simply by His will. Otherwise, He is always in formless state (nishkala) when He is not involved in the performance of fivefold cosmic function. Pruthvi, Prakruti, Maya, Suddhavidya, nine Kalas of bindu and nada – all these are declared to be the locations characterized by the state of bondage. Some say that Indhika and Dipika which are below the plane of Rocika, the four kalas of the bindu, suddhavidya, maya, prakruti and pruthvi – all these ten locations are characterized by the state of bondage. Some others declare that the ten locations – nine kalas of the bindu and the nada and suddhavidya – denote the state of bondage. It should be known well that all the locations which are below the plane of the nada-kalas are the places fitting the bound state, since they are the impediments which obstruct the souls which are advancing to reach the ultimate transcendental plane of Lord Siva. The locations of Gahanesa and other Rudras are in the plane which is above the plane of kala-tattva and below the plane of maya-tattva. The extent of the space between the kala-tattva and the maya-tattva should be known in an implied way, exercising one`s own power of knowledge, since it has been declared that the maya is infinitely extensive. For both the impure path and the pure path, the worlds of which have been created in the order explained before, dissolution occurs in an order contrary to the order of creation. For the impure path, such dissolution occurs up to the maya-tattva and for the pure path, the dissolution occurs up to the sakti-tattva.
Bharadvaja: O, Bhagavan!, you are the one who has known well all the principles set forth in the Scriptures. How and at what time the dissolution of the worlds of the impure path which were created in the order of ‘vyasta’ (creation performed by various Lords such as Anantesvara and others, in successive order involving time) and the dissolution of the worlds of the pure path which were created in the order of ‘samasta’ (creation performed by a single Lord simultaneously without involving the time) take place? Kindly explain this.
The dissolution of the worlds created in the order of ‘samasta’ takes place at the time of final and complete dissolution (maha pralaya) and the dissolution of the worlds created in the order of ‘vyasta’ takes place at the time of intermediate dissolution (avantata pralaya). Even the creation takes place at two levels. Since the time of existence precedes the time of dissolution, the duration of existence is explained first. Listen to this exposition. The duration of four yugas (caturyuga) – kruta, treta, dvapara and kali – makes one unit of time. A cycle of one thousand ‘caturyugas’ is considered as the daytime of Brahma and the same duration is the night of Brahma. In this way, 2000 caturyugas make one day of Brahma. Three hundred and sixty ‘brahma-days’ make one ‘brahma-year’. At the lapse of one parardha of such ‘brahma-years’, the secondary dissolution (avantara pralaya) takes place for the worlds of the impure path (asuddha adhva), in the reverse order of creation. At that time, the one hundred Rudras, Virabhadra,Srikantha, Krodhesa, Canda, Samvarta and other Lords who are maintaining the worlds of the impure path would continue to exist, keeping under their possession the worlds which are now in the subtle form being absorbed into their respective causes and the souls which are associated with their own karmic impulses and with subtle body constituted of the tattvas from pruthvi to kala and which are in the prakruti. They would be existing till the completion of the primary dissolution. Subsequently, at the beginning of the next intermediate creation, Anantesvara, being commissioned and directed by Lord Siva, would prompt and direct Srikantha and other Rudras to create the worlds of the impure path in the same order as adopted before. These Rudras, having created the worlds from their respective sources, would be wielding their authority over these worlds.
Bharadvaja: Just now it was said that the karmic impulses are absorbed into prakruti-tattva at the time of intermediate dissolution. The karmic impulses are considered to be the qualities belonging to the buddhi-tattva. It is evident that a quality will never be separated from an object which is associated with that quality (The quality and the container of that quality will never be separated). If so, how could the karmic impulses which are the qualities of buddhi-tattva be in the prakruti-tattva?
Reply: What you have said is true. A quality (guna) never leaves out of the object (guni) by which that quality is possessed. Since all other creations such as the bodies, organs, instruments, objects of enjoyments and the worlds are said to be in the prakruti-tattva during the absorbed state, the karmic impulses are also said to be there, in a secondary sense. Well enlightened saints maintain the view that the secondary sense is applied in the cases of the bearing object (adhara), source, effect, close vicinity, helping, qualities and such others, according to the circumstances. Here, in this case, ‘adhara’ should be considered. Buddhi-tattva is the ‘adhara’ of the karmic impulses. So, when it is said that the karmic impulses are in the prakruti-tattva, it means that they are actually in the buddhi-tattva which itself is absorbed into the prakruti-tattva.
In this way, the dissolution occurs to all the creations such as the guna-tattva and others, at the end of the duration of one parardha. These creations are absorbed into prakruti-tattva. Prakruti is absorbed into the kala-tattva and kala is absorbed into the maya-tattva which exists in its own plane, being turned away from its own power of getting evolved into the worlds. Since Maya exists at that time without involving itself into the evolutionary process, all the cosmic Lords whose authority and controlling power is concerned with Maya exist in their locations being free from all the concerned cosmic deeds, up to the time of final dissolution.
In the same way,when Anantesvara and other Vidyesvaras, Mantra Mahesvaras and Mantresas remain in their locations, being relieved of their authority over the cosmic functions assigned to them, suddhavidya is absorbed into sadasiva-tattva. Sadasiva-tattva is absorbed into the bindu-tattva which, in its turn, is absorbed into the nada-tattva. Sivasakti absorbs the nada-tattva into Her own self and Hara, the Supreme Lord, absorbs this Sakthi into His own self. In order to give rest to the bound souls which are fatigued by the repeated cycles of birth and death and in order to enable the Maya regain its energy which has been lost by the previous evolutionary process, Lord Siva performs the primal and final dissolution through His Jnana-sakti and again involves Himself in the fivefold cosmic function, as done before. O, the twice-born sage!, it has been briefly told to you how all the tattvas, bhavas (dispositions), worlds, bodies and other things which are in the pure path and the impure path would be absorbed into their relevant causal sources at the time of final dissolution.
Bharadvaja: It was now told that the bhavas (dispositions related to the buddhi-tattva) are in the pure path, being absorbed into their cause. How could the ‘bhavas’ and ‘pratyayas’ (modifications of the mind) which are related to the buddhi-tattva could be in the pure path which is in the form of fivefold aggregation (panca skandha) formed of suddhavidya, sadasiva, bindu, nada and Sakti?
Reply: Even though it has been told that the pure path is in the form of fivefold aggregation, there is no inconsistency in holding the view that the ‘bhavas’ and the ‘pratyayas’ are in it, since the bindu-tattva is contained there. It is the para-nada which is very subtle and unmanifest that turns into five categories – kala, kaala, raga, vidya and purusha – and assumes the name ‘panca kala’ and attains the state of manifest-nada (sthula nada). Bindu, becoming the base for the four knots of bonds – avyakta, guna, buddhi and ahankara – assumes the specific name ‘catushkala’. So it is to be noted that the mind and organs are in the ahankara-tattva (now absorbed into bindu) and the ‘bhavas’ and ‘pratyayas’ are in the buddhi-tattva absorbed into the bindu. Lord Sadasiva whose body is composed of five mantras is existing in his own plane, pervading the five subtle elements (tanmatras). Mantresas are there, pervading all those tattvas which constitute the subtle body. Mantras are there, pervading the five gross elements. In this way, it should be known that during the absorbed state the pure path is consisting of all those related to the impure path.
What is the fruitful and effective means to remove the web of the bondage constituted of anava, karma and maya whose exact nature has not been realized by those whose knowledge is limited to the common treatises dealing with the insignificant worldly matters concerned with the bondage? Such effective means is the application of ‘siva-mantras’ which are highly radiant and which are associated with unassailable powers and which enable the souls transcend all the obstructions. The full competency to recite and to employ these siva-mantras is gained through ‘siva-diksha’ which is going to be explained in the sequel. The wealth of mantras related to Lord Sambhu (Siva) is conducive to the attainment of the much exalted abode of liberation, being capable of removing the triple bonds.
Here ends the eleventh chapter of the Knowledge-section of the Mrugendra gets completed.