Translated by Dr. S. Sabharatanam
- Chapter 1: Directions for the Worship of Sivalinga which is Facing the West (92 verses)
- Chapter 2: Directions for the Worship of the Linga which is Facing the South (41 verses)
- Chapter 11: Directions for the Performance of Sivaratri-worship in the month of Magha (Feb-March) (28 verses)
- Chapter 22: Knowing the Effects of Dreams (120 verses)
- Chapter 23: Directions for the Performance of Nirvana Diksha [Initiation Meant for Final Liberation] (222 verses)
- Chapter 24: Directions for the Performance of Jnana-diksha (14 verses)
- Chapter 25: Directions for the Performance of “Acharya Abhisheka” (72 verses)
- Chapter 27: Directions for the Performance of Rites of Atonement, in General (42 verses)
- Chapter 33: Directions for the Performance of Subsequent and Related Activities (anukarma) (50 verses)
- Chapter 43: Directions for the Construction of Shrine for Sarvadesika Linga (42 verses)
- Chapter 52: Directions for the Installation of the Dancing Form of Lord Siva (80 verses)
- Chapter 74: Directions for the Installation of Vidyā Pīṭhā (For Instituting a Center for Learning the Scriptures, 49 verses)
- Chapter 76: Directions for the Installation of Siva-Bhakta
- Chapter 77: Directions for the Performance of Daily Worship of Sivabhakta
- Chapter 78: Directions for the Installation of Trident
- Chapter 79: Directions for the Installation of Royal Throne
- Chapter 80: Directions for the Consecration of Temple Chariot and Others
- Chapter 81: Lineaments of Karaṇas (karaṇa- materials, tools, instruments, forms and such others)
- Chapter 82: Directions for the Performance of Suddha Nrtta (suddha nrtta – adorable and pure dance)
- Chapter 83: Directions for the Performance of graha-yajña (worship of nine Deities of the Planets and the fire-ritual)
- Chapter 84: Directions for the Offering of Protective-band
Chapter 1: Directions for the Worship of Sivalinga which is Facing the West (92 verses)
Now I will explain the process of worshipping the nishkala, sakala and the sakala-nishkala forms in a temple whose main shrine is facing the west. The Adisaivas who are the householders are fully qualified for performing the temple worship meant for the benefit of the world. The temple worship meant for the benefit of the world should be systematically performed for the sustained growth of the Ruler and the country. Such worship is capable of yielding the worldly enjoyments and the final liberation.
Having got up in the early morning, completed the inevitable morning duties and purified himself, the Guru should take the ceremonial bath adhering to the concerned directions. In all the three sessions (morning, noon and evening) he should sip the water with the recital of the mantra which begins with ‘suryasca ma manyusca’ and in the same way he should sprinkle the water upon himself with the recital of ‘dadhigravnno’ and other mantras. He should offer the water holding his hand in ‘anjali mudra’ three times with the recital of ‘Om Bhurbhuvassuvah’. Then he should repeat the same mantra ten times.
These should be done in each day without fail in order to attain and stabilize the quality of being a Brahmin. Activities such as the preparatory consecration (anushthana) laid down in the the Srutis and Smrutis, those related to the inevitable morning duties, purification, bath, acamana, worship to be done in the three sessions, tarpana, homa, bali to be offered in the houses and such other activities which are prescribed for the brahmins may or may not be done. But the essential activities ordained in the Saiva Agamas should be inevitably done in each day.
Having performed the saiva sandhya, mantra japa, tarpana and others according to the rules prescribed in the Agama pertaining to his lineage, the Guru should go to the temple, clean his hands and feet and perform acamana . Then he should enter into the shrine and occupy the seat, being north-faced. Having taken the pure and white vibhuti, he should apply it on his forehead and other parts in such a way that the three stripes of vibhuti are closer to each other.
Having done the ‘kara nyasa’ (with the recital of samhita mantras), the priest should contemplate the presence of the resplendent seed letter ‘hum’ in the sushumna channel coursing through the center of the body, breath in and arrest the air at stomach so as to be without any movement and breath out with the recital of ‘hum phat’. While breathing out, he should untie the five knots (present between the chakras) and should bring back the air with the recital of the same mantra. Holding the air to be in ‘kumbhaka’, he should grasp his ‘jiva’ (soul) with the recital of murti mantra (atma murtaye namah) and place it on the head of ‘hum’ letter. Then he should raise the breath up along with the jiva so as to reach the plane of ‘dvadasnata’ and unite his jiva with Siva who is present there. This is the process of uniting the jiva with Siva. Having effected such union, he should perform the purification of his gross and subtle body.
Contemplating the five elements from earth to ether as related to the five kalas from nivritti to santayatita respectively and contemplating all of them as pervaded by the adhvas, he should purify those elements with which his body has been constituted. He should incinerate contemplatively those elements by meditating on the mutual discordance existing between the gross elements and purify them. This kind of purification associated with respective mandalas (geometrical forms) of the elements is known as ‘bhuta suddhi’. This purification should be done in such a way that the body is left out to be associated with essential kalas for which purification is not needed. Then, in order to obtain a luminous divine body fit enough for the worship, he should besprinkle the nectarine drops trickling down from the thousand-petalled lotus over the ashes of the incinerated body.
Having meditated on ‘kundalini sakti’ which is in oneness with the nectarine form, he should contemplate that the body is drenched with the streams of nectar and is charged with the luminous kalas. Having designed contemplatively a seat within his heart, he should re-install his own self endowed with a divine form. Having once again sprinkled the nectarine drops over that form, he should do the ‘kara nyasa’.
Having besmeared sandal paste over the palms, he should purify them with the recital of kavaca mantra. Then he should identify the brahma mantras with the fingers and the netra mantra with the palm. Having identified the asana, murti and anga mantras with the fingers, he should identify the presence of Siva with the palm. For the sake of protecting the identified state (with Siva), he should do ‘avakunthana’ (encircling the hands) with the recital of kavaca mantra. Only after having designed his hands to be of the nature of siva-mantras (which constitute the form of Siva), he should use his hands to do all other ritualistic activities related to the worship of Lord Siva.
The process of kara nyasa has been told. Then, the process of anga nyasa is now explained. The Guru should identify the brahma mantras and the anga mantras with his whole body, from the head to feet. Or, he may identify the mula mantra, brahma mantras and the thirty-eight kala mantras. Having installed Lord Siva within the heart, he should identify the hrudaya and other anga mantras with the heart and other limbs of the form. He should identify the netra mantra with the eyes and the kavaca mantra in all directions around him. The he should display the ‘maha mudra’ to ensure his oneness with Siva and recite the mula mantra.
Or, he may do the nyasa of brahma mantras alone, without doing the nyasa of thirty-eight kala mantras. Then he should do the nyasa of 51 letters, each letter associated with corresponding Rudra and Rudra Sakti, Srikantha Rudra, (Purnodari Sakti) and others. He may do the nyasa of 51 letters without Rudra and Rudra Sakti.
Having designed his form to be in perfect oneness with the form of Siva, he should perform the internal worship. Worship, oblations and samadhi (being in an absorbed state) should be done in the heart, navel and the forehead respectively. This is considered to be the purification of the self. Then, the purification of the place should be performed.
He should strike over the left palm with three fingers of the right palm and do the control of the directions (digbandhana) and perform the avakunthana. O, the Sages!, he should place the concerned vessels for padya, acamana and others over the pedestals specially designed for the purpose and prepare the padya, acamana and arghya water.
The padya prepared with candana, usira, siddhartha, durva, kasmira and water is considered to be of superior kind. The padya prepared with candana, usira, siddhartha, durva and water is of medium variety. The padya associated with candana, usira and water is of inferior kind. The acamana prepared with varala, usira, karpura, tuti, jati, lavanga and mura is considered to be of supreme kind. The acamana associated with ela, lavanga, karpura, mura and jati is of medium variety. The acmana prepared with ela, lavanga, karpura and water is of inferior kind. The arghya prepared with water, milk, tips of kusa-grass, yava, akshata, tila, saali and siddhartha is considered to be of superior kind. The arghya associated with yava, sarshapa, saali and tandula is of medium variety. The arghya associated with saali and tandula is of inferior kind. The preparation of padya and others is told now in another way.
Siddhartha, candana, usira and durva may be taken for the padya. Ela, lavanga, karpura, varala and phala are recommended for the preparation of acamaniya. These should be utilized for the worship, considering that these belong to the essential parts of a perfect and complete worship. The substances told earlier for the preparation of padya and others or those told here may be taken. The arghya may be prepared with either five substances – yava, sarshapa, vrihi, tandula and akshata, or it may be prepared with three substances – vrihi, tandula and akshata. Or, if no such substance is available, the argya may be prepared with pure water alone.
The vessel should be placed with the recital of hrudaya mantra and the Guru should take the arghya water with the recital of hrudaya mantra and sprinkle over the collected paraphernalia with the recital of astra mantra. He should provide protection (avakunthana) with the recital of kavaca mantra and energize each substance with hrudaya and other mantras and instill the quality of nectar into them by displaying the amruta mudra. Having applied a tilaka on his forehead with candana, he should place a flower on his own head. This is the process of the purification of paraphernalia. All the mantras related to Sivapuja should be recited as beginning with Om and ending with ‘namah’ (raising the breath upto forehead or brahmarandhra). Such recital is known as the purification of the mantras.
Having taken the vessel containing the samanya-arghya, the Guru should worship the Bull installed in front of the main shrine. On the upper beam of the threshold, he should worship Ganesa and Sarasvati on the left and right side. Nandi and Ganga should be worshipped on the right side. Mahakala and Yamuna should be worshipped on the left side of the entrance. On right and left of the doorleaf, Vimala and Subahu should be worshipped. Having entered the shrine, placing the right foot first, he should worship the Astra Deva contemplating his presence at the threshold.
Then, having worshipped Vastoshpati (Main Deity of the temple site, in the south-west), he should honor the flowers and other items offered to Sivalinga during the previous puja, remove them with the accompaniment of mantra and mudra and offer them to Candesvara. The well-learned Guru should sprinkle the arghya water over the pedestal and the rudra-bhaga. Such ritual is known as the purification of the Linga. In this way, five kinds of purification have been told.
Or, the five kinds of purification may be done after worshipping the guardian Deities of the entrance. The worship of Lord Siva associated with five kinds of perfect purification, designing of the seat, sacramental rituals, offerings and realizing a consummate state of complete worship is capable of accomplishing all the desired fruits.
Earlier, the process of perfect purification has been told. Now, details about the seat of Lord Siva are explained. Geansa, Sapta Gurus, Ananta, Dharma and others, Adharma and others, the lower knot, upper knot, lotus, pericarp of the lotus, Vama and other Saktis (Nava Saktis), four mandalas –surya, candra, agni and sakthi, the presiding Deities of these mandalas – these are to be worshipped with the accompaniment of the mantra pertaining to each Deity. In the end, the sivasana should be worshipped collectively.
The Sivasana, which is essentially only one, consists within itself five kinds of seat. Anantasana consists of Adharasakti and Ananta. Dharma and others and Adharma and others, together with the lower and upper knots constitute the simhasana. The lotus representing the maya constitutes the yogasana. The petals of the lotus constitute the padmasana. The mandalas contemplated over the lotus constitute the vimalasana. Each seat pertaining to the ceremonial ablution, invocation and other such rituals should be ideated separately,while performing that ritual.
The seat of Lord Siva to be ideated for the worship should be conceived in this way. The Guru should ideate the presence of ‘vidya deha’ above this seat. Then he should identify the brahma mantras, anga mantras and thirty-eight kala mantras. He may do the lipi-nyasa either associated with Srikantha and others or not associated with them. Then he should identify the five vedic brahama mantras (isanassarva vidyanam and others) in association with thirty-eight kalas. Having ideated the vidya deha in this way, the Guru should invoke the presence of Lord Siva in that vidya deha.
Then he should do sthapana, sannidhana, sannirodha with the accompaniment of relevant mudras and identify the hrudaya mantra and others with the respective parts of the vidya deha, in the due order. Having installed Lord Siva within the vidya deha, the Guru should contemplate the perfect oneness of Siva and the vidya deha. Displaying the ‘mahamudra’, he should contemplate the vibrant presence of Lord Siva being identical with the vidya deha and his own self. Then he should offer padya, acamana, arghya, durva and other such substances to the Lord. Then he should worship Lord Siva with the accompaniment of sacramental rituals said to be ten in number and with all kinds of upacaras.
He should apply perfumes, sandal and others to the Linga. Sandal may be applied so as to give a pleasant look. He should offer various kinds of flowers, freshly obtained from the trees and plants. Incense (dhupa) may be offered with the mixture of laghu (a kind of root), sandal, niryasa and such others. He should offer the lighted lamps making use of sesame oil or ghee according to the desire of the sponsor (karta or yajamana). In the same way, he should offer the lamps which could shed light without getting extinguished.
Balls of rice cooked in the consecrated fire and mixed with mudga or adhaka powder is recommended for the offering of ‘amantrana havis’ (cooked rice to be offered addressing the Main Deity). Having adorned the Linga with various ornaments and others, he should again offer dhupa and dipa (incense and light). At that time, he should delight the Lord who is holding the bull-flag with the recital of auspicious musical songs, accompanied by the sounding of all kinds of musical instruments and various kinds of dance. At the end of the offering of dhupa and dipa, he should offer ‘aratrika’ (waving of five plates holding the light). Taking the bhasma mixed with perfumes with thumb and the ring finger, he should wave around in front of the Linga and through it away (towards north-east). Then he should apply a tilaka with the bhasma on the forehead of Siva. Following this, he should show the mirror, parasol, camara and others.
In the night, he should offer ‘nirajana’ (waving of lighted camphor, lighted wick) at the end of dhupa and dipa. After the offering of naivedya, he should offer the ‘maha havis’, bali and oblations. Bali and homa may be offered at the time of offering the ‘amantrana havis’. Or, bali and homa may be offered on both the occasions – amantrana havis and maha havis. Or, bali and homa may be offered separately.
While performing the ceremonial ablutions for the Lord, recital of the mantras, musical songs or hymns, playing of vina, recital of the Vedic suktas and the recital of other hymns and other songs should be undertaken. Consequent to these, musical songs rendered in Gauda and other languages should be recited upto the offering of dhupa. In continuation of these, musical songs rendered in Dravida and other languages should be recited accompanied by dance or without such dance. Musical songs of Sanskrit and Apabhramsa associated with various intonations and the musical songs rendered in 18 languages should be recited. Various types of dance belonging to various places and traditions should be performed. During the special kinds of festivals and other such specific occasions, songs of various traditions should be sung.
Then, the daily festival should be performed associated with a number of young women. Ladies endowed with charming form and grace of youthfulness may be invited for this according to the desire of the sponsor (karta or yajamana). If Rudra Kanyas who are considered to be my devotees are there, they could be directed to involve themselves in this daily festival. The number of such Rudra Kanyas should be according to the number of people in the village who are living there in accordance with the design of the village.
According to the procedure of daily festival, the Guru who is the foremost among those who have mastered the scriptures should decide over the number of musicians and the number of dance-patterns. At the completion of the daily festival, he should arrange for the performance of ‘suddha nrutta’. Then, he should offer the culukodaka (offering of handful of water) and do the visrajana (bidding of farewell to the Lord). Or, he may retain the presence of anga-devatas (Lords of anga mantras).
In order to enable a sadhaka gain the desired fruits resulting from a sadhana undertaken by him, the Guru should grasp the benefits of the Sivapuja from the Linga into his heart, then purify the Linga and again worship Lord Siva with perfumes, sandal and others for the sake of that devotee. This ritual need not be done daily; upon the completion of a particular sadhana, this may be done as desired by the sadhaka.
My worship is of three kinds – the foremost, the medium and the lower. The worship performed with the recital of only those mantras which have been revealed in the Saivagamas is considered to be the foremost kind of worship. The worship performed with the recital of Agamic mantras and the Vedic mantras is of medium type. The worship performed with the recital of Veda mantras only is considered to be of lower kind.
This procedure has been detailed so as to be applicable for the daily and occasional worship. There is no mantra equal to the Saivamantra in all the three worlds. Even in the realm of Saivamantras, the mulamantra of Lord Siva shines forth as the seed of all mantras and is declared to be the foremost mantra. All the mantras, Pranava and others, millions of mantras composed of letters are born of this Siva-bijamantra. Sri Rudra and other hymns are likewise have born of Siva-bijamantra. In view of such importance, it is ordained that Guru should employ the bijamantra according to the context in the course of the repetition of other mantras to derive the concerned benefits. In yielding contentment and delight to me, there is nothing comparable to the bijamantra.
All these directions are common to the temple in which the Sivalinga, Sakala Linga and Misra Linga are facing the east, south or north. But there are some specific rules to be observed in the case of Sivalinga or other Linga installed in the main shrine facing the west. O, the Lords of the learned Sages!, now listen to these directions.
All the procedures explained before are common for the west-facing temple. But certain specific directions have to be observed. The upper face of Lord Sadasiva should be conceived as looking towards the west-entrance. Manonmani may be invoked to be present either in the left or right side of the Linga. Manonmani has to contemplated as associated with one face and two hands and looking the same direction as the Lord.
The Isana-face may be worshipped in the north-east or the south-west; Tatpurusha may be conceived to be in the east or the west; Aghora may be conceived to be present in the south or the north; Vamadeva may be conceived to be in the north or the south; Sadyojata may be conceived to be in the east or the west.
The presence of hrudaya mantra may be conceived to be in the south-east or the north-west. The presence of siro mantra may be conceived to be in the north-east or the south-west. The presence of sikha mantra may be conceived to be in the south-west or the north-east. The presence of kavaca mantra may be conceived to be in the north-west or the south-east. Both in the east facing shrine and in the west facing shrine, the astra mantra may be worshipped as present in all the four directions.
The Vidyesvaras of the second enclosure may be worshipped, starting from the east or from the west. The Ganesvaras of the third enclosure may be worshipped, starting from the north or from the south. The Lokapalas of the fourth enclosure are to be worshipped as before, starting from the east and similarly the weapons of the fifth enclosure are to be worshipped, starting from the east.
The Bull, Trident, Dhvajastambha and Gopura should be in front of the main shrine in which Sivalinga is facing the west. The worship of the retinue Deities should be done, starting from the east and ending with the north-east. Or, it may be done, starting from the west and ending with the south-west. The gomukha of the west-facing Linga should be on the left side of the Linga, extending towards the north. Candesvara should be worshipped in the north-east and Ganesa should be worshipped in the south-west. All other rules are common, as told for the Sivalinga facing the east.
This is the end of the First chapter titled “Directions for the Worship of Sivalinga which is Facing the West” in the Great Tantra known as Uttara Kamika
Chapter 2: Directions for the Worship of the Linga which is Facing the South (41 verses)
I will explain the process of worshipping the Linga which is facing the south. Such worship is considered to be of three kinds. This may done for the Linga, Pratima (image) and Mukhalinga. If the pratima is facing the south, it is ascertained to be the foremost of the superior type (uttamottama). If the Mukhalinga is facing the south, it is considered to be of medium type. The worship being done for the Sivalinga facing the south is considered to be of lower type.
O, the twice-born Sages!, among the images, the image facing the south is the best and the worship being done to such image is thought of to be highly auspicious. Especially, the form of Nataraja facing the south is more specifically considered to be the most auspicious one.
The Sivalinga which is facing the west is of the foremost type. The image which is facing the south is of the superior type. The regular worship of avykatalinga (Sivalinga) would yield liberation; that of the image is capable of yielding the worldly enjoyments; and that of the mukhalinga is capable of granting both the worldly enjoyments and the liberation. Having known well the greatness of such worship, one should perform the regular worship.
Having completed the activities such as morning purification, acamana, ceremonial bath, sandhya-worship and others, the Guru, holding the arghya-vessel in his hand, should reach the south entrance. Having sprinkled the arghya water over the entrance, he should worship the guardian Deities of the entrance in the prescribed order. Then he should worship Ganesa and Sarasvati on the upper beam of the threshold, Ganga and Nandi in the right side of the entrance and Yamuna and Mahakala in the left side of the entrance. He should worship these Deities with perfumes, sandal and such other substances in the due order.
Having entered into the shrine, the Guru should worship the Vastubrahma and being east-faced, he should worship Lord Siva endowed with six supreme qualities. If it is the worship of Sivalinga, the procedure is the same as told earlier. The Isana should be conceived to be in its own direction (north-east). He may worship either Aghora or Tatpurusha in the south; Aghora or Sadyojata in the west; Sadyojata or Vamadeva in the north; Tatpurusha or Vamadeva in the east. He should invoke the presence of Isana
in the south-east and that of Manomnai, in the east.
He should conceive the presence of hrudaya and other mantras in the south-west, north-west, south-east and the north-east respectively. Or, they may be conceived as explained before. The Vidyesvaras should be worshipped, starting from the south and ending with the south-east. The Ganesvaras may be worshipped starting from the east or as told earlier. The Lokapalas (Indra and others) should be worshipped, starting from the east and similarly, the weapons (Vajra and others) should be worshipped starting from the east.
The Bull, Balipitha, Dhvajastambha and others should be worshipped in the south, in front of the main shrine, the procedure of worship being the same as told before. All other rules are to be observed as explained earlier. If the worship is to be done for the Linga, these are the directions. For the worship of the Image (fully manifested form), the procedure is now told briefly. O, the foremost among the Sages!, listen to these directions.
Images are made of metal, stone, earth (clay), metallic ore, gems and such others. In the half-relief images and in the images made of stone, the worship may be done in the same way it is done for the Mulalinga. With regard to the images made of gems, metals and baked images made of clay, the purification of the image associated with dust may be done in any day as desired by the sadhaka. It should be purified until all the dust on the image gets removed. Then it should be cleanly wiped with a cloth. Ceremonial ablution should be done for the image in an auspicious day. In the images meant for specific purposes and others, image made of gems and provided with pedestal, or in the bana-linga or in the mirror and others, the worship may be done in the same way.
Adharasakti, Ananta, Dharma and others, Adharma and others, Four Lions, lower knot, upper knot, lotus, pericarp, Nine Saktis – Vama and others, four mandalas – surya and others associated with their presiding Deities – having worshipped all these in the prescribed order, the sadhaka should ideate the presence of netra mantra and vidya deha within the heart of the image.
In the fully manifested form (sakala murti), he should identify Isana with the head; Tatpurusha with the face. All other nyasas are common, as prescribed for the worship of Sivalinga. For the images, the kala-nyasa has been set forth with specific details. The contemplation on the exact form of the Deity should be done as detailed in the section dealing with the lineaments of the images.
The sixth seed letter should be united with the fifth letter counting from the seed letter of the heart and pronounced up to three matras (3 seconds). This is known as the seed letter of the image (Om ham hum haum) and this should be placed on the head of the image. Reciting this mantra, he should contemplate the exact form of the image within his heart. Having brought out the form from the heart, he should install the image through process of nyasa and perform ‘sannidhana’, ‘sannirodha’ with the accompaniment of relevant mudras. Then he should offer the padya-water at the feet of the Deity (image).
O, the twice-born Sages!, the acamana should be prepared with siddhartha, candana, usira, durva, ela, lavanga, karpura, varala and phala (jati). This acamana should be offered to the face known as Tatpurusha. The arghya should be prepared with milk, siddhartha, sasyendra, sesame, sali and akshata and it should be associated with kusa and flowers. This arghya should be offered at the head. Arghya prepared with yava, sarshapa, vrihi and tandula is known as arghyaka. The arghya prepared with vrihi and tandula is known as acyuta.
Padya, acamana, arghya, arghyaka and acyuta – all these five are recommended for the worship of sakala, nishkala and sakala-nishkala forms. During the performance of arcana, snapana, yajna, festivals such as pavitrotsava (offering thread-garlands to the installed images to alleviate the defects) and others, these five should be prepared and offered. Or, the first three may be offered.
With regard to padya and others, that which is associated with all the recommended substances is considered be the foremost. That which is bereft of any one of the recommended substances is considered to be of medium kind. That which is bereft of two substances is of lower knid. That which is bereft of three substances is of the most inferior kind. Padya and others are applicable to all the entrances, irrespective
of their directions.
The perfumes, flowers, dhupa, dipa, naivedya, tambula – all these should be offered to the supreme Lord Isvara, with the recital of mulamantra. Bali, homa, festival and dance – all these should be done according to the schedule of time prescribed for such activities.
Within the duration of seven and a half nadis (one yama, 3 hours), sandhya worship, snapana, daily worship, naivedya, bali, fire-ritual, daily festival and suddha nrutta (dance performance) should be completed. This is the time schedule ordained for the normal course of puja. The aspects of puja such as padya, acamana and others may be performed by exceeding the prescribed duration by 2 or 3 divisions or a little; or, they may be performed with the prescribed duration decreased by 5 divisions or one division. The puja may be completed within five nadis or seven and a half nadis (one nadi is equal to 24 minutes).
A puja performed with a duration of 6 hours is considered to be the foremost among the supreme kind (uttama- uttama). The puja performed with a duration of 4 hours is considered to be of medium kind. The puja performed with a duration of 3 hours (one yama) is considered to be of lower kind. The duration between the beginning and the end of puja should be divided into 8 equal parts and based on these, nine internal durations should be derived. Such divisions should be applied to various aspects of the puja.
All the activities from ploughing of the land to the installation, yearly festival, pavitrotsava, monthly festival, offering of the sprouts, purification, daily worship and such others have been well explained in this Agama.
The Guru should perform the worship of sakala murtis and nishkala murtis, after having well analyzed in a systematic way the procedure set forth in this Agama and having pondered over the concerned sections. The foremost Guru should perform the worship of the Linga which is facing the north in the same way, after knowing well the rules set forth here. In the case of sakala murtis (vyakta linga, fully manifested form), it is specifically directed that the frontal hall (antrala) should be in the east.
What is the use of speaking elaborately on this? O, the foremost among the twice-borns!, it is ascertained that the direction towards which the image is facing should be taken to be the east. Based on this, other directions should be considered by those who have known well about the science of directions.
This is the end of the Second Chapter titled “Directions for the Worship of the Linga which is Facing the South” in the Great Tantra known as Uttara Kamika
Chapter 11: Directions for the Performance of Sivaratri-worship in the month of Magha (Feb-March) (28 verses)
O, the twice-born Sages!, now I will explain with specific details the process of performing the Sivaratri- worship. All of you listen to these instructions with concentrated mind since this specific worship (vrata) is considered to be the foremost among the superior kind of worship.
This vowed observance (sivaratri vrata) was duly accomplished earlier by Devi (Sivasakti) and was performed by others (deities and sages)according to the rules prescribed for that. Because of such accomplishment, Devi attained blissful state being united with me. Others were enabled to experience much delighted state, having obtained all those desired by them. Those who observe this supreme vow would not be bound with the ropes hurled by the servants of Yama who cast dreadful looks with their protruding eyes. They would not see even Yama. And, they will never go to the hellish worlds.
Now listen to the detailed process of that worship, which is acceptable to all followers. The night time of the day which synchronizes with the fourteenth lunar day of the black-half (Krishna paksha) in the month of Magha is known as “sivaratri”. Such night is conducive to the attainment of the fruits of all meritorious deeds. During that night, Lord Siva should be worshipped who has manifested in the form of Sivalinga in the Siva-temple.
On that auspicious day, the Guru should be on fast in the forenoon, after taking the ceremonial bath in the prescribed way. The concerned rituals should be performed with diligence being assisted by his disciples (sadhakas). Having completed the five kinds of purification according to the directions set forth earlier, the Guru should contemplate the seat for the Lord and then the relevant form of the Lord and identify His vidya-body (body constituted of pure consciousness)with that form.
Having invoked Him and effected His vibrant presence there, he should worship Lord Siva by offering the padya, acamana and arghya. Then he should worship Him with sandal and other substances and anoint the Linga with perfumed oil, rub the whole form with flour and clean it. Then he should bathe the Linga with the mixture of five fruits and that of five substances got from the cow according to the directions laid down before. Then he should bathe the image with perfumed (sandal) water, ghee and such other recommended liquids.
Then, he should bathe it with the water mixed with five kinds of purifying leaves and with five kinds of herbal roots in the due order. Again, he should clean the image with flour, myrobalan fruit, powders prepared from the recommended grains and turmeric powder after purifying them with incense with the recital of astra mantra. After this, he should clean the image with pure water. In the same way, he should bathe the Linga with coconut water and diluted sandal-paste. All these should be done with the accompaniment of mula mantra, brahma mantras and anga mantras.
He should wipe the image with pure cotton cloth. Then he should cover the Linga with pure cloth made of silk and other such materials fit to adorn the gods. During each session (yaama) of the night, he should worship the Linga with sandal, flowers and other substances arranged and kept separately for each session. The Linga should be worshipped with sandal, agaru, camphor, saffron and others in the prescribed order.
The Guru should worship the Lord with various flowers such as mallika, utpala, jati pushpa, bilva and others associated with durva, akshata and sesame. He should offer incense making use of guggulu, agaru, resin and the essence of sarjara; offer the light using pure white wicks dipped in the ghee.
In the first session. ‘payasa’ (rice boiled with milk, sugar and green pulses) should be offered as naivedya. In the second session (yaama) ‘krusara-food’ (rice boiled with molasses, sesame and ghee) should be offered. In the third session, ‘gulannam’ (rice boiled with molasses and ghee) should be offered. In the fourth session, ‘suddha-annam’ (unmixed, pure boiled rice) should be offered associated with cooked vegetables seasoned with condiments. At the end, ‘tambula’ (betel leaf and mouth-perfumes) should be offered along with ghee and pieces of molasses.
Having offered the incense along with ‘aratrika’ (waving the light placed in a vessel) to the Lord, the Guru should perform the fire ritual in a specific way to suit the occasion, either in a fire-pit or in a sthandila. Having created the fire in the fire-pit itself or having placed the fire brought in separate vessel, the Guru should manifest the siva-fire there, preceded by the performance of sacramental rituals concerned with the fire-pit. Then he should ideate a seat for the Lord in the heart of siva-fire, worship Him and offer the oblations in the well-kindled and blazing fire.
He should offer the oblations with faggots of the recommended trees, clarified butter, rice cooked specially in the sacrificial hall (havis), parched paddy and sesame with the accompaniment of mual mantra, brahma-mantras and anga-mantras. The oblations for other mantras should be one tenth of the total oblations offered with the mula mantra. Or, such oblations may be for 10 to 50 times, increasing the oblations by 10 each time. Then he should offer the consummate oblation (purna ahuti) meant for completing the activities left out unintentionally, praise the Lord and offer the sacred ashes collected from the fire-pit to Him with a fitting entreat.
He should worship the Lord again and again in the same way, in each consecutive session. If he is unable to do all these rituals by himself in each session, he should let others who are his own disciples to perform these activities. Having spent the night keeping himself at vigil, he should come out in the early morning, perform the daily activities such as bath and others, come back to the shrine and perform the snapana- bath to the Lord according to the prescribed directions and worship Him as done before. Then the yajamana (sponsor) should worship the Guru and honor him with ceremonial fees, desisting from being guile without considering his wealthy state and resources.
Then the sponsor (yajamana) should honor the devotees who are wearing the linga, devotees of Siva, brahmins and the guests according to his capacity and availability of the resources and with devotion. After this, he should complete the special puja of this specific occasion (sivaratri). Having come back to his home with his relatives and dependents, he should clean his feet and hands and conclude the fast by taking food.
This is the end of the 11th chapter titled “Directions for the Performance of Sivaratri-worship in the month of Magha (Feb-Mar)” in the Great Tantra called Uttara Kamika
Chapter 22: Knowing the Effects of Dreams (120 verses)
Now, I will reveal to you the contents of the chapter dealing with the effects of various dreams. O, the foremost among the twice-born sages!, normally a disciple could have supremely auspicious visions in dreams, during the night prior to the performance of initiation (diksha) or any other special ritual opted by a devotee. If such dream occurs in the first quarter of the night, the disciple would reap its benefit during its own course of time within one year. If it occurs in the second quarter of the night, the effect of the dream would materialize within six months. If it occurs in the third quarter of the night, the effect of the dream would be seen within one month. If the dream occurs in the fourth quarter of the night, its effect would manifest immediately. There is no doubt about such occurrence of the effects of the dreams.
The sun, highly radiant with resplendent rays, moon enclosed by the stars, fire blazing forth with flames nourished by daily oblations, lighted lamps shining forth with exceeding brilliance, mother, father, wife, sons or daughters, mother (of known persons), good-hearted persons – if these objects or persons are seen by the disciple in his dream, then he will attain inexhaustible wealth.
Eclipsed moon, eclipsed sun, shadowed stars, dish of honey and oil, consuming that dish, holding that dish – if these are seen in dream by a person, then he will be led to attain a kingdom. Garlands made of white flowers, white birds, gold-colored birds – if these are seen in dream, then he will attain wealth. If a person sees in his dream the city of Gandharvas (celestial musicians), celestial ladies belonging to the groups of Devas and Gandharvas or if he reaches that city or approach the celestial ladies, then he would attain great wealth.
Umbrella completely designed with superior kind of gold and decorated with garlands made of white flowers or pearls, auspicious trees such as mango and others, fruits of such auspicious trees, climbing on those trees, plucking the fruits of those trees, eating those fruits – such visions in a dream is considered to be auspicious. Vision of a mountain, palace, elephants, cows, lion and bull, mounting on the lion, elephant or bull – is considered to be auspicious. Mounting on a lion-throne, on an elephant or on a palanquin – vision of such happenings is considered to be auspicious.
Sun, moon, fire, ocean, sky, earth, mountain, crossing the mountain-stream, ocean or forest-river – vision of these in the dream is declared to be auspicious. Milking the buffaloes or cows, presence of lioness, female- elephant, presence of relatives in one`s own house – vision of these in the dream and of these animals giving birth to the calves is considered to be indicative of the immediate attainment of wealth and greatness. O, the supreme sages!, drinking the streams of milk right from the udder of a cow whose color is whitish-red, sportively like its calf, consuming of curd, half-cooked meat, ordures, milk boiled with sugar and pulses – vision of such incidents in the dream is praised for its goodness.
Drinking of nectar, blood or toddy, eating of fish – vision of such incidents in the dream, taking bath with blood, a king being anointed with streams of consecrated water flowing from the cow-horn or with the stream of cool water issuing from the moon-stone (a special vessel made of moon-stone) – vision of such events in the dream is considered to be auspicious.
It is specifically good to see in the dream the capturing of cows, lions and elephants of the enemy in a battle field. Studying the Vedas and the Agamas, being smeared with food, sprouting of grass or tree from his navel, hand holding flower, water and the tips of kusa-grass, being smeared with the unguent of white sandal, being attired in white cloth, seeing a brahmin and hearing his words of blessings, white fruits, hand-fan, flag, umbrella made of lotus flowers and leaves, mirror studded with diamonds, light, chowrie, weapon, lotus-shaped insignia, pure water-sheath, superior kind of gold, seeing the king and holding a talk with him – vision of all these in the dream is considered to be conducive to the attainment of auspicious benefits.
Temple dedicated to the God and installed with divine images, white cows, ocean and rivers associated with upsurging tides and waves – if a person sees these in his dream, he would attain wealth. If he sees that he is drinking the water of ocean and river, he would attain kingdom. Conch, ornaments, white cloth, man dressed in white cloth, ladies endowed with beautiful form and youthfulness – if a person sees these in his dream, he would attain superior kind of wealth equaling the superiority of those beautiful ladies.
A boy seizing a snake, elephant – if a person sees these in his dream, he would attain a state of well-being. Grass-covered field, large quantity of grains, house associated with fire-ritual – if these are seen in his dream, he would attain prosperity and wealth. A field associated with water, enemies being captured by his troops, enemies being tortured and killed by them, gaining victory in debate, gambling and such other events, gaining victory in the battle – if such events are seen in the dream, he would attain wealth. Moon entering into the earth, clean sky, the dead man eating the food and taking hold of the fire, being honored with the presentation of insignia of the king- if such events are seen in his dream, he would attain happiness. The stringed musical instruments (such as vina) being played well, jumping over such stringed instruments, hearing the harsh sounds of crying – such dreams would lead to auspiciousness.
O, the twice-born sages!, seeing and approaching the ladies other than his own spouse, embracing them, being fettered with iron chains and put behind the bars, heaps of grains and his own body being consumed by the flames of fire, severing of his own body, convulsive movements of the directions – seeing these in the dream would give auspicious benefits. His own body being eaten by the snake which has entered into his place of its own accord or eaten by the lion which has come there casually, viewing his own heart and head and crops, eating the curd-rice or other food kept in the vessel made of diamonds or silver or in the lotus-leaf made of gold, hearing the neighing of horses, high sounds hailing the victory, sounds such as ‘eat this… eat that’, key- shaft, flock of bees, downpour of rain – seeing these in the dream would give auspicious result.
Oil-cakes, dried cowdung, his house being raised to much higher level, being in his own house illumined by lighted lamps and surrounded by his relatives, auspicious fresh sprouts and seeds, arrival of the celestial beings known as ‘vidyadharas’, his own legs severed and associated with streams of blood – if these are seen in the dream, then that person would attain great riches within a short time and be blessed with many children.
If a person sees in his dream his own right hand being cut down and associated with shedding of blood streams, then he would be quickly blessed with a child and he would be with longevity and widespread fame. If a person sees in his dream his own head being severed and covered with gushing blood, he would attain good health within a short period and his wealth would be increasing further.
If a person sees in his dream a body which is in the likeness of a golden structure being crushed and scattered, then he would attain wealth and abundance of varieties of grains and he would have the fortune of being adorned with all kinds of ornaments. A person who sees in his dream that he is making his livelihood by maintaining a retail shop should know that his wealth will be augmenting more and more and that the duration of his life would be increased. If a person sees in his dream wheel, vessel of fulfillment (purna kumbha), srivatsa or svastika and if he sees that he is drinking the blissful soma-juice, then he would attain all those desired by him.
Hearing the words such as ‘Sivagama’ and others in the dream would lead to the attainment of richness. To see in his dream the arrival of Guru or a much enlightened scholar in his house would yield a state of well-being and auspiciousness. Seeing a scorpion, conversing with the celestial ladies, brahmin ladies and the ladies belonging to the celestial group known as the ‘Maruts’ would yield auspicious benefits. It is said that seeing the ‘tambula’, collyrium, leaves of bilva-tree, saffron powder, mandala-design and doing the works such as constructing a wall, cow-shed and others, raising a flower garden – would yield auspicious benefits.
Going to a place where one should not go, body fastened completely with chains or ropes, sharing his wealth with his relatives, enabling a virgin to get married with a suitable young man, bathing, worshipping Lord Siva, offering oblations into the fire, seeing the good-hearted saintly persons and the group of highly learned persons, drinking the nectar, flying across the sky – occurrence of these in the dream indicate the attainment of auspicious benefits.
Obtaining a ground and new clothes, burning of cot, bed, clothes and the seat, mounting on the boat, himself being dressed with new and white clothes, eating the pure and unmixed cooked rice, fresh appearance of honey-bees and lotus flower, injuring his own body, attaining the conch-treasure (sankha nidhi) and the lotus-treasure (padma nidhi) – these are said to be auspicious dreams.
If such treasures are only seen and not obtained, and if such treasures are obtained but stolen by the thieves – such occurrences in the dream would indicate undesirable effects. Linga or an image getting damaged and deformed, death of the king, linga-pedestal moving around itself, shaking of the palace of the queen and the kingdom, death of the relatives, death of his son, entering into the piled logs set on fire, spoiling of the fruit, bhasma, pieces of molasses, vegetables held in hand – such dreams would yield undesirable effects.
Going to a foreign country, doing the deeds violating the restrictions of one’s own caste, being affected by diseases, death of a person who is with projected tooth, being affected with pollution – seeing these in the dream is inauspicious. Passing urine and evacuating the bowels in a place where gold or silver vessel or burning charcoal is kept, falling the pounded pieces of bronze over the head, being naked, being attired with a dirty cloth, his body being oiled, his body falling down, mounting on the swing raised to abnormal height – seeing these in the dream would yield undesirable effects.
Seeing the trees which are with red flowers, an outcaste, fowler, eating the well-cooked meat and sesame and drinking the blood, dancing, swallowing, marriage, singing, playing of the musical instruments except the stringed instrument, plunging into the stream, taking bath with cow-dung and cow-urine or with muddy substance, lying on the stomach of his mother, climbing over the funeral pyre, falling of the lightning and thunder, falling of the sun, moon and stars, occurrence of portentous phenomenon in the distant space, middle space and the earth, wrath of the Devas, brahmins, king and the Guru, embracing of the young ladies, copulation of the male persons, his own body being tortured, being purgative, vomiting, proceeding towards the southern direction, being highly affected by disease, falling down of the house, smearing and cleaning the house, being seized and tormented by ghost, demon and such other cruel spirits, by monkey and by men, being inflicted with disrespect by other persons, outburst of mental worry due to that disrespect, being dressed up with ochre cloth, enjoying with a lady, being smeared with oil, drinking, plunging, wearing the garland made of red flowers, freely playing in the ground, licking, shouting, being fatigued with hunger and thirst,
Displacement of stars, flags and streams, severing of rope, beard and head being shaved as the mark of inflicted punishment, nails being very long, doing service to the ladies, parts of the body being tied and crushed by a deformed person during a festival, paralysed state of the cows, worms and birds, bathing of the dead, travelling in a broken vehicle – seeing these in the dream would result in inauspicious effects.
O, the twice-born sages!,joyfully playing and dancing in the pool using the vessel made of lac, destruction of the useful substances, death of a friend or a good-hearted person, being attired in smoky colored cloth, severing of the hands, plundering the lotus flowers, being dressed with a worn-out cloth, coming down from the upper floor of temple, house and others and from the top of a summit – seeing these in the dream is not desirable. Snake entering into ears or nose or entwining them, attaining cotton-made items, sesame, roots of plants or metals, a healthy person becoming a diseased one, a diseased person becoming a deceased one, flags and such others becoming damaged, breaking of umbrella – the person who sees all these in his dream would be afflicted with inauspicious effects.
O, the twice-born sages!, wearing a single white lotus – to see this in the dream is, likewise, inauspicious. In the same way, to have the vision smiling, of eating the food along with sesame, taking oil-bath keeping the head down on the floor, breaking of the tooth, elephant and the ground glowing with flames of fire, being seated on a tree or mountain or on the seat made of black iron, to appear with blue-black color, chariot associated drawn by an ass, vehicle tied up with his neck, being grasped and wounded by porpoise, imperfect dancing of untrained foolish persons, appearance of grass, tree and animals from the navel, the mating of worms, ass, monkey, camel, snake and other ferocious beings would lead to undesirable effects.
Smearing the body with oil, cow-dung, mud, turbid water –seeing this in the dream is not favorable. Wounding the tongue and shoulder with nails, snake crawling over the body or smelling the body – seeing these in the dream is not desirable or agreeable. One who sees in his dream that he is frequently smelt by wild beasts associated with deformed face would be afflicted with distress. Being submerged in the mire – seeing this in the dream is, likewise, would lead to difficulties.
Being embraced by corpse or a mendicant or by the neighbour or a disciple of a Guru, being forcibly drawn by the messenger of Yama (God of death), having the vision as climbing on the trees such as salmali, kimsuka, yupa caitya, paribhadraka, kovidara with abundant flowers, the trees mentioned here becoming dried up, drinking the water given by a person afflicted with urinal disease, eating the cooked rice mixed with turmeric powder- if these are seen in the dream by a person, he will be affected by jaundice. One who sees in his dream that he is drinking the red colored mix of blood and bile, would die soon. If he sees in his dream that he is alighting from a broken vehicle, such vision would lead to poverty.
Seeing in the dream the darkened and defiled state of the sun, moon and the stars is inauspicious. Appearance of lotus, havis (cooked rice meant for fire ritual) and virgin in the space, planets becoming shrouded by other planets – if such visions occur in the dream, the king would die. Inauspicious beings and being embraced by such beings, the falling down of the crow, vulture, falcon, ghost, demon, idol from the sky – if such visions appear in the dream of a person, then he would be afflicted with distress.
Falling down of a highly raised flag, hill and bull, very large house and wall becoming damaged – if such visions appear in the dream, death will occur to the chief of the family. Seeing an extinguished lamp, silver, a person affected with leprosy, messenger, foreigner, person born in the lowest caste, person having black teeth, person with ugly face, male or female dressed as a kapalika or an insane person, antelope bearing a mark of trident – if such visions occur in the dream of a person, he would instantly die.
A person being killed, himself being killed- seeing such events in the dream, likewise, would lead to his death. Horse, camel, ass, buffaloe, dog, jackal, female-buffalo, sesame-oil, inauspicious colors, crow, wolf, ox, pig, cat, owl, black-snake, black-worm, black-cow – if these are seen in the dream by a person, that person would be affected with fearfulness. If he sees that these beings are touched by him or grasped by him or he is mounting on them, if he sees a golden tree, such dreamy visions would lead him to death.
A load-bearing cart, vehicle, chariot, umbrella and such others getting damaged, seeing a widow, having intercourse with her – if such vision occur in the dream, such dreams would lead to loss of wealth. Himself being thickly covered by smoke and fire, his head being cut off, himself being tied up or obstructed by others – if such visions occur in the dream, he would be subjected to fearful effects. If a person sees in his dream that he is drinking rice-gruel or arrack, then such dream would lead to decay of his wealth and fortunes. Rice, well-cooked meat, chaff, burning charcoals, green gram, black gram, pepper, mustard – if these are seen in the dream, such dream would yield inauspicious effects.
Falling into the fire-pit and such others, disheveled hair – seeing these in the dream is not favorable. Being smeared with oil meant for the wicks, sesame-oil and such others and with black unguent – such vision in the dream is also not good. Entering into a place engulfed in dense darkness, walking on the highways, entering into a thorny area along with mendicants and corpse, swallowing a silvery substance, eating a corpse, black object turning into a red object – seeing these in the dream is not good.
Seeing in the dream a red object turning into a black object is inauspicious. Seeing in the dream a black substance coming out from red substance, lotus, palasa tree and red sandal, seeing in the dream a washerman, drawing artist, messenger, foreigner or heretical persons would not lead to auspicious effects. Seeing an ant-hill, dried and emaciated tree, poisonous tree, crying of various beings, sudden falling of the trees – is not for favorable effects. If a person sees in his dream that a deity, a brahmin, ancestor, yogi or king is revealing some messages to him, whatever has been told by them would materialize actually.
Such dreams would manifest, indicating auspicious or inauspicious effects, according to the mature state of one’s own karmic fruits. These dreams are viewed as the indicating factors. They are never manifesting as born of the defects of essential future events. The nature of essential future events which seem defiled by another such events, becomes modified and it is this modified event that is seen by a person in his dream, as if it is perceived or happening actually. If a person continuously think of a seen or heard object and with the same concentrated thinking if he goes to sleep, the same object manifests as actually perceivable.
With regard to the knowledge of these two kinds of dreams – auspicious and inauspicious, no malicious purpose is intended or aimed at in this Agama. In view of the knowledge of the events or objects lying beyond the actual perception of the eyes, events or objects appear in the dream as perceivable actually, involving some anomalies. The auspicious and the inauspicious dreams seen by a person are equally based on the essential phases of the future events of his life. Its nature of being based equally on the good and bad events of the future is not affected by the actual occurrences. This is specifically true.
O, the twice-born sages!, the disciple should inform the details of his dream to the Acharya, whether the dream is auspicious or inauspicious. The state of pre-eminence is determined based on the order of castes such as brahmin and others, age, wealth, austere conducts, orderly behaviour, over-all knowledge and such other qualities. First, the most eminent disciple should inform his dream to the Acharya. All other disciples should inform their dreams to the Acharya, in the order of eminence. Or, this kind of pre-eminence may be observed among them through the guidance and direction of the Acharya.
A brahmin for whom samaya-diksha has been performed and a sudra for whom visesha-diksha has been performed- between these two, only he who has been ordered and authorized to have the next higher diksha should approach the Guru. If equal state of initiation is noticeable among many disciples, only the disciple who is directed by the Acharya should prostrate before the foremost Guru. If equality is observed among many disciples with regard to caste and sacraments, only that disciple who has been authorized and instructed by the Acharya should approach the initiating Guru.
With regard to the mutual salutation (prostration), the same order should be maintained. Even if there is pre-eminence among them in view of the sacraments and others, mutual honoring such as prostration and other deeds need not be done, if such instruction comes from the initiating Guru. Under all circumstances, only the instructions and directions of the initiating Guru should be given importance.
The austere conducts of the disciples of one and the same Guru have been explained here. What is use of speaking elaborately? Whatever has been instructed by the Guru, only that should be fulfilled always by the disciples who are desirous of most excellent merits and upliftment.
This is the end of the 22nd chapter titled “Knowing the Effects of the Dreams” in the Great Tantra called Uttara Kamika
Chapter 23: Directions for the Performance of Nirvana Diksha [Initiation Meant for Final Liberation] (222 verses)
Now I explain the procedure of performing the initiation called ‘nirvana diksha’ which is efficacious in yielding the final liberation. Having performed all the daily rituals, offered ‘tarpana’ for the mantras and others, completed the sun-worship, the Acharya should purify himself and render his body to be identical with the form of Siva by means of ‘sakali karana’. Holding the samanya-arghya (arghya water meant for common purpose) in his hand, he should perform the worship for the entrance (of the sacrificial pavilion) and the for the Deities who are guarding the entrances. Having entered into the sacrificial pavilion through the western entrance, he should perform the worship of Vastu-Brahma, ward off the obstacles and ensure the protection of the pavilion according to the scriptural directions.
Having performed the purification of his body and soul and done the essential ‘nyasas’ with the accompaniment of appropriate mantras, the Acharya who has well known the significance and details of the rituals, should prepare the ‘visesha arghya’, design the knowledge-sword (jnana khadga) and prepare the mixture of five substances got from the cow (pancha gavya). Having consecrated the substances meant for scattering over the interior ground and purified the interior area, he should scatter those substances around the altar with kusa-grass and collect them back and place the collected things in the north-east of the pavilion. Having worshipped the ‘siva kumbha’ and the ‘vardhani (astra) kumbha’, he should worship the directional Deities who are present in their respective directions and make them hear the order given by Lord Siva.
He should take the ‘siva-kumbha’ and the ‘astra-kumbha’ (vardhani) in his hands and circumambulate the interior. Then, having worshipped the knowledge-sword and Siva in the mandala, he should offer tarpana in the fire-pit for the mantras. “O, Bhagavan!, being gracious and kind towards me, kindly enter into my body for bestowing your grace upon this disciple whose soul is in perfect state in all respects.” Having entreated in this way, he should mentally conceive that he has been permitted to perform the initiation and he should place the headband (turban) on the head of the disciple.
Lord Sadasiva who is present in the mandala exists as the sole witness for all the deeds performed by the souls; He is present in the kumbha, as the sole protector of this yajna; He is present in the fire as the inspirer and performance of the fire-ritual; He is present in the disciple for the removal of the constricting bonds; He is present in my body as the One who disentangles the disciple from the bonds. O, Lord Sadasiva!, you are the sole authority for all these five deeds and I am one with Sadasiva.” Having conceived in this way, the Guru should think of his inseparable identity with Siva and contemplate that he has become endowed with the same attributes as those of Siva. “The mantras of Lord Siva, hrudaya and others, which are the causal sources of all other mantras are indeed present in my hrudaya and other parts in the same way as they are with the Lord. Absolute lordship of Isvara is assumed by me by the grace of Siva.” Having contemplated such a total identity with Siva through the vital airs which are functioning in and out of the body, he should entreat the Lord once again:
“This disciple has been examined well in all possible ways; he has become competent enough. For the sake of obtaining the ‘nirvana diksha’, he is beside me. He belongs to the superior class and to superior division. He is strongly established in all the observances prescribed for such attainment. Grace should be bestowed upon him by me for delivering him from the bonds. Being firmly and absolutely resolved to attain liberation, he has become more and more highly qualified through the guided study of the Sivagamas.” Having informed his competency in this way, he should guide the disciple to enter into the sacrificial pavilion and make him seated in his right side, in front of the fire-pit. Having completed the ceremonial entry of the disciple in this way, the Acharya who has known well the rituals related to ‘nadi sandhana’ (unifying the nadis of the Guru and the disciple), should perform the oblations meant for mantra tarpana along with the ‘purna ahuti’. Then he should offer the oblations for the sake of ‘dipana’ (making the mantras to be resplendent and vibrant) of the siva mantra and other mantras.
Reciting the siva mantra and the anga-mantras, adding the aghora-bija in the first and the last and ‘vaushat’ at the end and displaying the expressions of anger such as keeping the eye-brows crooked and keeping the face with a frightening look, he should offer three oblations. This is the procedure for the mantra-dipana. Then, he should take the thread spun by virgins and make it to be three-folded first and once again three-folded . He should sprinkle the arghya-water with the recital of astra mantra, give protection with the recital of kavaca mantra and worship it with the recital of mula mantra. He should tie up that thread on the tuft of the disciple who is keeping body well raised and straight. The thread should be made to be hanging up to the front of the toe of his right leg.
Having contemplated the thread to be in the form of ‘sushumna nadi’, the Guru should draw out the sushumna nadi from the body of the disciple reciting the mantra ‘om suhumnaayai namah’ and unite it with the thread. Having worshipped the thread with sandal, flowers and other substances, he should ensure its protection with the recital of kavaca mantra. Then, for the sake of unified existence of the sushuna in the thread he should offer three oblations into the fire-pit with the recital of the mula mantra.
Having sprinkled over the heart (middle of the chest) of the disciple with the recital of astra mantra and striked over it with a flower, reciting the astra mantra, the Guru should should enter into the disciple through his outbreath (and through the disciple`s inbreath), reciting the mantra ‘hum’. Reciting the astra mantra, he should unlock and cut asunder the knot of the heart and draw out his conscious-soul which is in the form of a star, reciting the mula mantra (atma mula mantra) and enter the plane of dvadasanta and place that soul keeping it between the seed-letters ‘ham’ and ‘ham’.
Reciting the seed-letter ‘ham’ and displaying the samhara mudra, the Guru should unite the soul with the thread and give protection to it with the recital of kavaca mantra (avakunthana). Then he should offer three oblations into the fire-pit for the sake of ‘sannidhana’ (stabilizing the unified existence of the soul with the thread), reciting the mula mantra. Subsequent to this, he should unite mala, karma and maya which yield ‘bhoktrutva’ (experiencing state), enjoyments and body respectively to the soul and then santyatita and other kalas with the thread, reciting the mantra pertaining to each of these. “om haum santyatita kalayai hum phat”- this is the mantra to be recited for the santyatita kala to be united with the thread. (Similarly for the kalas).
Having struck over the head of the disciple with the recital of astra mantra and with a flower, he should draw the soul through samhara mudra, and reciting the mantra ‘om haum santaytita kalayai namah’, he should unite the santyatita kala with the thread, looking the thread from the brahma randhra down to the middle of the eye-brows. In the same order, as explained under the context of purification of the gross and subtle body, he should unite all other four kalas with the thread, repeating tadana (striking), grahana (drawing out) and yojana (uniting) for each kala, looking the thread down to the neck (heart), navel, knee and toe. The Guru who is well-skilled in performing the initiation should contemplate the state of pervading (vyapaka) and that of pervaded (vyapya) existing between the kalas.
Mantras are pervaded by padas; padas are pervaded by varnas; varnas are pervaded by bhuvanas; bhuvanas are pervaded by tattvas and tattvas are pervaded by kalas; karma, mala and maya are those which pervade mantra and others. In another aspect, mala, karma and maya are the pervaded; five kalas are those which pervade them. So, if the pervasive kalas are taken for purification, all other categories which are pervaded by the kalas remain there eventually for purification. The kalas function in two ways: as set in action and as kept in pure state, being free from any action. When the kalas are set in action, all others which are pervaded by them, such as mantras, tattvas and so on, also set in action. When the kalas are kept in pure state, all others which remain pervaded by the kalas also remain in pure state, without binding the soul. So, in this supreme initiation, the purification of the kalas is essentially needed.
The ‘dipana’ of these kalas should be done reciting the mantra which begins with ‘om’ and ends with ‘vaushat’. First, the seed-letter of aghora (hum), then the seed-letter ‘haum’, then ‘santyatita kalayai’, then, ‘hum phat’ (om hum haum santyatita kalayai hum phat). This is for santyatita kala. For all other kalas, except the seed letter belonging to each kala, all other words are to be retained as they are. Having offered three oblations into the fire, the Guru should control the binding power of the bonds.
Reciting the astra mantra (and displaying the naraca mudra), the Guru should strike on the head of the disciple and reciting the ‘siva mantra’ in three modes, he should entreat: “O,Bhagavan!, this kala called santyatita is associated with mala, karma and maya and is pervading santi and other kalas. Arrest firmly the binding power of this kala. Arrest, hum phat.” (om hraum haum hraum santyatita kala pasamalakarma maayaasaakta tattva bhuvanaadi vyapakam bandha bandha hum phat). Reciting this mantra, he should make a knot on the thread at the crest level of the head. Similarly, he should recite the mantra for all other four kals, placing the seed-letter of Siva between ‘hraum’ and ‘hraum’, changing the seed letter pertaining to each kala, stating its pervasion over mala and others, reciting the words ‘bandha bandha’ and ‘hum phat’ and make a knot on the thread at the middle point of the eye-brows, at the neck, at the navel and at the knee.
Having taken up the thread from the disciple, the Guru should place it in a hollowed plate made of earth (sarava) and close it by another such vessel. He should perform the ‘sampata homa’ and offer the thread (kept in the vessel) to the Lord presiding over the mandala and place it beneath the siva kumbha to be protected by the Lord present in the kumbha. Having directed the disciple to prostrate before Siva present in the siva kumbha, the Acharya should come out of the sacrificial pavilion along with the disciple. Then, he should give ‘pancha gavya’, ‘caru’ and the stick meant for brushing the teeth to the disciples.
In a pure place located within the enclosure, kept separated and smeared with cow-dung, mandala should be designed separately for each disciple. In view of the motivation towards liberation and enjoyable worldly life, the disciples who are intent on enjoyable worldly life should be directed to sit, facing the east and the disciples who are intent on attaining liberation should be directed to sit, being north-faced. With their legs and hands washed well, the disciples should sit on the mandala, keeping their knees bent up close to their body taking efforts to maintain the order in occupying the seat. They should be holding kusa-grass in their right hand. The Acharya, raising his right hand wearing the pavitra-ring, should give a handful of panchagavya to each disciple with the recital of hrudaya mantra.
After the disciple has drunk the panchagavya, the Acharya should give another handful of panchagavya to the disciple and give the same for the third time. Then, he should give the caru-food to each disciple. Eight mouthfuls of caru should be given. For the disciples intent on liberation, the caru-balls should be given in a plate made of asvattha-leaves. For the disciples intent on worldly life, the caru-balls should be given in a plate made of pippala-leaves.
The disciples should swallow the caru-balls, taking care to see that the caru does not touch the teeth. After the swallowing of caru, the Acharya should give a tooth-stick got from the auspicious trees which have milky sap, to each disciple. The tooth-sticks should be with a thickness of little-finger, straight, containing sap and without scars or bubble-like protrusions. For the disciples who are motivated to the attainment of liberation, the length of the tooth-stick should be eight angulas and for the disciples who are intent on enjoyable worldly life, the length of the tooth-stick should be twelve angulas. They should brush well the tip of the front teeth, pressing the rows together and removing the chewed bits left out in the rows, and brighten the teeth. After the tooth-wash has been finished, the disciple should throw away the tooth-stick. Observing the direction in which the thrown out stick falls down, the Guru should know the auspiciousness or inauspiciousness of the forthcoming event.
Falling of the tooth-stick in the south-east, south and south-west is not indicative of auspiciousness. Falling of the stick just in front of the face, and in directions not mentioned before is indicative of auspiciousness tuned to the fruit of his karmas. Having noticed the direction in which the tooth-stick has fallen, the Guru should direct the disciples assembled there to take acamana-water. He should make them sleep there in that night, after giving them protection (with astra mantra), in order to know the auspiciousness or inauspiciousness through their dreams. They should sleep on the ground which has been smeared with diluted cow-dung with the recital of sadyojata mantra and purified with suitable substances. The disciples oriented towards worldly life should keep their head in the east, while sleeping. The mukti-oriented disciples should keep their head in the south. They should sleep in the bed strewn with kusa-grass and vibhuti. The beds should be arranged in such a way that they are not touching each other. Pillows should be kept on the two sides of the bed. The beds should be guarded by four sticks or ropes placed around with the recital of astra mantra. The place where the beds are arranged should not be in darkness.
The Acharya should direct the disciples to lie on the bed protected by the astra-weapon through the incantation of astra mantra for 100 times. The tuft of each disciple should be tied up with the recital of sikha mantra. Having covered the disciple with a cloth consecrated by the recital of kavaca mantra, the Acharya should draw three lines around and outside the bed with sesame, mustard and vibhuti consecrated by the incantation of astra mantra. Then he should instruct the mantras and prayer related to the the Deity of Dream to the disciples awaiting the visions of dreams and direct them to go to sleep. Then, he should offer ‘bali’ to the Directional Deities present in the ten directions, in the due order. Having known the unfavorable or inauspicious effects indicated by the falling of the tooth-stick and caru, the Acharya should enkindle the fire which has become dormant so as to be bright and blazing and offer oblations into the fire 100 times for the sake of appeasement. In view of the nature of the dreams, he should offer 100 oblations for each kind of appeasement.
After offering the oblations for appeasement, he should offer the oblations for 108 times with the accompaniment of the mula matra of Siva. Then, having washed his feet and hands, he should take acamana-water and take a bath with pure water. If not with water, he may take the bath with bhasma, by besmearing the vibhuti over his body with the accompaniment of relevant mantras. Having wiped his body with white cloth, he should render his body to be identical with the form of Siva and meditate on Lord Siva whose form is constituted of six adhvas. Then ke should take pancha gavya and caru and brush his teeth with the tooth-stick as done by the disciples earlier. Having purified himself, he himself should sleep there.
Then, in the morning of the second day, the Guru should complete all the daily activities to be performed in the morning and ask the disciples to inform what they have seen in their dream last night. If the dreams indicate inauspicious effects, the Guru should perform the appeasing rites. He should offer the oblations of milk got from the tawny colored cows, clarified butter, durva-grass and honey for the sake of appeasement. If the dreams are indicative of auspiciousness, the entering of the disciples into the sacrificial pavilion and other routine rituals should be performed as done before.
Having directed the disciples to assemble there inside the sacrificial hall, the Guru should instruct them to be near the fire-pit, standing by his right side. Having hung the thread kept in the hollowed plate made of earth from the tuft of each disciple, he should entreat Lord Siva: “O,Deva!, now I am proceeding to bestow my grace in the form of diksha upon this disciple. I humbly inform this to you.” Having obtained the kind permission from the Lord, the Guru should invoke and install the Adhara Sakti in the fire blazing forth in the fire-pit.
With Sakti, the Guru should unite the nivrutti kala associated with tattva and others. The tattva, bhuvanas, mantras, padas and varnas associated with the nivrutti kala are: pruthvi tattva, ksha-varna (letter), hrudaya mantra and sadyojata mantra, 108 bhuvanas which are – Kalagni, Kushmanda, Hataka, Brahma bhuvana, Vaishnava bhuvana, Rudra bhuvana –these six are within lower plane of the Great Universe (brahmanda).
Kapalisa, Aja, Budhha, Vajradeha, Pramardana, Vibhuti, Avyaya, Sasta, Pinaki and Tridasadhipa – these ten worlds ; Agnirudra, Hutasa, Pingala, Khadaka, Hara, Jvalana, Dahana, Babhruh, Bhasmantaka and Kshayantaka – these ten worlds; Yamya, Mrutyu, Hara, Dhata, Vidhata, Kartru, Samyokta, Viyokta, Dharma and Dharmapati – these ten worlds;
Nirruti, Marana, Hantru, Kruradrushti, Bhayanaka, Urdhvakesa, Virupaksha, Dhumra, Lohita and Dhamshtrina- these ten worlds; Bala, Atibala, Pasahasta, Mahabala,Sveta, Jayabhadra, Dirghabahu, Jalantaka, Meghanada and Sunada – these ten worlds; Sighra, Laghu, Vayuvega, Tikshna, Sukshma, Kshayantaka, Panchantaka, Panchasikha, Kapardi and Meghavahana – these ten worlds;
Nidhisa, Rupavan, Dhanya, Saumyadeha, Jatadhara, Lakshmidhara, Ratnadhara, Sridhara, Prasadaka and Prakamada –these ten worlds ; Vidyadhipa, Isana, Sarvajna, Jnanabhug, Vedaparaga, Suresa, Sarva, Jyeshta, Bhutapala and Balipriya – these ten worlds; Vrushabha, Vrushadhara, Ananta, Krodhana, Marutasana, Grasana, Udumbarisa, Phanindra, Vajra and Damshtrina – these ten worlds ; Sambhu, Vibhu, Ganadhyaksha, Triyaksha, Tridasesvara, Samvaha, Vivaha, Nabha, Lipsu and Trilocana – these ten worlds. Virabhadra and Bhadrakali – these two worlds are above all the worlds mentioned before.
Ten worlds from Kapali are in the east. Ten worlds from Agnirudra are in the south-east. Ten worlds from Yamya are in the south. Ten worlds from Nirruti are in the south-west. Ten worlds from Bala are in the west. Ten worlds from Sighra are in the north-west. Ten worlds from Nidhisa are in the north. Ten worlds from Vidyadhipa are in the north-east. Ten worlds from Vrusha are below the Earth. Ten worlds from Sambhu are above the Earth. In this way, 108 bhuvanas (worlds) should be united with nivrutti kala.
Out of 81 words (which constitute pada-adhva), 28 words starting from ‘OM’ in the reverse order are associated with nivrutti kala. These are: Om, namo namah, om sivaya namah, om namo namah, sarvada, sarva, sukska sukshma, sabda sabda, jnana jnana, pinga pinga, patanga patanga, turu turu, sakshin sakshin, purvasthita purvasthita, asamstuta asamstuta, anarcita anarcita, brahma-vishnu-rudrapara, sarva sannidhyakara, sarvabhuta sukhaprada, bhavodbhava, bhava bhava, sarva sarva, prathama prathama, muncha muncha, yogadhipataye, mahatejah, sadbhavesvara and mahadeva. The Guru should contemplate that the pruthvi tattva, varna and others mentioned above are pervaded by the adhva related to nivrutti kala.
Reciting the mantra “om hlam nivrutti kalayai hah hum phat”, the Guru should take out the nivrutti kala from the thread, install it in the fire and offer three oblations with the recital of the mantra “om hlam nivrutti kalayai svaha”. Then, contemplating on mala, karma and maya which are causing the state of enjoying (bhoktrutva), enjoyments (bhoga) and bodies (sarira) to the souls respectively, he should conceive that innumerable embodiments are assumed in the womb of the Sakti and Vagisvari is pervading such embodiment, invoke and install this Vagisvari in the fire and worship Her.
He should worship Vagisvari, reciting the mantra “om vagisvaryai namah” and offer three oblations, reciting the mantra “om vagisvaryai svaha”. “O, Devi, Isvari!, be present here with your gracious form in the the rituals related to the ‘diksha-grace’ are being performed for the disciple.” – having entreated in this way, he should sprinkle the consecrated arghya-water over the disciple with the recital of astra mantra and strike at his heart, reciting the mantra “om hah hum phat”. Through his outbreath and through the inbreath of the disciple, he should enter into the body of the disciple and cut asunder the knot at the heart, separate the conscious soul displaying the ankusa-mudra and recting the atma mantra ‘om haam ham haam atmane namah’ and offer three oblations.
Having conceived the conscious-soul of the disciple to be in the form of a drop at the tip of a grass-blade, the Guru should draw out the soul from the disciple with the recital of the atma mantra ‘om haam ham haam atmane namah’ and displaying the samhara-mudra and bring it into his heart through his inbreath. Having retained his breath (kumbhaka), he should recite the atma mantra, raise it to his dvadsanta plane and unite it with Siva. Then having taken it out from the plane of dvadasanta by displaying the udbhava mudra, he should contemplate the simultaneous conjoining of the disciple with the wombs of all beings.
To actualize such simultaneous conjoining, he should offer three oblations, reciting the mula mantra ending with ‘svaha’. “O,Bhagvan!, Lord of all Gods!, do the conjoining of the disciple with all the wombs in this activity of diksha which is capable of yielding the final liberation.” Having entreated in this way and obtained His permission, the Guru should offer three oblations for the sake of taking birth in all the wombs, with the recital of mula mantra. O, the twice-born Sages!, he should pray to the Lord while offering the oblations in this way: “O, Bhagavan!, do the actual formation of embryo within all the wombs for this disciple, here in this diksha.”
Then, he should offer three oblations with the recital of mula mantra for the sake of simultaneous birth of the disciple from all the wombs. “O, Bhagavan!, enable the birth of this disciple from all the wombs.” – he should pray thus, for the incidence of birth of the disciple . Then he should offer three oblations with the recital of mula mantra for the sake of full growth of the born disciple and pray to the Lord: “O, Bhagavan!, enable the full growth of the body of this disciple.” Then, he should offer three oblations with the recital of mula mantra for the sake of acquiring the karmas pertaining to those births and pray to the Lord: “O, Bhagavan!, enable this disciple to earn the karmic effects which yield various kinds of enjoyments.” Having recited the mantra for the sake of earning of the karmas, he should recite the mantra for the resolving of the effects of virtuous worldly deeds: “O, Bhagavan, enable the acquiring of the meritorious effects of the karmas which are yet remaining (sancita) and which are earned afresh (agamika).”
Contemplating the karmas done according to the locations and time, done with body and worldly objects, which remain differentiated as sancita and agamika and contemplating various kinds of enjoyments and which are of the nature of instilling the feeling of pleasure and pain and which exist in the soul in the form of motivation towards enjoyment (bhoktrutva), the Guru should offer three oblations with the recital of mula mantra and entreat: “O, Bhagavan!, bring out the manifestation of enjoyments for this soul.” Contemplating the dissolved state of propensity which is present in the form of intensified fondness towards enjoyments, he should offer three oblations with the recital of siva mula mantra and pray: “O, Bhagavan!, bring out the dissolved state of the propensity in the form of intensified fondness for this soul involved in the performance of diksha.” Then, for the sake of purification of the working and maturation of the karmas which mete out caste, longevity and enjoyments to the souls, he should contemplate the collective power (nishkruti) of the soul to perform all the deeds pertaining to all births and should offer 100 oblations with the recital of hrudaya mantra and three oblations with the recital of mula mantra.
“O, Bhagavan!, perform the the purification of all kinds of karmas for this soul in view of the collective power of the soul to do all the deeds.” Having entreated in this way, the Guru should contemplate on the removal of the bondage of maya. Since no enjoyment is left out now, the Guru should contemplate that the soul is coming out of the entanglement of the bondage of maya and should offer three oblations with the recital of mula mantra. Then, he should proceed to disentangle the soul from the bondage of mala. Contemplating on the motivation towards enjoyment (bhoktrutva) rooted in the soul because of anava mala, he should offer ten oblations with the recital of hrudaya mantra and three oblations with the recital of mula mantra for the sake of purification of bhoktrutva. This is the process of severing the bondage of mala. Subsequently, the removal of the bondage of karma is now told.
Removal of the bondage of karma here means effecting the absolute non-existence of the karmic effects in the soul. Contemplating on the absolute non-existence of the karmic effects, the Guru should offer three oblations with the recital of mula mantra and entreat the Lord: “O, Bhagavan!, bring out the removal of the bondage which is of the nature of mala, karma and maya for this soul which is involved in the sacramental activities related to nirvana-diksha.” Then, for the purification of the bondage of nivrutti kala which is pervading over mala and other factors, the Guru should offer three oblations with the recital of mula mantra and entreat the Lord: “O, Bhagavan!, perform here the separation of nivrutti kala from this soul.” Having obtained order and direction from the Lord, the Guru should contemplate: “The soul has now been dissociated from all kinds of bonds upon the dissolution of all kinds of embodiment and it is now existing in its own state of singleness (ekatvam).” Contemplating in this way, he should offer the consummate oblation (purna ahuti) with the recital of siva mula mantra ending with ‘vaushat’. Then he should invoke the presence of Brahma reciting the mantra “om brahmane namah”, worship Him and perform ‘tarpana’ for Him.” “sabdasparsau grahanatra brahman svaha” – (Brahman!, take back the sound and touch, svaha)reciting this mantra, he should offer three oblations and inform the order of Lord Siva to Him.
“O, Brahman!, you are the one who maintains nivrutti kala. This soul has now reached a pure world free from any defilement. Let no impediment be caused by you. This is the order coming from the Supreme Lord.” Having informed this, he should bid farewell to Brahma and contemplate the soul to be at the lower plane of suddha tattva, being disentangled from the nivrutti kala and having the brilliance of pure crystal. Having contemplated in this way, he should offer three oblations with the recital of mula mantra and entreat: “O, Bhagavan!, perform the deliverance of this soul from the bondage caused by nivrutti kala.” Then, he should draw out the conscious-soul of the disciple which is placed within himself through his inbreath and by displaying the samhara mudra and unite it with the thread with the recital of kavaca mantra. He should offer three oblations with the recital of siva-mula mantra for the sake of existence of that soul. Reciting the mantra “om vagisvaryai namah”, the Guru should worship Her and perform ‘tarpana’ for Her. In order to send back Vagisvari, he should offer three oblations into the fire.
Then the Guru should look at the stretch of the thread (between knee and the navel) for the sake of purification of pratishtha kala. In this pratishtha kala, there are 23 tattvas. They are: jala, tejas, marut, akasa, gandha, rasa, rupa, sparsa, sabda, upastha, payu, pada, pani, vak, nasa, jihva, cakshu, tvak, sruti, manas, ahankara, buddhi and prakruti.
Thus, the tattvas pervaded by pratishtha kala have been told. There are 24 letters in this kala, from La to Ta, in the reverse order of the letters. Siro mantra, vamadeva mantra and aghora mantra – these three mantras are in the pratishtha kala. There are 56 worlds in this pratishtha kala.
Amaresa, Prabhasa, Naimisa, Pushkara, Avadhi, Dindimundi, Bharabhuti, Lakulisavara, Harischandra, Srisaila, Jalpesvara, Amratakesvara, Madhyamesa, Mahakala, Kedara, Bhairava, Gaya, Kurukshetra, Naakhala, Nakhala, Vimalesa, Attahasa, Mahendra, Bhima, Vastraapada, Rudrakoti, Avimukta, Mahalaya, Gokarna, Bhadrakarna, Svarnaaksha, Sthaanu, Chagalanda, Dviranda, Makota, Mandalesvara, Kalanjara, Sankukarna, Sthulesvara, Sthalesvara, Paisacha, Rakshasa, Yaaksha, Gandharva, Aindra, Saumya, Prajesa, Braahma, Akruta, Kruta, Bhairva, Brahma, Vaishnava, Kaumara, Auma, Srikantha – these 56 worlds are contained in the pratishtha kala. Eight worlds from Amaresa are in the jala tattva. Eight worlds from Hariscandra are in the tejas tattva. Eight worlds from Gaya are in the vayu tattva. Eight worlds from Vastraapada are in the vyoma tattva. Eight worlds from Chagalanda are in the ahankara tattva. Eight worlds from Paisaca are in the manas tattva. Eight worlds from Kruta are in the prakruti tattva. In this way, 56 worlds exist distributed over seven tattvas.
Twenty one padas from mahesvara to arupa (in the reverese order of vyoma vyapi mantra) are in the pratishtha kala. Mahesvara, paramatman, sarva, siva, nidhanodbhava, nidhana, anidhana, suvah, bhuvah, bhuuh, dhuu dhuu dhuu dhuu, naa naa naa naa, anade, abhasma, adhuuma, anagni, arupa, jtyotirjyotih, tejastejah,prathama prathama and arupin arupin – these are the twenty one padas.
The aforementioned 23 tattvas, 24 varnas, 3 mantras, 21 padas and the 56 worlds remain compactly arranged and stored and pervaded by the pratishtha kala. Having conceived the pratishtha kala in this way, the Guru should contemplate the series of births and enjoyments related to the pratishtha kala (as done for nivrutti kala), and the purified and the dissociated state of the prathishtha kala. Having recited the relevant words of mantras and prayers in the same way as done for the nivrutti kala in the process of purification, the Guru should contemplatively look at the purified state of the pratishtha kala. O, the twice-born sages in the lineage related to Siva!, the mantra for effecting the total union of the two kalas – nivrutti and pratishtha – is now instructed. “om hlaam hviim nivrutti pratishthaabhyaam namah”. He should offer three oblations with the recital of mula mantra. All other activities such as invoking, worship and others should be in the same way as done before for the nivrutti kala. The oblation for the sake of ‘nishkruti’ (collective power of performing all the deeds) should be done by the Guru with the recital of sikha mantra. Having given the ‘rasa’ as gift-money to Vishnu, the Guru should proceed further and reach the vidya kala.
Tattvas from prusha (to maya) are pervaded by the vidya kala. Purusha, raga, vidya, kala, niyati, kaala and mohini (maya) – these seven tattvas are in the vidya kala. Seven letters from ña to gha in the reverse order of the alphabet and the sikha mantra are in this vidya kala. There are 27 worlds in this kala.
Vama, Bhima, Ugra, Bhava, Isana, Ekavira, Prachanda, Umapati, Aja, Ananta, Ekasiva, Krodhesa, Samvarta, Jyotish, Pinga, Sura, Panchantaka, Ekavira, Sikheda, Mahadyuti, Vamadeva, Bhava, Udbhava, Ekapingala, Ekekshana, Isana, Angushthamatra –these are the 27 worlds existing in the vidya kala. Six worlds from Vama are in the purusha tattva; Five worlds from Prachanda are in the raga tattva. Krodhesa and Samvarta are in the vidya tattva. Jyotish and Pinga are in the kala tattva. Sura and Panchantaka are in the niyati tattva. Ekavira and Sikheda are in the kaala tattva. Eight worlds from Mahadyuti are in the maya tattva.
In this vidya kala, there are 20 padas (of vyoma vyapi mantra, reckoned in the reverse order). They are: vyapin vyapin, vyomin vyomin, acetana acetana, paremesvarapara, jyotirupaya, sarva vidhyadhipaya, sarva yogadhikrutaya, anidhanaya, goptre, guhyatiguhyaya, namo namah, sadyojata murtaye, vamadeva guhyaya, aghora hrudayaya, tatpurusha vaktraya, isana murdhaya, sivaya, sarva prabhave, namassivaya and dhyanaharaya. Having joined the pratishtha kala with vidya kala, the Guru should install the vidya kala in Adharasakti invoked in the fire.
Having offered 100 oblations with the recital of sikha mantra for the sake of ‘nishkruti’, the Guru should submit ‘rupa’ and ‘gandha’ as gift-money to Rudra (who is in His abode in the path of adhva), reciting the mantra ‘ bhagavan rudra rupagandhau grahana”. The state reached now includes in itself all the three kalas –nivrutti, pratishtha and vidya and it is called Bhava. The soul has to be raised above this state so as to be above the plane of atma tattva comprising 31 tattvas. The soul stationed at this level exists being seized by ‘adhikara mala’ (being intent on wielding the authority over the impure worlds), having attained great sources of enjoyments produced there. These sources of enjoyments are helpful to the further upliftment of the soul, unmixed and not restrained by the attitude of intentness.The Guru should enable the soul to experience these bhogas, enjoyment of which is accomplished by the organs and instruments compatible to the pure adhva. Having mentally conceived the soul to be at this higher plane, he should contemplate the santi kala and all those which are contained in it.
O, the foremost among the twice-born sages!, there are three tattvas in this santi kala – suddha vidya, isvara and sadhakhya. Three letters – ga, kha and ka are there. The mantras pervaded by the santi kala are tatpurusha vaktra and kavaca mantra. Vama, Jyeshtha, Raudri, Kaali, Kalavikarani, Balavikarini, Balapramathani, Sarvabhutadamani and Manonmani – these nine worlds are in the suddha vidya tattva. Ananta, Sukshma, Sivottama, Ekanetra, Ekarudra, Trimurti, Srikantha and Sikhandi – these eight worlds are in the isvara tattva. Sadahkya – this one world is in the sadakhya tattva. On the whole, there are eighteen worlds in the santi kala.
Nityayogine, yogapitha samsthitaya, sasvataya, dhruvaya, anasritaya, anathaya, anantaya, sivaya, sarva vyapine, vyoma rupaya, vyoma vyapine – these 11 mantras are in the santi kala.
For the sake of ‘nishkruti’, the guru should offer 100 oblations with the recital of kavaca mantra. All other rituals and mantras are the same as told before for the previous kalas. Buddhi and ahankara should be submitted as gift-money to Isavra who is the Chief Maintainer of the Santi kala. All other activities which are to be performed after this, should be done in the same way as done before.
The only one tattva in the santyatita kala is siva tattva. Varnas in this kala are the sixteen vowels from ah to a. Astra mantra, isana mantra and siva mantra – these three mantras are here. Only one pada, ‘om’ is in the santyatita kala. There are 15 worlds here. Nivrutti, Pratishtha, Vidya, Santi and Santyatita are the five worlds related to the bindu. Indhika, Dipika, Rocika, Mocika, Urdhvagamini – these are the five worlds evolved from the nada. Vyapini, Vyomarupa, Ananta, Anatha and Anasrita – these are the five worlds related to sakti tattva.
Having known that the santyatita kala is the one in which siva tattva, 16 varnas, 3 mantras, 1 pada and 15 worlds are compactly stored, the Guru should perform the joining of the two kalas – santi and santyatita- with the recital of the mantras pertaining to the pure plane . The mantra to be recited for joining the kalas is: ‘om hyaim haum santi santyatitabhyaam namah’. Having wroshipped well with attentive mind, he should offer three oblations. All the activities such as the kala-upasthapana should be performed in the same way as done before. For the sake of ‘nishkruti’, he should offer 100 oblations with the recital of siva mantra. Then he should offer the oblations with the recital of the prescribed mantras, keeping the seed-letter ‘hrum’ and leaving out the seed-letter of the astra mantra.
Then, in the performance of ‘nirbija diksha’ (initiation not involving the recital of seed-letters), the Guru should do the following at the end of the offering of the consummate oblation (puranahuti). He should unite ‘samaya’ (preliminary initiation) and ‘samaya acara’ (conducts related to the preliminary initiation) with ‘tirodhana sakti’ which is of the nature of bond and pray: O, Mahesvara!, perform the purification of the bondage related to ‘samaya’ and ‘samya acara’ to this disciple.” Then he should offer the ‘sulka’ (gift-money) in the form of ‘manas’ to Sadasiva, reciting the mantra, “om ham sadasiva mano grahana svaha”. Then he should offer three oblations with the recital of mula mantra. Having requested Sadasiva to retire to his place, he should take out the thread free from defilements. Taking out the soul of the disciple from his own body through his outbreath, he should reinstall it within the body of the disciple through the inbreath (of the disciple).
Having sprinkled a few drops of arghya water over the head of the disciple, he should worship Vagisvari invoked in the fire and offer tarpanas for Her. Then he should entreat: O, Devi! you have become fatigued for the sake of this disciple. Kindly retire to your own place.” Then he should contemplate the dissolution of santyatita kala into the sakti tattva. The foremost Guru should conceive the presence of atma tattva as extending up to the upper limit of maya and worship it reciting the mantra ‘om ham atma tattvaya namah’. For propitiating the defects which could have occurred in applying the prescribed rules, he should offer the oblations for 100 times, reciting audibly the siva mula mantra ending with ‘svaha’. Then he should conceive the presence of vidya tattva as extending up to the upper limit of its own realm and offer the oblations for 108 times, reciting the mantra in low tone. The defects occurred in the recital of the mantras get nullified by the recital of siva mula mantra. Then he should conceive the presence of siva tattva as extending up to the sakti tattva (siva tattva includes here all the five tattvas of the pure adhva) and offer the oblations for 108 times, reciting the mantra mentally (inaudibly). The defects occurred in the mind and thought get nullified through the incantation of siva mula mantra. Then, the Guru should proceed to cut the tuft of the disciple.
Having meditated on the tuft as within the fold of adhva, as pervading over all the adhvas and as the source of the adhvas and having conceived the conscious-soul of the disciple as present on the tip of the tuft with the brilliance of pure crystal, the Guru should take the scissors with the recital of sikha mantra. Then he should cut out the tuft with the recital of sikha mantra and bathe the disciple. Having sipped the acamana- water and completed ‘sakali karana’ (rendering the body to be identical with Siva), the Guru should wrap up the severed tuft with cow-dung, place it on the tip of the ‘sruk’ (ladle) and offer it as oblation into the fire. Then he should offer the consummate oblation (purna ahuti). Then having come out of the sacrificial hall, he should purify the sruk, sruva and the scissors by sprinkling the consecrated arghya-water over them. Then, having done the acamana once again and having worshipped the Lord, he should supplicate:
“O, Bhagavan!, Paramesvara!, guided by your grace the purification of adhva and the tuft-cutting have been performed by me. Now I am going to raise this disciple to reach your supreme abode. For this, your kind permission may kindly be accorded to me.” Contemplating the Lord saying “You do as you wish”, the highly eminent Guru should take the arghya-vesssel in his hand and call the disciple to come near him and reach the fire-pit along with the disciple. Having sprinkled over the disciple, he should direct him to do ‘sakali karana’, ‘antar yaga’, ‘nadi sandhana’ and mantra tarpana.
He should offer one oblation, reciting each of the mantras with which sakali karana was performed. Having done the purification of sakali karana, he should unite the disciple with Siva. At this stage, the place for the Acharya is suddha vidya tattva; seat for the Acharya is the one designed with the kalas of bindu. Indhika,dipika, rocika, mocika, urdhvagamini, sukshma, sukshmamruta – these are known as the bidu-saktis. O, the twice-born sages!, nivrutti, pratishtha, vidya, santi and santyatita are known as the nada-saktis. The foremost and eminent Acharya, being seated on the seat designed with bindu kalas, should render his body as designed with these bindu-saktis and nada-saktis.
With such a kala-designed body, the Guru becomes associated with vyapini, vyomarupa, ananta, anatha, and anasrita which serve as external organs; becomes associated with samana, atma tattva, unmana and sarva which serve as the internal instruments.Thus, his body becomes perfectly filled up with such potential Saktis. He should do puraka (inbreath) and kumbha (retention of breath) and keep his tongue in such a way that it is closely pressing the palate. Keeping his mouth slightly opened, keeping the rows of his teeth without touching each other and keeping his body well raised, the Guru should unite the disciple with his own self and contemplate the oneness of the sushumna of his disciple with his own sushumna, through the movement of the vital air.
Having well contemplated the consciousness of the disciple to be with the brilliance of a pure crystal along with the mantra pertaining to it, the Guru should steadily recite the ‘prasada mantra’ of Siva through the yoga-process of ‘kaarana tyaga’ (leaving out Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra and others in their respective planes contained in the sushumna) and unite the disciple with Siva shining forth in dvadasnata. He should do this maintaining inbreath (puraka) and retention (kumbha). With his mind, vital air, kalas pertaining to the nada-sakti duly restrained, he should place the sruk and sruva near by his side, take back the soul which is pure and bright comparable to the flame of fire displaying the samhara mudra from the fire and unite it with the body of the disciple with the recital of the seed-letter of astra, as done before. Upon such unification, this disciple is rendered to be with matchless qualities.
He becomes pervasive up to the plane of higher tattvas reached by him through the upliftment done by the Guru. He becomes a well-accomplished powerful person like a prince who has attained the whole kingdom after he has been anointed as the successor of the king. In a person who has not known the significance of six peerless qualities of Siva, such qualities do not shine forth even after a lapse of 100 years. For the sake of manifestation of six peerless qualities in the disciple, the Guru who is an expert and well-learned should offer six oblations into the fire, taking clarified butter in the sruva. He should employ these mantras for such oblations: ‘om hrum haam atman sarvajno bhava svaha’, ‘om hrum him atman paritrupto bhava svaha’, ‘om hrum hum atman anadibodho bhava svaha’, ‘om hrum haim atmansvatantro bhava svaha’, ‘om hrum haum atman aluptasaktir bhava svaha’, ‘om hrum hah atman anantasaktir bhava svaha’. These should be recited preceded by the recital of prasada mantra in shortened mode.
Thus, the significance of nirvana diksha which is efficacious in warding off the effects of all the negative deeds has been told to you. Those who belong to all the four castes, those who are born in mixed caste, those who are born in righteous way, those whose birth could not be identified with any caste – all of these are eligible for attaining nirvana diksha. Son-in-law, father, wife and such others who are desirous of attaining the final liberation are eligible for attaining this nirvana diksha. The Acharya who performs nirvana diksha is, indeed, Siva Himself. So, for a disciple who is blessed with nirvana diksha, there does not prevail the quality of being a son to the Guru (He becomes a sadhaka). For those who have born in the lowest caste, diksha related to fire-ritual should not be performed. But they are eligible for ‘cakshushi’ diksha (initiation performed through the concentrated and highly charged looks of the Guru).
Here ends the 23rd chapter titled “Dierections for Performing the Nirvana-diksha” in the Great Tantra called Uttara Kamika
Chapter 24: Directions for the Performance of Jnana-diksha (14 verses)
The eminent Acharya should perform the jnana-diksha for the competent disciples through the perfect instruction on the essence of knowledge-section of the Agamas. He should do this in an auspicious bright-side of a lunar month, in an auspicious day and nakshatra and in an auspicious duration (muhurta), giving attention to all specific rituals. Especially, he should perform this jnana-diksha, during the last phase of midnight. This jnana-diksha should be done in a solitary place, in a place not frequented by the people.
Siva-temple, residence of the Guru, sakthi-pitha, monastery, house, sacred place frequented by the saints – these are the places suitable for the performance of jnana-diksha. The Acharya may select any one of such auspicious places. The disciple born in the lineage related to five ‘gocaras’ should stay in his Guru’s residence, contemplating the attainment of the essence of knowledge-section of the Agamas. He may sit on a seat designed with darbha-grass or tiger-skin or on a seat made of wood based on the vastu mandala consisting of 36 square grids (small squares).
The disciple should honor his Guru seated on the yoga-pitha, offering all kinds of services such as bathing and others. He should adorn him with silken cloth and ornaments. Having worshipped him with sandal, flowers and such other substances, he should offer ‘payasa’ (milk boiled with green gram and sugar), sweet cakes and tambula (betel leaf and areca nut) to him. Then he should worship the feet of the Guru, with the accompaniment of sixteen kinds of honoring.
The most eminent Acharya should perform jnana-diksha giving attention to specific aspects of this kind of diksha. The disciple should spontaneously come forward to surrender his body, wealth and prana to such a great Guru. Without showing any sign of shyness, he should prostrate before the Guru, casting himself down on the floor like a fallen long staff. To such a competent disciple, the Acharya should give instructions on the essence of the knowledge-section (jnana pada).
The Guru should place his right palm holding the fragrant flowers on the head of the disciple. Then the compassionate Guru should place his feet, which were worshipped before, on the head of the disciple. After this, he should instruct the eternal principles which are to be essentially contemplated and which enable the sadhaka to be in a state of total absorption, to that disciple. The eternal principles are:
Tattvarupa (nature and function of the tattvas) is the first; tattva darsana (knowing the dependent state of tattavas) is the second; tattva suddhi (to be dissociated from the tattvas) is the third; atma lakshana (the state of the self in which it takes cognizance of Pati, pasu and pasa)is the fourth; atma darsana (cognizance of the exact nature of the self) is the fifth; atma suddhi (being immersed in the grace of the Lord) is the sixth; siva rupa (being motivated towards the attainment of Sivajnana) is the seventh; siva darsana (the state in which Siva reveals Himself to the self) is the eighth; siva yoga (the state in which the self transcends the triple state, triputi, knower, known and the knowledge )is the ninth; siva bhoga (the state in which Siva grants the ineffable bliss to the self, by showing the exact path to the self and himself seeing that path) is the tenth.
The impeccable knowledge of the three realities Pati, pasu and pasa is woven in these ten eternal principles which remain grouped in three sets. The first three constitute one set; the next three constitute the second set; the last four constitute the third set. By mere instruction of such principles done by the Guru, the state of jivan mukti (being in a liberated state, even while living as an embodied being) gets fully unfolded with all its effulgence. Continued contemplation on these ten eternal principles is essentially prescribed for those who are following the jnana marga (sanmarga).
This is the end of the 24th chapter titled “Directions for the Performance of Jnana-diksha” in the Great Tantra called Uttara Kamika
Chapter 25: Directions for the Performance of “Acharya Abhisheka” (72 verses)
Now I am giving the directions for the ablution of a sadhaka (who has been given the ‘nirvana diksha’) to empower him to assume the position of Acharya. Only by such ablution, one becomes the fully qualified and authoritative Guru (Acharya). Such Acharya is the native of Aryavarta-land. He is endowed with the richness of wisdom and spiritual disciplines and is associated with all kinds of etiquette.
The extensive land in which the brahmins, good and disciplined persons who are observing the ennobling conducts, mendicants, good people who are doing penance are living and where the gods and celestial beings are present and where the Vedas are being followed is considered to be Aryavarta. But, within this extensive land of aforementioned qualities, the eight territories whose names begin with the letter ‘ka’ and which are in the area lying between the Vidhya mountains and the ocean are not to be considered as belonging to the Aryavarta. By the way, the names of these eight territories are mentioned now: Karnata, Kalinga, Kacca, Kashmira, Konkana, Karahata, Kukkuta and Kanka.
Those who are born in the lineage of Adisaivas are considered to be highly qualified and competent priests for the performance of installation, consecration and such other activities. All those who are born in the four castes, brahmin and others, are also competent to do such activities of installation and others for their own personal shrines. In performing the diksha for the people of all castes, installation, abhisheka (ceremonial bath), expounding the import of the scriptures and such other activities, the Adisaiva is considered to be the foremost Guru. O, the twice-born Sages!, he is the most qualified one in both the personal and public worship and in the performance of the worship of all Deities.
The common brahmins are competent to perform the initiation (diksha) and installation (sthapana) for the people of three castes –brahmins, kshatriyas and vaisyas. Kshatriyas are competent to do these for the kshatriyas, the vaishyas and the sudras. Vaishyas are competent to do these for the vaishyas and the sudras. These should be performed for the personal worship alone. The sudras are competent to perform the diksha and sthapana for their own caste, that too for the purpose of worshipping the moveable image (cala linga) only. A mendicant, devoted to constant contemplation, is competent for performing these for the worship of the bana-linga or the momentary-linga (kshanika-linga) .
Let the devotees discard a person who appoints a different priest, leaving out the Adisaiva-priest who has followed the instructions set forth the jnana-section, yoga section, kriya-section and the carya-section of the Kamika and the other Agamas known as the Saiva Siddhanta sastras which were revealed by Lord Siva Himself and in which well-established principles have been declared. A person who invites a different priest leaving out the Adisaiva who is always involved in the deep contemplation of the truths set forth in the Agamas is a man invested with stupidity. One should not move with such a foolish person.
The foremost Acharya should perform the ‘acharya abhsisheka’ to the competent sadhaka endowed with qualifying characteristics mentioned before, in an auspicious day and auspicious ‘lagna’. Such abhisheka should be preceded by the offering of fresh sprouts. A pavilion should be erected in the east, north-east or north, having its main entrance in the north. It should be provided with a well-designed covering roof and charming canopies. Two altars should be designed inside the pavilion, each one having a height of half-hasta and having four equal sides whose length should be four hastas. One should be in the south and the other, in the north. The pavilion should be beautified with svastika-design on all the four sides and should be illumined with the lighted lamps. Having performed the ritual known as ‘bhu parigraha’ (taking possession of the selected ground), the Acharya should worship Siva invoked in the fire kindled in the fire-pit.
If the disciple has been initiated by another Guru and if it seems that he has failed to perform some of the rituals which are to be essentially done after initiation, the present Guru should set right his defects by performing the diksha centered on the purification of six adhvas and offer the exterior and the interior ‘balis’. Then he should do the rituals prescribed below. He should prepare a mixture of gruel, cooked rice, earth, bhasma, durva-grass, cow dung, pieces of molasses, white mustard, curd and pure water. Then he should arrange in due order nine or five pots (kalasas) over the spread of all the recommended grains. These kalasas should be provided with bunch of darbhas and a fitting lid, should be wound around with thread, filled up with water and deposited with perfumes, gems, gold coins, leaves of mango, asvattha and palasa trees and with the pomegranate fruit. In the case nine kalasas, Sadasiva and eight Vudyesvaras are to be worshipped in them. In the case of five kalasas, the presiding Lords of the five kalas – nivrutti and others – should be worshiped. With the relevant mantras of these Lords, the kalasas should be energized.
As described under the section dealing with ‘snapana’, one hundred kalasas may be arranged and worshipped with the recital of siva-mula-mantra or only one kalasa may be placed and worshipped with the same mantra of Siva. Such kalasas should arranged over the south altar. He should direct the disciple to be seated near the north altar. Contemplating Lord Siva surrounded by His retinue Lords is present on the seat in the same way as He is seated on the bhadra-pedestal, he should worship Him with all kinds of offerings.
Having cleaned the ‘saravas’ (hollowed earth plate) differentiated in various colors with a wet cloth or with water, the Guru should bathe the disciple well and should lead him to another pure place. Then he should give him new cloth, well-made sacred thread and others along with the upper garment and garlands. Having directed the disciple to besmear himself with white sandal paste and apply the bashma over his body, he should make him sit on the bhadra-pedestal near the south altar. Being east-faced, he should worship him with sandal, flowers and other substances and perform all other rituals related to the honouring and perform the light-offering (aratrika) by waving the rounded plate at whose center the well-designed wicks are lighted and glowing brightly.
Then the Acharya should present to that disciple the head-strip (ushnisha) and other cloths, fire-producing device (arani), scissors, small water-jar, sruk and sruva (ladles), darbhas, Agama book, rosary of rudraksha, crown, foot-stool (paduka), camaras, royal umbrella, elephant, palanquin and other such royal insignia at that time, with diligence and blessings, wishing him a bright future.
The Guru should state: “Having known well the exact process of giving initiation and the fruits of initiation, exact procedure of the rituals prescribed for the initiated disciples, process of installation and consecration and such other activities related to all these, from today onwards you shall perform all these activities, diksha and others, after thoroughly examining the disciples and the contexts. To this effect, now I am conferring the full authority upon you.” In the same way, he should entreat Lord Siva and his own Guru: “Let the authority conferred by me upon this disciple be fulfilled without any obstacles and interruptions through your grace.” Then, the Guru should lead him to the fire-pit and offer the oblations to each one of the five kalas -nivrutti and others – separately.
The oblations should be offered with the recital of the mantra pertaining to each kala. At the end, he should offer the consummate oblation. Then, the Guru should make a mark on his fingers, from the little finger to the thumb, with the burnt tips of the darbhas, reciting the five brahma-mantras. Having made the hands of the disciple to be identical with the hands of Siva according to the prescribed procedure, the Guru should bestow his authority upon his disciple. For the sake of such bestowal and to regain his own authoritative power, the Guru should offer the oblations for atonement according to the rules. Having worshipped Lord Siva with brahma-mantras, anga-mantras and the mula-mantra, he should offer ten oblations with the recital of anga-mantras and ten oblations reciting the mula-mantra of Siva. Having offered the consummate oblation with the recital of same mantra, he should entreat the Lord to pardon him for any defect or violation that could have occurred while performing these rituals. In this way, he should bathe his disciple. In addition to this, he may bathe him with the kalasas energized with the sadhya-mantras (mantras, specifically selected for the accomplishment of certain goals, considering the nature of the disciple).
The disciple who has been duly initiated by a Guru is called ‘putraka’ (son). The one who has been purified by common sacraments is called ‘samayi’. The disciple who is known as ‘samanya samayi’ is characterized as ‘Maahesvara’. The disciple for whom the sacrament for relieving him from the limited state of caste is not performed is also known as ‘samanya samayi’. The disciple for whom the sacrament for delivering him from the state conditioned by caste has been performed is known as ‘visesha samayi’. Those who have been initiated by the Guru`s eyes (cakshu diksha) and such other processes are called ‘paricarakas’ (those qualified to do various services related to the worship). At the beginning of the creation, all Adisaivas have already been initiated by Lord Siva Himself. But, initiation in this birth is recommended for them for the sake of purity and competency for my worship.
A samhita is a well-settled scripture which is associated with four sections. The Agamas, Kamika and others, are known as the samhitas. The Saiva System is differentiated into four denominations – Saiva, Pasupata, Soma Siddhanta and Lakula. These four systems emerged from the four faces – Tatpurusha and others – of Lord Mahesvara. Of these, the one which precedes is superior to the one which succeeds, in its contents and standard. In this way, there are four systems. Each of these systems is differentiated into three kinds – Vama, Dakshina and Siddhanta. Of these three, Siddhanta is declared to be the foremost one. Even among all these Siddhantas, it is declared that Saiva Siddhanta is the most supreme.
The Saiva Scripture is the root-scripture. All the four Vedas have sprouted from it. So, even the Saiva Agamas are sometimes stated as ‘Vaidika Sastras’, ‘Vedasara’ and such other appellations. O, Munisvaras!, all principles have been stated in the primary sense under all circumstances, in the Saiva Scripture. The competency of being the form (body) of Lord Siva has been declared to exist in the Kamika and other Agamas by those who have realized the Truth.
The Agamic form of Siva is said to be of two kinds – form in the order of creation and the form in the order of dissolution. The 28 Agamas from the Kamika to the Vatula constitute the form in the order of creation. The Agamas from the Vatula to the Kamika constitute the form in the order of dissolution. In the form of creative order, Kamika is the top crown adorning the Isana-face. Yogaja is the crown of Tatpurusha. Cintya is the crown of Aghora. Karana is the crown of Vamadeva. Ajita is the crown of Sadyojata. Dipta is the face of Isana. Sukshma is the face of Tatpurusha. Sahasra is the face of Aghora. Amsuman is the face of Vamadeva. Suprabheda is the face of Sadyojata. Vijaya constitutes the ears of Siva. Nisvasa is the neck. Svayambhuva is the heart. Anala is the navel. Vira is the hip. Raurava is the anus. Makuta is the stretch of right thigh. Vimala is the stretch of left thigh. Candrajnana is the lower end of right thigh. Bimba is the lower end of the left thigh. Prodgita is the right knee. Lalita is the left knee. Siddha is the right shin. Santana is the left shin. Sarvokta is the lower end of the right shin. Paramesvara is the lower end of the left shin. Kirana is the right foot. Vatula is the left foot. Thus, the Agamic form manifested in the order of creation has been told. In the order of dissolution, these Agamas are constituting the form in the reverse order.
The Sages: O, Lord!, earlier, in the chapter dealing with the transmission of the Agamas, it was told that the Kamika constitutes the two feet and the succeeding Agams constitute various parts above the feet of the Lord. But, the Agamic form described just now seems to be different. These two descriptions are mutually contradicting.
The Lord: O, the twice-born sages!, manifestation of my forms has been declared in many different ways. What I am going to tell you now is to be listened to by you with concentrated mind. My head adorned with crown is everywhere; similarly, my eyes are everywhere, my feet and hands are everywhere. These forms get variegated based on the difference observed in the sadhakas who meditate on me. On this ground, my form is differentiated in the order of creation and dissolution. O, the first-born sages, my form of consciousness (jnana deha) has manifested for the attainment of enjoyments and for the attainment of final liberation.
The statement revealed by Isvara is considered to be the most revered and unexcellable by the enlightened supreme saints. The statement issued by an enlightened seer (Rishi) could never be refuted by a common man. The statement issued by a divine being could never be refuted by a seer. The statement revealed by Brahma could never be refuted by a divine being. The statement revealed by Vishnu could never be refuted by Brahma. The statement issued by Siva could never be refuted by Vishnu. In this way, each succeeding one is superior to the preceding one. So it is declared that the Agamas which are the embodiment of the statements of Siva are superior to all others scriptures. They are irrefutable, always and at all times.
The five Agamas, from the Kamika to Ajita, emerged from the Isana face. Five Agamas, from the Dipta to Suprabheda emanated from the Tatprusha face. Five Agamas, from the Vijaya to Vira, emerged from the Aghora face. Five Agamas, from the Raurava to Mukhabimba, emanated from the Vamadeva face. The eight Agamas, from the Prodgita to Vatula, emanated from the Sadyojata face. Previously, in the chapter dealing with the emanation of the Agamas, the revelation of the Kamika and others has been told beginning with the Sadyojata face and ending with Isana.
The one who has systematically studied and understood all the 28 Agamas along with their corresponding Upagamas is considered to be a Guru. Such a person is, indeed, Lord Siva Himself. One should assiduously take efforts to hear the instructions from such a foremost Guru. Such a supreme Guru is considered to be the competent authority for the rituals which have been commenced by another Guru who is not so qualified as that supreme Guru. But, in the rituals commenced by a well-qualified Guru, an ordinary priest has no authority to intervene and continue the work. In the rituals commenced by an ordinary Guru, the well- qualified supreme Guru could intervene and continue the work.
Participation of another Guru is allowed only at the cessation of the bodily existence of the supreme Guru. If another Guru is forcibly commissioned to perform the temple rituals, being ignorant of the severe ill-effects, even while the well-qualified supreme Guru is alive and working in the temple, such kind of pressurizing would lead to destruction, misfortunes and divisions among the people of the village. Children will be born blind or dumb in that village. The king would become a great sinner. Continuous fear would strike his country, without any reason or source. The one who does such improper activity and the one who directs him to do so would be considered as the sinners. Even the whole village is considered to have committed such a sinful deed.
Even if an insignificant object is dedicated to the supreme Guru for the sake of attaining the fame widespread over the world and great knowledge, such dedication would yield a beatific state of being desired by all and great fame widespread over all the worlds. Even the king should be known as the one who has attained these benefits. Honoring the Guru with significant donations is considered to be the most supreme virtuous deed. The one who forcibly takes away the wealth of such Guru is a sinner; an evil-minded. He should be known as the most despicable among the human beings. He is the one, to be neglected by the whole world.
This is the end of the 25th chapter titled “Directions for the Performance of Acharya Abhisheka” in the Great Tantra called Uttara Kamika
Chapter 27: Directions for the Performance of Rites of Atonement, in General (42 verses)
O, the foremost twice-born sages!, now I speak on the directions for performing certain rites to atone for the defects and violations, in a general way. The Agamic injunctions are of two kinds – those which command to do without fail (vidhi) and those which command not to do, which command to desist from certain deeds (nishiddha). By observing and following the vidhis, one could earn the accumulation of virtuous effects. Performance of the deeds in a contradictory way, violating the rules, lead to non-virtuous effects; by such performance, there would occur great sin. When an inevitable downfall has occurred due to violations and omissions, the rite by doing which a person who has committed such violation and omission is relieved of such defects and is enabled to reach the supreme abode of bliss is called ‘prayascitta’. Thus, it is held in this Agama.
It is set forth in this Agama that the word ‘praya’ denotes a defect which has been committed very intensely or in a general way; ‘cit’ denotes the individual self; ‘ta’ denotes crossing over. O, the twice-born sages who have always resorted to Lord Siva!, a deed by doing which the individual self which is associated with the defect of violation is rescued from falling down to the hellish worlds is declared to be ‘prayascitta’.
If the deeds, for which the directions as to “should do” or “should not do” are not prescribed in the authentic Scriptures, are performed, there would be neither merit (punya) nor demerit (papa). This is the truth ascertained in the authentic Scriptures. If the deeds which are to be essentially done are performed facing the east, there is no need for ‘prayscitta’. But, if the same deeds are performed facing the west or any one of the corner directions, ‘prayascitta’ has to be inevitably done.
O, the first-born sages!, since the rites of atonement have been told elaborately in many different ways, it is not possible to explain all these to you now. Even the deeds are endless. If all these are told, there would occur the defect of elaborating the text unnecessarily. So the details of ‘prayscitta’ which are coming down through the ages are now told briefly.
Bathing, incantation, meditation on Siva, breath-regulation (pranayama), circumambulation, reverentially seeing the Sivalinga, images of Deities, Agamas, one`s own Guru, Guru of the Guru and the great souls who are taking delight in reading the saivagamas, being graciously looked by such great souls, prostrating in front of all those mentioned now and doing such other reverential deeds, doing services in the Siva-temple, worshipping the Sivagni and performing the Guru puja, offering delicious food to those who have been blessed with siva-diksha, bathing in the sacred waters, taking the panca-gavya, sipping the consecrated water used in the worship of Sivastra and in the performance of Siva-diksha, living in a sacred place (punya kshetra) for a certain period,
Being on fast, eating the special food which remains after the performance of homa, eating the residuum left out in the sacrificial vessel, doing the recommended deeds to pacify, performing the ‘santi-homa’, ‘disa-homa’, ‘samhita-homa’ and ‘murti-homa, performing the ‘abhisheka’ for Siva with clarified butter, honey and milk and doing many such activities, performing the one-day festival and the grand festival which lasts for several days, performing the ablution with ‘cool-pot’, performing the recommended and specific worship – these and such other activities have been told for the sake of atonement, right from the time immemorial.
The features of certain rites of atonement, having selected such rites from those which are elaborated in the Scriptures are told here. The Guru who has been born in the lineage of Siva-brahmins, the lineage which manifested as related to the five ‘siva-gocaras’, who is adorned with head-strip, upper garment and attired in new clothes, who is wearing the five significant ornaments on the five parts of his body, should perform the rites of atonement.
The rites of atonement recommended for alleviating the evil effects of supernatural occurrences (adbhuta santi) should be done immediately, without postponing the time. While performing the rites of atonement, there is no need to look into the features of the day, half-month, lunar mansion, lagna and such other factors. The ‘prayscitta’ which is done immediately is considered to be the foremost. Performance of prayascitta within 7 days is considered to be of medium type; within 15 days is considered to be of inferior type; within one month is considered to be in lower grade. Prayscitta should not be performed beyond the lapse of one month. If it is to be inevitably done beyond one month, it should be performed along with ‘santi-homa’.
O, the foremost among the twice-borns!, the rites of atonement should be performed under the context of installation of Linga, pedestal, super structure (vimana) and such others (because, knowingly or unknowingly, some defects or violations could have occurred). When the Linga and the pitha (pedestal) are being joined, if the situation for prayascitta occurs in the beginning, in the middle or in the end of the event, it should be done immediately. If the yajamana (main sponsor, karta), Guru or the assisting priest neglects the performance of prayscitta, due to unavailability of enough resources or due to confusion of the mind or due to the defect of likes and dislikes or being smitten by the effects of evil deeds committed previously, such persons are considered to be those who are opposing me. They have been born to bring discredit to the king and they are responsible for the much agitated and disturbed state of the country. They are to be punished and instructed by my devotees and by the mendicants who are free from the vices of desire and delusion. Even those persons who plunder the assets and the belongings of the temple and the lands dedicated to the Lord, are fit for such punishment.
Those who perform the rites of atonement with whole hearted involvement and diligence are considered to be my devotees, to be foremost among the people. The are considered to be those who do good deeds for the welfare of the king, to be the doers of meritorious deeds, good-minded persons devoted to the nourishment of the country; to be those who toil for the sustained growth of the city or village and to be those who are responsible for the growth of the temple site and for the continued performance of my worship. Having understood the greatness of such devotees, the Guru should perform the rites of atonement, taking all the possible efforts.
For the sake of prayscitta, the guru should do the incantation of the mantras, after doing the bhasma-snana (bath done with vibhuti) according to the prescribed rules. Having rendered his body to be identical with the mantras and facing the north or east and wearing the rosary of rudraksha, he should do the incantation of siva-mula- mantra, aghora mantra, pasupata-astra mantra, aghora-astra mantra, sivastra mantra or the brahma-mantras and the anga-mantras.
Or, he may do the japa of ‘mela mantra’, from one hundred times to one parardha times, contemplating his body to be identical with the form of mantra, taking moderate food or taking the ‘havis’ for his food. He may do the incantation without taking any food, or eating the food obtained as alms or taking the milk. Vegetables, leaves, grains of barley collected from the cow-dung, oil-cakes, bulbous roots, roots of plants, fruits – taking any one of these for his food and meditating on the form of the corresponding Deity, he should do the incantation and dedicate the japa to the Lord.
The process of incantation has been told. Now, the the process of circumambulation is explained. Different processes of circumambulation have been set forth in the Agamas. Mainly, circumambulation is of two kinds – interior and the exterior.The superior and moderate type of circumambulation done between the Linga and the outer enclosure of the temple have been told in the Agamas.From the circumambulation done in the first enclosure (antar mandala) to the one done in the fifth enclosure, the succeeding one is superior to the previous one. (That is, circumambulation done in the fifth enclosure is the most supreme). It is not possible to do the circumambulation inside the main shrine (garba geha). Such performance within the main
shrine would yield adverse effects. Because, the shadow of the Linga will always be there in the main shrine and there would be the flowers and garlands removed from the Linga and heaped on the interior ground. Moreover, the main shrine is associated with the beginning of the ‘somasutra’ (meant for draining the ablution-water) and the close proximity of Siva. So, circumambulation inside the main shrine should be avoided.
Avoiding the main shrine, circumambulation done in all other places are conducive to the attainment of all the desired fruits. Even in the antar mandala (first enclosure), one could see the soma sutra (ablution drain). The heaps of nirmalya (removed flowers and garlands) and the shadow of the vimana and other structures of the temple could be seen up to half the extent of the temple or up to the whole extent of the temple. Having left out all such areas of nirmalya and shadow, one should do the circumambulation in clockwise direction.
The circumambulation may be done in the left to right mode (savya) as well as in the right to left mode (apa savya). The ‘savya’ is going up to the shrine of Candesvara. The ‘apasavya’ is going up to the soma sutra. Placing the steps in slow phase, one should do the right and left circumambulation, taking care to see that the soma sutra is never crossed over. This is the process of doing the right and left circumambulation. During the daily festival and during the grand festival, walking over the shadow fallen inside the temple and doing other services do not become defective. The circumambulation being done outside the soma sutra would never become defective.
In the circumambulation to be done in the outside, with great care and effort, one has to place innumerable steps. In such circumambulation, for each step the devotee attains the benefit equal to ten times the benefit to be derived by the performance of a horse-sacrifice. There is another superior type of circumambulation known as ‘anga pradakshina’ (stretching one’s own body over the ground like a fallen staff and rolling around the temple in clockwise direction). O, the first-born sages!, no one is capable of speaking on the greatness of the merit derived from doing the ‘anga pradakshina’ through the whole day,from the sunrise to the sunset.
This is the end of the 27th chapter titled “Directions for the Performance of the Rites of Atonement,in General” in the Great Tantra called Uttara Kamika
Chapter 33: Directions for the Performance of Subsequent and Related Activities (anukarma) (50 verses)
I will now explain the procedure for doing the subsequent and related activities concerned with different structures, designs and all other rituals of the temple. This procedure belongs to the ancient tradition and is kept alive through the ages without any interruption. If the temple complex collapse or gets damaged, if the entrance of the temple becomes decayed or ruined, if its original direction gets altered, if there occurs defects and reductions in the existing members and measures of ‘jati’ and other types of constructions, if the measures of their perimeter and interspace get reduced, all the parts of the temple should be reconstructed immediately using the same materials as used for the original temple, applying the same proportionate measures of that temple. Whatever be the construction, the proportionated measures given to it should be maintained very accurately when it is to be reconstructed.
The base and other parts of the temple are to be associated with accurate proportionate measures. The temple in which the base and such other important parts have been built without proportionate measures is bereft of any characteristic lineament and feature. Therefore, the base and such other parts should be redesigned so as to be with accurate measures. While renovating the temple of svayambhu-linga, the design and measures of the temple should be retained intact. The same measures should be applied while reconstructing that temple. Or, that temple may be renovated according to the directions given in the Agamas. No defect is there, in such Agama-based reconstruction. Or, the outer parts of the temple may be fully built with stones and the inner parts, with bricks. In the temple built by the human being, various parts of the temple such as the square four-pillared hall, cage-like niche, elongated four pillared hall and others should be well measured, ensuring the exact application of accurate measurements. The shrines which are not in accurate and recommended locations within the temple should be rebuilt so as to be in accurate locations and to be with specific features.
While renovating, the nagara type of building should be rebuilt in the nagara type only; vesara type of building should be reconstructed to be in the vesara type only. Similarly, with regard to dravida type of building also, it should be redesigned so as to be in darvida type only. Even for varata and other types of building, the same type should be maintained, while renovating. The solid structures should be rebuilt so as to be in solid category and the hollow building to be in hollow category. The building which has become dilapidated and ruined should be rebuilt in another place in an appropriate direction and such new building may be constructed either in the east or in the north of the ruined building. If the entrance has been provided in any one of intermediary direction for the previous building, the same direction should be maintained or the entrance may be provided in the west for the new building.
If the main shrine has collapsed, it should be rebuilt immediately. If the first-brick which was deposited at the beginning of the construction of the existing temple has become crushed, it should be replaced. If essential parts of the vimana such as the vestibule and others have become damaged, such parts should be rebuilt. All those parts which have been built previously without proportionated measures should be rebuilt so as to be with proportionate measures. Whether the temple is in a properly maintained state or is in a bad condition lacking in maintenance, the Sivalinga should never be displaced. A temple associated with defects such as the ruined state, dilapidated state and such others, it is considered to be in good condition, if the daily worship is being performed . A temple which is perfect, being free from the mentioned defects is considered to be in bad condition, if the daily worship is not performed.
If renovation has been perfectly done, the main person who has undertaken such renovation gets the exalted and the highest fruit comparable to the coronation. If worship is done in a temple impaired with decay and other defects, that would lead to whole destruction. If worship is not properly performed in that temple, that would lead to annihilation. In either way, the decayed temple leads to misfortunes.So, the decayed temple should be renovated according to the directions set forth in the Agamas for the goodness and welfare of the society.
The linga or image which has become decayed, burnt, thinned, thickened and massive, reduced in measure, increased in measure, broken, scratched, unevenly shaped, bereft of characteristic lineaments, which is with forked hands, whose parts are joined, whose parts have become mutilated, which has been used for malevolent effects, has been made of stone associated with the defect of ‘garbha’ (cavity containing some small living beings), which is with deformed parts or in which some parts are missing – all these sixteen kinds of defective lingas should be abandoned by all means.
The pedestal, the square base (brahma sila) or the Bull – if these are in decayed condition, these should be abandoned. The linga with excessive height, with much decreased height, the linga for which the direction faced by it seems to be confusing, the linga installed in a defective place, the linga which is shaky or which has been rendered to be shaky, the linga which has broken and fallen to the ground or which has been made to fall down to the ground, the linga installed by ignorant person, linga installed with the recital of mantras other than the Agamic mantras or the mantras of other system, linga which has been made with the stone abandoned already by the sculptor – all these are not to be considered as duly installed. Only those lingas which are bereft of scars and scratches should be installed.
If the linga installed by asuras, sages, Devas and knowers of tattvas has become decayed or broken, it should not be displaced and re-installed even according to the rules. But, due to the fear of being taken away by the king or stolen by a thief or burnt by fire, that linga may be installed in another place. The linga which has been carried away to a distant place by the flowing water or which has been seized by thief or enemy becomes purified by the incantation of mula mantra for 50,000 times and there is nothing wrong in re-installing it. It should be reinstalled in another place so as to face the direction towards which it was facing earlier. The linga which has been affected by the water should be re-installed with devotion, beyond 100 dandas or 1000 bows.
These directions are common to the images (whose limbs are fully manifest). If an image is seen associated with many defects, another image should be installed. If the images made of stone, well suitable clay, wood and gems are deprived of the eyebrows, eyelids, and embellishing lines of the face, they should be abandoned. The image which is with mutilated limbs should be abandoned. There is no dispute in this regard.
If the images made of metal and suitable clay are bereft of ornaments of the hands and nose, bereft of ears, teeth and such other members, these missing parts and ornaments should be made with the same kind of material as used for the image and should be glued firmly. If the head of an image is missing, that image should be abandoned and another image should be made afresh with the same material. If the feet and shoulders are missing in an image, that image may be abandoned or the missing limbs may be suitably designed and joined firmly with the image.
The parts of the main frame of an image are classified into three – upanga (major limbs), anga (main limb) pratyanga (minor limbs). The main limb (anga) is the principal wooden stake (pradhana sula). It is also called ‘brahma danda’. The wooden frames joined with the sula at the torso, hip, shoulder, fore arms, thigh, knee and shank are called upangas (major limbs). All other frames not associated with the main stake are known as pratyngas (minor limbs). This is the classification known well to the wise sculptors. If the brahma danda is missing in an image, the work should be commenced with the designing of the sula. If the pratyangas and the upangas are missing, they should be made afresh and joined firmly with the image.
If the brahma danda which has been already fixed is associated with all characteristic lineaments, the same brahma danda could be fixed for the image to be made afresh, without making a new brhama danda. But, if damages and splits are seen in the existing brahma danda, a new brahma danda should be designed retaining the previous measures. The mutilated images made of stone and suitable clay should be dropped into the water contained in a very deep pit or pond. The mutilated images made of gems should be abandoned or may be used for making other images with gems. The mutilated images made of wood may be thrown into the fire, may be buried under the ground or thrown into the water. The mutilated images made of metal should be melt and liquefied and used for making other metal images.
The prapa (a curved elongated structure enclosing the image) and the pedestal of the image to be abandoned may be used for the newly made image or used for another image. If the image which is in good condition has not been duly installed earlier, those prapa and the pedestal may be used for that uninstalled image. Or, they may be used for making the image of another Deity. O, the foremost sages!, if the pedestal, brahmasila and the Bull are associated with all lineaments, they may be used for another image under all circumstances or may be abandoned.
The damaged pedestal made of stone should be redesigned so as to be free from any defect and it should be joined with the image made of stone only. If the pedestal made of stone is not available for the existing stone-image, it may be made of bricks for the time being and joined with the stone- image. Then, another pedestal should be made with stone so as to be in the same form and measure of the existing brick-pedestal and joined with the image.
The square pedestal should not be replaced by a circular pedestal. Similarly, the circular pedestal should not be replaced by a square pedestal. The directions for performing the subsequent activities related to mantapa, retinue Deities and the shrines of the retinue Deities are the same as explained before and all such activities should be done according to those directions. While renovating, the form and measurements of the antar mandala (first enclosure) and other enclosures should be maintained to be in the previous form and measurements.
Any increase or decrease in the existing measurements of the palace or of the forts and such other constructions would yield misfortunes and calamities to the king. If the constructions associated with embellishments have been built with accurate measurements according to the Silpa sastras and Agama sastras, the same measurements should be retained while repairing them. The constructions for which the system of proportionate measurements has not been applied may be repaired by increasing or decreasing the existing measures. There is nothing wrong in such renovation. The existing measurement of a building may be increased towards east or north. Such increase is highly recommended in the Sastras. But the measurement should not be increased towards west. If increased in the west, the owner of the building would be ruined by the enemies. If increased in the south, it would lead to untimely death of the owner. Therefore, increasing the length or breadth in the south side is not recommended in the Sastras. Even extension in all directions around the building evenly or unevenly is not recommended. All the subsequent activities related to gopura also should be done as prescribed for the temple complex.
O, the lords of the sages!, especially with regard to the village and such other settlements, houses, mansions and such others, sala-type of constructions (series of premises within one complex), decrease either in the previous breadth or in the previous length is not recommended. While redesigning, either the length and breadth may be equal to the previous measures or they may be greater than the previous measures. The length and the breadth may be increased on either sides, either in the east or in the north as suitable to the needs after analysing the pros and cons. For the houses and the malika-type of constructions, the measurements should be adjusted according to the number of the upper floors. By all means, decrease in the existing measures is not agreeable. Increase in the existing measures should be done according to the procedure explained before.
For all the constructions and images mentioned above, some specific directions are now given. If renovation is carried out making use of the materials which are superior to those used for the construction earlier, the previous measurements may be decreased if needed or they may be retained as they are. If the roof of the main shrine and others has collapsed down to the level of the image installed on a pedestal, the Guru should withdraw the mantras from the image and invoke them in a structure designed in the form of sword and take another image to be installed there. He should worship daily the previous Deity invoked in the sword and such other structures, or in the purna-kalasa or in the pedestal. Or, he may install another image of the same kind, preceded by the disposal of the previous image done according to the procedure mentioned for that. He should take care to see that the features of the form, proportionate measures, material of the previous image are maintained throughout in making the new image.
This is the end of the 33rd chapter titled “Directions for the Performance of Subsequent and Related Activities” in the Great Tantra called Uttara Kamika
Chapter 43: Directions for the Construction of Shrine for Sarvadesika Linga (42 verses)
The installation of ‘Sarvadesika Linga’ and others is now explained. The rules set forth for the construction of the shrine, designing of the Linga, pedestal and the base structure (adhara sila) are common as far as Sarvadesika Linga and the locations are concerned. The shrine for Sarvadesika Linga may be constructed in all the areas characterized as ‘satvika’, ‘rajasa’ and ‘tamasa’. Especially, if a shrine is constructed for Sarvadesika Linga in rajasic area, it would be a powerful source for the victory of the country and it would enable the people achieve the three goals – dharma, artha and kama and it would yield all the desired fruits. Above all, it would grant the final liberation for the person who builds such shrine and for the person who commissions him in this work.
The ‘nagara’ type of Linga is highly suitable and beneficial in the kruta yuga. The ‘dravida’ type of Linga is specifically suitable and beneficial in the treta yuga. The ‘vesara’ type of Linga is specifically suitable and beneficial in the dvapara yuga. The ‘sarvadesika’ type of Linga is specifically suitable and beneficial in the kali yuga. The ‘varata’ and the ‘kalinga’ types of Lingas are suitable for all the yugas and all the places. O, Munisvaras!, the ‘sarvadesika’ type of Linga is more specifically powerful than the’nagara’, ‘dravida’, ‘vesara’, ‘kalinga’ and ‘varata’ types of Lingas.
In this way, the efficacy and supreme nature of ‘sarvadesika’ type of Linga is specifically extolled. O, the eminent twice-born sages!, just as the specific nature of ‘svayambhuva’, ‘bana’, ‘daivika’, ‘arshaka’, ‘manusha’ and other Lingas has been vividly told, even so the efficacy and supremacy of ‘sarvadesika’ Linga has been declared in the Scriptures. The installation of ‘sarvadesika’ Linga has to be essentially done by those who are desirous of beatific upliftment. In the installation of such ‘sarvadesika’ Linga, the Guru need not take notice of the defect which could occur due to the adopting the rules given in two or more Agamas, combination of mantras, combining of Acharyas, combining of locations, combining of time, and the combining of yuga. He need not even observe other kinds of defect. In this way, the greatness of ‘sarvadesika’ Linga is specifically described.
The proportionate measurements and the derived measurements pertaining to the main shrine of ‘sarvadesika’ Linga are now told. Starting from 12 hastas and increasing by 2 hastas each time, the extent of the shrine could be increased up to 50 hastas. For the shrines of ‘saradesika’ and others, the height of the shrine may be decided according the various types of height such as ‘santi’, ‘paustika’ and others. The five kinds of height – ‘santi’ and others – should be 3/2, 4/2, 5/2, 6/2 and 7/2 of the breadth of the shrine. The foremost Guru may decide it to be one and a half time to three times its breadth. There is no defect if the height gets decreased or increased by one, two or three hastas.
O, the twice-born sages!, in the case of ‘sakala’ type of images (images whose limbs are fully exposed) ‘aya’ and other aspects need not be calculated in the conventional way (as told) earlier based on the measures of length and breadth. For these, ‘aya’ and other factors are determined based on the breadth or height or both the breadth and the height. Or, they may be decided based on the length alone or breadth alone or the thickness or circumference. Incidentally, various methods of calculating the ‘aya’ and other factors are now explained.
Multiply the taken measure by 9, 8 and 6 and divide by 11, 12 and 5 respectively. The remainders denote the ‘aya’. These are the three methods. Multiply the same measure by 3, 8, 9 and 10 and divide by 14, 6, 8 and 7 respectively. The remainders give the value of ‘vyaya’ factor.
Multiply the same measure (decided for the breadth or height) by 12 or 7 or 6 and divide by 27. The remainder denotes the ‘dina’ factor and its compatibility should be ascertained by counting the nakshatras in the following way. Starting from the birth-star of the king or the main sponsor, the Guru should count the nakshtras up to the nakshatra (dina) denoted by the remainder. The counting should be done in a cycle of nine. The number arrived lastly when counting the ‘dina’ denotes a particular effect. There are nine effects – tushti, sampat, vipat, kshema, pratyara, sadhaka, vadha, maitra and parama maitra corresponding to the number 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 and 9. If the counting ends with 1, the dina-factor pertaining to the taken measure denotes tushti. If it ends with 2, the dina-factor denotes ‘sampat’ (prosperity). Similarly, the effects of other numbers should be understood, as told earlier. Generally, the number 1 is to be avoided. But, if it comes when the counting is done for the third time, it is considered to be auspicious. That is, the third birth-star (anujanma) is considered to be auspicious. If the ‘dina’ synchronizes with the eighth zodiacal sign counting from the ‘lagna’, it is to be avoided since it would inflict death upon the master (king, sponsor or the owner). If the ‘dina’ happens to be ‘vainasika nakshatra’ in the third counting or in some other calculation, it should be avoided even though it may denote good effect (sampath and others). All others are considered to be auspicious. Having known all such details, the Guru should decide the nature of dina.
Yogas such as ‘viyoga’ (mrutyu and others) and the ‘ganas’ such as ‘asura’ and ‘manusha’ are inauspicious and therefore these should be avoided by those who are intent on attaining auspicious benefits. Those who are in pursuit of liberation may fix the measure as desired by them. If the taken measure is divided by 7, 6, 5, 4,3 or 9, the remainder denotes one of the 9 ‘amsas’ – ‘taskara’ and others. Taskara indicates theft. In this way, the effect of the amsa is made known through its specific name.
The Guru should multiply the taken measure by 11, 9 or 3 and divide by the number of yonis. The remainder will denote the auspiciousness or inauspiciousness of the yoni-factor. There are 8 kinds of yonis, dhvaja and others; 7 kinds of yonis, shadja and others; 5 kinds of yonis, pruthivi and others; 3 kinds of yonis, dakshinagni and others. Thus, there are four different methods of analyzing the yoni- factor. The eight yonis, dhvaja and others have been enumerated before. Shadja, vrushabha, gandhara, pancama, madhyama, nishada and daivata – these are the seven yonis. Among these, shadja, vrushabha and madhyama are considered to be auspicious. Among the five yonis related to the five elements- pruthivi, jala, agni, vayu and akasa- pruthivi and jala are considered to be auspicious. Dakshinagni, avahaniyagni and garhapatya are the three yonis related to fire. Among these, garhaptya and avahaniya are considered to be auspicious yonis.
The Guru should multiply the taken measure by 9, 8 or 6 and divide by 7. The remainder will denote name of the week-day. (1 denotes Sunday, 2 denotes Monday and so on). Sunday, Tuesday and Saturday are inauspicious days . When all these factors synchronize with auspicious yoga, they would yield best effects in the construction of temple, pavilion, enclosure, superstructure and such others. O, the twice-born sages!, the Guru should analyze the nature of aya and other factors while installing the Linga and other images. But, in the case of Linga and images, he should analyze these factors based on its height only.
In the case of ‘sarvadesika’ Linga, there is no place for the occurrence of vicious defects while ascertaining the proportionate measures based on the height. The presence of all the needed lineaments need not be observed especially in the ‘sarvadesika’ type of ‘svayambhu’, daivika, bana, gana and manusha Lingas. The breadth or the height or the features of the brahma-bhaga and others and the different forms of the head- portion of the Lingas need not be examined.
The finer lineaments of the images such as Brahma, Nandi and others and other stone images are observed according to their forms as told in the scriptures. In the same way, the lineaments of these Lingas are to be observed through the three parts – brahma bhaga, vishnu bhaga and rudra bhaga – or two parts or one part. The part which appears to be associated with special features is considered to be the specific form of the Lord. The measures of the temple, pedestal and the main shrine should be decided according to the Linga.
When renovations for the shrine, pedestal and such others are to be undertaken, such works should be completed according to the rules given in the concerned chapter dealing with renovations and the pedestal and the shrine should be set right. When a Linga seems to be without pedestal, designing and joining of the suitable pedestal is ordained.
If the unexposed bottom portion of ‘svayambhu’ Linga and other self-manifest images are forcibly seen by digging the ground and such other activities, the ruler and the country would be affected by thieves and inconceivable difficulties. The portion of the self-manifest image itself which is visible outside is considered to be associated with three parts- brahma, vishnu and rudra. Therefore, the Guru or others should never proceed to see and examine the unexposed bottom part of the Linga. If it is examined due to ignorance, death would occur to the doer. There is no doubt about this. The main features of ‘sarvadesika’ Linga have been told in this way. The process of installation of such ‘sarvadesika’ Linga is according to the directions given earlier in the concerned chapter.
This is the end of the 43rd chapter titled “Directions for the Construction of Shrine for Sarvadesika Linga” in the Great Tantra called Uttara Kamika
Chapter 52: Directions for the Installation of the Dancing Form of Lord Siva (80 verses)
Now, I explain in details the process of installation of the Dancing Form of Lord Siva, along with the characteristic lineaments of that form. The form of Nataraja is associated with four hands; three eyes; dishevelled matted hair; the specific form of the crown designed with matted hair, encircled by the cobra appearing with bent and expanded hood. The number of the strands of matted hair, stretched over the back and the sides may be from 5 to 30, increasing the number by one each time and they may be designed so as to be with enough space between the strands. The Nrutta Murthi is in the color of golden yellow; beautified with various flowers such as dhuttura, aragvada, arka and others.
On the right side of the matted hair is Ganga Devi, holding her hands in ‘anjali mudra’ (keeping the palms facing each other to express obeisance). The left side of the matted hair is adorned with the young crescent-moon. He is adorned with garland of vakula-flowers and ornaments made of pearls and adorned with snakes. He is dressed with tiger-skin and He is beautified with all kinds of ornaments which are with exceeding resplendence. The hide of tiger is hanging from the top of the left shoulder like a garland. Or, the form of Nataraja may be designed so as to be attired in elegant and bright cloth or in the hide of antelope.
He is well adorned with the garland of skulls of Brahma and various kinds of flowers. He is wearing the tooth of boar, tiger-nail and the shell of tortoise. His chest is adorned with the string made of the balls designed with conch. His right foot is straight and the left foot is raised above and bent rightward. His lower left hand is stretched across and held above the lifted left foot. His eyes are like the bees drawn towards the lotus-face of Ambika (sakthi).
A stripe designed with sweet-sounding ‘kinkini-bells’ is fastened over the lower part of the leg. His both legs are adorned with ankles known as ‘nupura’. His left ear is adorned with an ear-ring designed with rolled-up palm-leaf and His right-ear is adorned with the ear-ring designed in the form of ‘makara’ crocodile. His lower right hand held in fear-dispelling mudra is adorned with a snake whose hood remains stretched. His stretched upper left hand is holding the fire and the stretched right hand is holding the drum. He is wearing the sacred thread. His whiteness is comparable to the cow-milk. His waist is with flexion to the extent of 12 angulas. Various parts of His body are adorned with many kinds of snakes. His right leg is placed over the demon known as ‘apasmara’.
The Guru should stretch and fix the reference line in such a way that it touches the head, right side of the forehead, right nostril, right side of the navel and the mid point between the two ankles. The distance between the line starting from the middle of the forehead and the central line should be 2 digits (matras). The distance between the lines on two sides of the hip should be 3 matras. It is recommended that the central line should touch the hip and left thigh. The distance between the two lines touching the ankles should be one angula. The distance between the central line and the knee of the bent leg may be 12, 10 or 9 matras.
The distance between the central line and left buttock should be 17 angulas; the distance between the central line and the left knee may be forty-one angulas or fifty-one angulas. The distance between that line and the right stomach should be 8 angulas. The distance between that line and the left stomach should be 12 angulas. The distance between that line and the right thigh should be 17 angulas. The distance between that line and the left thigh should be 9 matras. The distance between that central line and the left neck should be 5 angulas and that between the central line and the right neck should be one angula. The distance between the central line and the left shoulder may be 3 angulas or less than three angulas.
Or, making of the image of Nataraja is explained now in a different way. The vertical line which is drawn from the head to the little finger of the right foot so as to touch the bottom of the left nostril, right of the navel and the middle of the ankle of the right foot is known as the central line. On the left side of the central line, the breadth of the face should be 5 matras and the neck, 3 matras. Up to the end of the left shoulder, 15 matras and up to the armpit, 9 matras. On the left of the central line, the middle of the stomach, 8 matras and the hip 14 angulas.
On the left side of the central line, the loin should be 15 matras and on its right side, it should be 60 matras. The left thigh, 9 matras; the bottom of the heel, with a height of 4 matras. On the right side of the central line or thread, the face should be 7 angulas; the neck, 6 angulas; up to the end of the right shoulder, 3 matras and up to the armpit, 14 matras; the stomach, 14 angulas; the hip, 4 matras; the loin, 4 matras; the right knee, 8 angulas; the front of the feet, 5 matras. Having known all such iconic details, the Guru should design the image of the Lord.
The lifted and stretched foot should be on the level equal to the level of the right knee. The measurement between the ankle of the lifted foot and the knee (of the same foot) should be equal to twice the height of the face. The level of the hip should be equal to the level of the knee of the left leg. The distance between the middle of the thigh (of that leg) and the navel should be 18 matras. The distance between that knee and the end of the wrist of the stretched left hand should be 14 matras.
The distance between that and the wrist of the lower right hand holding the abhaya-mudra should be 6 angulas. From the bottom of the right thumb to the right nipple, the distance should be twice the length of the face. The level of the raised palm should be the same as that of the arms. The distance between the forearm of stretched lower left hand and the middle of the shoulders should be 17 angualas. The level of the upper left hand holding the fire should be the same as that of the left shoulder. The flame of the fire should be with a height of 5 angulas. The breadth of the rounded bottom of the fire which is with three flames should also be 5 angulas.
The level of the upper right hand holding the drum should be greater than the upper level of the right ear by one angula. The length of the drum held by the Lord should be 5 parts out of 7 parts of the length of the face. The rounded middle part of the drum should appear as tied around with three threads. The drum should appear as associated with a striking knob and lines indicating its reverberating sounds. From the shoulder up to the wrist, the length should be 34 angulas.
The height of the ‘apasmara-demon’ lying under the right foot of the Lord may be 12, 11, 9 or 8 matras. The proportionate measurements of the apasmara should be decided based on the measurement of the face of the Lord. The length of the apasmara may be obtained in 7 different ways, from 2 face-measurement up to 5 face-measurement, increasing the measure by half face-measurement each time. (two, two and half, three, three and half and so on). O, the foremost twice-born sages!, the form of apasmara should be designed according to the four-palm system of proportionate measurement.
From the headgear (that is, a band around the head of apasmara) up to the feet, the total length of the image should be divided into 48 equal parts. The portion between the headgear and the tuft is known as ‘kolaka’. From the tip of the hair up to the chin, the length should be 8 parts. Half-part is for the neck. One and a half parts, for the ears. From the bottom of the neck up to the middle of the chest, 6 parts. From the middle of the chest up to the navel, 6 parts. From the navel up to the bottom of the genital organ, 6 parts. The length of the thighs should be 7 parts. The length of the knee, 2 parts. The length of the shin, 7 parts. The length of the feet (ankle to heel), 2 parts.
The apasmara-demon should be shown as having two hands, two eyes, his body turned upwards and his face turned downwards. His left hand should be holding a snake and the right hand should be with the head of that snake. The form should be shown as bent in the middle and as well adorned with various kinds of wearings and ornaments. The head of the apasmara should be on the right side of the Lord.
The length of the image of Ganga-devi to be shown on the matted hair should be based on the face-measurement of the Lord. The form of Ganga should be shown as having two hands and three eyes and as adorned with ‘karanda’ type of crown, as adorned with all kinds of ornaments and as holding Her hands in ‘anjali’ mudra. Her form from the upper part to the lower part should be designed so as to appear as the waves of the river. The Lord may be shown as associated or not associated with Ganga-devi. The width of the inner space of the elliptical structure known as ‘prabha’ should be 110 angulas. The total length of the stem of the elliptical structure should be 137 angulas. There may increase or decrease by one to ten matras, in the recommended measurements.
The proportionate measurement of the young crescent moon could be obtained in 7 ways, starting from 2 angulas and increasing up to 5 angulas, increasing by half angula each time. The form of Sakthi of the Lord should be designed according to the settled directions, based on the measurement of the form of Nataraja. Either the image of Bhrungi or that of Bhadrakali may be designed to be on the left side of the Lord. The form of Nataraja designed in this way is called ‘Bhujangatrasa’. There is another form known as ‘Bhujangalalita’.
All the lineaments of the Bhujangalalita are the same as those of the Bhujangatrasa. But, there are some specific modifications. The raised foot of the Lord should be shown as higher than the knee and the thigh of the straight foot, by 2, 3 or 4 matras. Such form is said to be Bhujangalalita. This is also called Bhairava. In the Bhujangalalita form, the right foot may be shown as raised above or the left foot may be designed so as to be in raised state.
One foot should be on the middle of the body of apasmara-demon and another foot should be shown as raised above. The form of Natesvara may be with 4 hands or 8 hands, adorned with various kinds of divine weapons. Having collected the suitable stone, metal and such other materials, the Guru should design the image of Natesvara. The characteristic lineaments of the form of Nataraja have been detailed in this way. Now, I will explain the process of installation of such form.
The auspicious time for the installation should be decided according to the process explained earlier. Similarly, the rituals such as the offering of sprouts, fixing the gems on various parts of the image and the opening of the eyes of the image should be performed well, as done before. Then the Guru should perform the following rituals: purification of the image, taking the image around the village in clockwise direction and keeping the image in the water. Then he should arrange for the construction of a suitable hall, as done before. Inside that hall, he should construct the fire-pits around the central altar (vedika), the number of the fire-pits being 9 or 5 or 1. The fire-pits may be in the form of square or circular or in the form appropriate to each direction.
The Guru should invite the learned Brahmins and feed them inside the hall, the number of such Brahmins being 10 and more up to 1000. Then, for the sake of purification of the mantapa (hall), he should perform ‘punyaha vacana’. According to the settled directions, he should perform the vastu homa in the specific grid occupied by Samari, the vastu-devata. Or, he may perform ‘bhu parigraha’ (taking possession of the site) even without performing the vastu homa. Having done the ‘punyaha vacana’, he should design a sthandila over the altar. A couch should be made on the sthandila and the image should be purified.
Having tied up the protective string on the right hand of the image, he should place it gently on the couch so as to be in recumbent position. He should place the siva-kalasa near the head of the image of the Lord and the vardhani-kalasa to be on the north side of siva-kalasa. Having invoked the presence of Gauri (Sivasakthi) in the vardhani, the Guru should contemplate the form of Gauri associated with specific lineaments mentioned before and worship Her with sandal, flowers and such other substances.
He should arrange 8 kalasas to be occupied by 8 Vidyesvaras around the siva-kalasa and vardhani-kalasa. The foremost Guru should invoke them and worship them with sandal, flowers and other substances and complete the worship with the offering of ‘naivedya’ (food and eatables). Then, he should invoke and worship Tattvas and Tattvesvaras, Murtis and Murtisvaras. Being assisted by the sadhaka-priests, he should commence the homa-rituals at the proper time fixed earlier.
Having done all the essential sacraments to the fire-pits and the fire, the Guru should perform the fire- ritual. He should offer the oblations into the fire with faggots, clarified butter, cooked rice, parched paddy grains, white mustard, yava, tila, priyangu, sali and mudga according to the said order. Udumbara, vata, asvattha and plaksha are the faagots recommended for the four main directions, starting from the east. Sami, apamarga, bilva and khadira are the faggots recommended for the four intermediary directions, starting from the south-east. In the principal fire-pit, the faggots of palasa should be offered.
The recital of the Rg Veda and other Vedas, Agamas and other scriptures, incantation of particular mantras should be done according to the directions set forth in the Agamas. Having spent the remaining night-time with songs, dances, recital of hymns and high-sounding Vedic hymns, the Guru should get up in the next early morning, meditate on the serene form of Sadasiva and take the ceremonial bath along with the assisting sadhaka-priests. Then he should assume a body purified with the nyasa of various mantras and lift up the image from the couch so as to face the east, reciting the ‘sarvatma-mantra’. Having removed the cloth, bunch of darbha-grass and others from the image he should worship it with sandal,flowers and such other substances. Then, the foremost Guru should do ‘tarpana’ (making the deity contented and delighted) for the kumbhas and the fire kindled in the fire-pits. He should offer the final and consummate oblation (purna ahuti), with the recital of the mula-mantra of Siva ending with ‘vaushat’.
Then, the chief-sponsor of the event (yajamana) should worship the chief Acharya and honor him with the offering of new clothes, gold ring and other valuable items, the details of which have been told earlier. After that, the Guru should commence the rituals related to the installation. If the image is meant for the festival and moveable, the Guru should take it from the altar and place it in a place prepared for performing the ceremonial bath to the image. If the image is to be installed and fixed firmly, he should place it in the middle of the shrine. Then, the learned Acharya should lift up all the kalasas with the accompaniment of the sounding of various musical instruments and having taken them around the temple in clockwise direction he should place them in front of the Image installed in the shrine.
Having collected the seed-mantras from the siva-kalasa,the Guru should fix them in the heart of the image and taking out the seed-mantras from the vardhani-kalasa, he should fix them in the pedestal designed in the form of lotus. Then he should pour down the consecrated water contained in the kalasas and perform ‘abhisheka’. The Guru should also install the image of Devi in the appropriate place according to the directions set forth for the installation and worship of Sakthi. At the end of installation rituals, the Guru should perform the marriage-festival for Siva and Sakthi. Then the regular festival should be performed according to the available materials and other essential resources.
Other details which are not told here are common for the process of installation and they should be carried out according to those details explained earlier . The devotee who installs the form of Natesvara associated with specific contemplation would reach the blissful abode of the Supreme Lord, after enjoying the delightful worldly enjoyments here in this life.
This is the end of the 52nd chapter titled “Directions for the Installation of the Dancing Form of Lord Siva” in the Great Tantra called Uttara Kamika
Chapter 74: Directions for the Installation of Vidyā Pīṭhā (For Instituting a Center for Learning the Scriptures, 49 verses)
Now I will tell you briefly about instituting a center (pīṭhā) for the systematic study of the Scriptures (Āgamas and Vedas). That study is of two kinds – samskṛuta (well systematized) and ātmikā (practical-cum-spiritual oriented). Such center for the scriptural studies may be constructed in all the four main directions of the temple, in the corner directions of the temple, in its inner enclosure or in the locations recommended for the installation of the images of śaiva-devotees.
Starting from three aṅgulas, increasing this measure by one aṅgula each time, the length of the scripture may be up to twenty-five aṅgulas. Starting from one aṅgula, increasing this measure by one quarter each time, the breadth of the scripture may be up to twelve aṅgulas; or, the breadth may be fifteen aṅgulas. Such scripture may be designed with the bark of the bhūrja-tree, leaf of śrītāḷī-tree or the leaf of palm-tree. Or, it may be designed with the sheet or plate made of gold, copper and such other metals.
Or, it may be designed with the bark of śaila-tree. The Guru and the disciple should write the words formed by the auspicious letters with tūḷī (stylus or nib used for drawing) over the leaf, making use of the ink prepared with the paste of saffron or with such other flowers. He should commence the writing on an auspicious day and time synchronizing with favorable nakshatra, yoga and other factors.
The Scriptures, specifically called “Śivajñāna”, should never be written in the palm leaf or bark by the uneducated and ignorant person. Nor they may be studied by the wise disciple in the vicinity of the uneducated and ignorant persons. These scriptures should be neatly written in straight lines with the letters which have originated in various countries and which are associated with significant and potential powers. The Guru or the disciple should not write the letters in the edges of the palm leaves or bark. Before commencing the writing, the disciple should worship Śiva and Śakti who presents Herself in the form of letters and who, by the virtue of such presence, is known as Mātṛuka; worship his Guru by offering to him new clothes and other valuable things; and worship the bunch of palm leaves collected for writing.
The disciple who is maintaining purity in body and mind should write, or listen to or read the scripture, having seated on the ground which is besmeared with cow-dung, which is beautified with charming depictions designed with various colorful flours, which is strewn with heaps of flowers, well fumigated by fragrant incense, on which lights lamps are placed and which is occupied by śuddha-śaiva devotees. Such disciple who has known well the process of writing should never write improper and meaningless words in between the lines already written by the reader or writer of the scriptures.
During the passage of time, some defects could have occurred in the Āgamas (Śivajñāna Śāstras) written in the palm-leaves. Owing to the absence of memory power or consciousness, such defects could have crept into the verses. Due to inattentiveness or carelessness, letters of certain words get erased from the already written lines or added there unnecessarily. There may be some blunders and mistakes in the lines, committed by the persons with insufficient knowledge or some lines could have been lost or ruined by them. Some scriptures could have been read, examined and re-written by some ācāryas who were with insufficient understanding. The lines written by them would be with unwanted and purposeless words, would be with repetitions, would be with improper words contradicting what has been said in the earlier section and the later section; or they may be opposed to the principles of śaiva-siddhanta; or some verses may be with extremely defective meter (chandas) or with mutilated chandas. Or there may be meaningless words. In this way, various defects could be seen here and there in such palm-leaf manuscripts. The foremost Guru, who has mastered the scriptures, who is with wondrous memory power and who has well understood the tattvas of Śaiva System should set right all such defects which have crept into the Āgamas revealed by the Supreme Lord and commence to teach them to his disciples step by step and inform the essential matters enshrined in them to the devotees of Śiva.
It is maintained in this Āgama that imparting the scriptural knowledge should be done according to the principles set forth in the Śaiva Scriptures (Āgamas). Such imparting through instructions may be done through Sanskrit, Tamil works, any other local languages or through the words born of Prākṛuta or through the standard words which are perfected and which remain in absolute purity. Or, the teaching could be done through the common and simple words of the local people, keeping in mind the capability and fitness of the disciples. The Ācārya should teach the scriptures prevailing in various countries through the medium of the language of the concerned country, through the works which have been written in that language or through any other languages which are flourishing in those locations.
Just like there is no extinction to Lord Śiva who is all-pervasive and the Great Soul, even so there is no extinction to the Guru who is endowed with all attributes of Śiva and who imparts the contents of the Āgamas. The benefit which results from such imparting is the attainment of śivatva (the dual power of knowing-all and doing-all) and the attainment of lordship on par with Īśvara. He is blessed with widespread celebrity, richness, adorable power of Vāgdevī who is the spouse of Brahma, supreme knowledge, lustrousness, wealth and happiness. The Guru who accepts a person who is impure and imperfect in all respects as his disciple and teaches the principles enshrined in the supreme scriptures known as Śivajñāna Śāstras (Āgamas) to him reaches the dreadful world of hells; he is considered as the great sinner and as the destroyer of Āgamas.
With devoted heart, the disciples should worship his Ācārya who imparts the tenets of Śaiva Siddhanta Śāstras considering him as Lord Śiva Himself. He who has systematically studied the Siddhanta Śāstras and has become the knowledgeable person should write the verses of the Āgamas daily as long as his capacity allows him to do so. Up to the extent of thousands of yugas equalling the number of letters contained in the Scripture, he would be in the world of Śiva as the giver of knowledge. Being a celebrated intellectual person, he would elevate the ten generations prior to him and the ten generations coming after him to the higher planes. Having reached the heaven along with his father, mother and wife and having established all of them in that world, he would reach the world of Śiva.
He who reads daily one verse or half of a verse from the scripture of Āgama, enables others to do so, contemplate on the meaning of that verse, writes that, enables others to write that or listen to one verse or half-verse with attentive one-pointed mind, ruminate on the inner and deeper meaning of the verse or enables others to listen to the reading and meaning of the verse would attain meritorious benefits in great measure. He who worships and honors a Guru who is endowed with the deep knowledge of Śivajñāna Śāstras (Āgamas) by offering foods, clothes and such other things and take care of him until the end of his life would attain the same benefits as attained by a teacher who imparted the meaning of the Āgamas. Let him protect the knower of the Scriptures at least with sufficient amount of honorarium. By this, he would be blessed with the benefits attained by the giver of the scriptural knowledge.
O, the twice-born sages!, the Ruler of a country in which the activity of writing or teaching the commentaries on the Āgamas is flourishing is considered as the supreme king who augments the prosperity and glory of his country. He becomes declared as the King of the kings. To be appointed as the Rājaguru, as the army-chief, as the authorities in other portfolios, as the royal-priest, as the officer in all other royal departments and as the controller in the field concerned with other religions, only śuddha-śaiva is considered to be fit. If such śuddha-śaiva happens to be a sāntānika, it is more praiseworthy.
The one who understands with certainty the exact meaning of the texts such as the Vedas, Vedāṅgas, Pāśupata Āgamas, Gāruḍa Tantras and such other multifarious scriptures without contradicting the basic principles enshrined in the Siddhānta Āgamas is considered as the knower of eternal Truth (dharma); not others. But the one who understands with certainty the meaning of the scriptures mentioned above in a way opposed to the tenets enshrined in the Āgamas is considered as a person whose ‘buddhi’ (intellect-tattva, one of the internal instruments called antaḥkaraṇa) is of tāmasic nature; he is the one excommunicated from the eternal path of Dharma (Sanātana Dharma).
Therefore, the Ruler of the country should be keen in protecting with care the Śuddha Śaivas of Siddhanta-path and through them he should make special arrangements for the performance of ‘śānti karma’ and ‘pauṣṭika karma’. For all other deeds such as ‘abhicāra karmas’ (rituals meant for malevolent purpose), he may employ other persons who are with the mind firmly fixed on Dharma or he may employ a much learned sāntānika. Only those karmas performed systematically by such competent persons would yield the desired benefits for all the people of the country.
Thus, the greatness of the Āgamas and that of the imparting of their tenets has been told. Now, the process of installation and consecration of the Vidyā Pīṭhā is explained. The Vidyā Śālā should be constructed in the form of a separate shrine or pavilion (maṇṭapa), with its breadth being from three hastas up to thirty-three hastas. This may be in different styles of construction such as eka-śālā, dvi-śālā and so on, so as to be associated with all the features of śālā-type of building. The specific pedestal known as the Vidyā-Pīṭhā meant for placing the Āgamas should be designed, with its width being from seven aṅgulas to thirty-one aṅgulas, increasing the width by two aṅgulas each time. The maximum length of the pedestal should be fifteen hastas.
The Vidyā Pīṭhā may be square or rectangular in shape. This should be designed according to the āsana type of vāstu maṇḍala and all the features should be provided so as to be in accordance with āsana-maṇḍala. Having designed it, the Guru should perform all the essential sacramental rites and sprinkle the drops of pañcagavya over it. Having designed a sthaṇḍila in the pavilion, he should spread a new cloth over it and place all the Āgamas there. Āsana, Mūrti, Mūrtīśa and others should be conceived for them in the same way as contemplated for Lord Śiva. Lord Śiva should be worshipped in the Āgamas belonging to Śiva-bheda; Rudraśiva should be worshipped in the Āgamas belonging to Rudra-bheda.
Śiva-kumbha should be placed in the middle and vardhanī-kalasas should be placed on the two sides of śiva-kumbha. Or, both Śiva and Śakti may be invoked and worshipped in the śiva-kumbha only. Eight kalasas should be arrayed around these in the outer enclosure for the eight ṣidyeśvaras. Having worshipped with sandal, flowers and other substances, the Guru should perform the fire-ritual as done before. Having offered the oblations with the recommended faggots, clarified butter, sesame, havis (rice cooked within the sacrificial hall) and yava-grains for one hundred and eight times, he should offer the pūrṇa-āhuti. Having obtained enough the sacrificial fees, the foremost Guru should perform the nyāsa of mantras to the Āgamic Scriptures. The presence of Śiva should be identified with the middle of palm-leaf scripture and that of Śakti should be identified with both sides of the leaf.
This is the end of the the 74th chapter titled “Direction for the Installation of Vidyā Pīṭhā” in the Great Tantra called Uttara Kāmika
Chapter 76: Directions for the Installation of Siva-Bhakta
76.1-2 Now I explain the details related to the installation of the devotees of Siva, which installation is capable of yielding both the worldly enjoyments and the final liberation. The devotees of Siva may be brahmins, kshatriyas, vaisyas, sudras or may be those who have born in the mixed-caste; they may be women, gurus, enlightened and purified saints (abhishiktas) or the rulers of the people. Whoever the devotee may be, the primal qualification is that he should be with the spirit wholly dedicated and devoted to Lord Siva. He may be alive or the one deceased to exist. The image of such devotee should be made according to the system of taḷamana, duly installed and worshipped.
76.3-4 The devotees belong to various denominations of Saivism. They may be Saivas, Pasuapatas, Mahavratas, Lakulas, Bhairavas and others who follow the other systems of Saivism. It is ordained in this Agama that the installation and consecration of such images of the devotees should be performed according to the process through which they have been initiated.
76.5-8 The highest kind of consecration of all such devotees is the one performed according to the directions given in the Agamas which expound the path of Saiva Siddhanta. The consecration is of two kinds – svapradhana and paraṅga. The svapradhana shrine may be built in a village, city or such other locations, by the side of river-bank, circular tank, rectangular or square tank, in the forest, in the groves and gardens, on the mountain and such other serene and beautiful locations. Construction of a shrine within one of the enclosures of the main temple and the consecration of the image of the devotee there as associated with his retinues also belongs to the svapradhana-category. The shrine constructed for the devotee without any retinue form within a temple, in the row of various shrines or in the manṭapas, belongs to the category of paraṅga.
76.9-11 Commencing from 3 hastas and increasing this measure by 2 hastas each time so as to reach the limit of 21 hastas, the breadth of vimana should be ascertained. The length and height should be ascertained based on the breadth-measure and these measures should be in concordance with aya, vyaya and other factors. The measures of the main-shrine, manṭapa, enclosures, gopura and such other constructions should be carefully looked into so as to comply with aya and other factors. The details related to the laying of the first-stone, designing of the main shrine, laying of the crowning-stone and such others are as explained earlier.
76.12-14 For the installation of Bhakta, sivaliṅga, an image of any desired form of Siva, the image of Skanda, Nandi and other Gods or the image sculpted in the form of deceased devotee may be taken. Such image should be made of stone or other suitable materials so as to comply with the basic six factors- aya and others. The image may be designed with stone, metal, wood, clay or gems; the image may be in full form or it may be designed to be a relief-sculpture. Or, the image may be depicted in a canvas with suitable colors.
76.15-17 If liṅga or image is to be made, it should be designed according to the directions given for the making of liṅga or image. The proportionate measurements of the liṅga or image should be decided according to the measure of the temple, main shrine, entrance or the height of the pillar. Or, it may be ascertained according to the manaṅgula-system; or according to the matraṅgula-measure pertaining to the main sponsor (karta) which could be divided into many different ways such as six-yavas, eight yavas and so on. Having differentiated the measure of the temple or of the desired section such as the main shrine and others into nine ways, the categories as to the three foremost types, three medium types and three inferior types should be determined. Starting from three aṅgulas and increasing by two and a half each time, the height of the image could be increased up to the maximum of 96 aṅgulas. The measure pertaining to ‘jatyamsa’ should be added with the ascertained height.
76.18-20 Dividing 8, 9 and 3 by 12, 10 and 8 respectively, the value of aya, vyaya and yoni could be known. 3 divided be 27 would denote the lunar mansion. 9 divided by 7 would denote the corresponding vara (day of a week). 4 divided by 9 would denote the corresponding amsa. In this way, the height of the image should be decided so as to comply with aya and other factors and as favorable to the sponsor (karta). Or, the height may be ascertained based on the first letter of the name of that devotee so as to be favorable to the sponsor.
76.21-24 If it is liṅga, it should be designed according to the process detailed in the chapter dealing with the lineaments of liṅga. Similarly, if it is an image, it should be designed according to the prescribed way. O, the foremost twice-born sages!, be it liṅga or image, it should be designed according to the recommended system of proportionate measurement (tala mana). The image of the deceased devotee should be designed according to system of eight-talas (asṭa tala). The image may be designed so as to be in seated posture or standing posture, or as mounted on a suitable vehicle (vahana). The pedestal for the seated image or the standing image may be in the form of lotus or in the form of lion-throne (simhasana). These pedestals should be designed below for both the seated and standing images. Or, the seat for the images may be designed to be in any desired form or in the form of square. The circumference, breadth, length, height and the details related to the embellishment and ornamentation – all these should be determined according to the process detailed before in the chapter dealing with the making of images.
76.25-28 The head of the image may be designed to be with tuft, well-knotted hairs or locks of matted hair; or it may be in shaven form. If the devotee for whom the image is to be designed is a king, the image should be designed to be with kiriṭa-crown or makuṭa-crown. It should be shown as holding the desired weapons or holding the hands in namaskara-mudra. It should be associated with all essential lineaments and beautified with all kinds of ornaments. It should be associated with singers, dancers or the bards and worshippers or with any desired groups. If the devotee is a woman, then her image should be designed according to the lineaments of her form adorned with all kinds of ornaments. Thus, the characteristic features of the image of bhakta have been well explained. Now, the process of the installation of that image and other details are told.
76.29-32 According to the process explained in the section dealing with the making of images, the sthapati should perform the deed known as ‘madhu-ucchisṭha kriya’ (casting of the image in bees’-wax). After the image has been designed perfectly, the Guru should first perform the ritual known as ‘aṅkurarpana’ (offering of fresh sprouts) and fix the recommended gems on various parts of the image. Then he should arrange for the opening of the eyes of the image. Having designed a sthanḍila first, he should spread a thick cloth over it. Having ideated the pranava-seat there with the recital of the concerned mantra, he should place the image over that seat. The sthapathi should draw the black-circle of the eyes with the gold-needle and with gentle strokes of the tiny gold-hammer. Having drawn the luminous region (jyotirmanḍala), he should impart the look of the eyes, its size being equal to one yuka. He should perform all these activities, reciting the netra-mantra.
76.33-35 Having pleased and delighted the Deity by offering honey and clarified butter with the durva-grass made of gold, the Guru should hold two small vessels filled with honey and ghee in front of the face of the image enabling the Deity to look at them. Then he should touch the eyes with nail made of gold, reciting the netra-mantra. The he should show the vessel filled with varieties of grains, cow associated with calf, virgin lady and learned brahmins to the image whose eyes have been now opened perfectly. Then, having removed the cloth from the sthanḍila, he should purify the image. Having adorned the image with all kinds of ornaments and flowers, he should arrange for the circumambulation of the image around the village and other places.
76.36-38 Then he should keep the image immersed in river or tank-water along with eight vessels arranged for the sake of eight loka-palas (directional deities). A pavilion should be constructed in the left, front or right side of the temple for the performance of yaga. Nine or five fire-pits or one fire-pit should be designed within the pavilion. Having sent off the silpi with due honors, the Guru should arrange for the feeding of the learned brahmins. Then he should design a sthanḍila with paddy-grains over the altar, its size being governed by the measurements taken previously. Having purified the image as done before, he should take the image in procession around the village.
76.39-42 Keeping the image within the heap of various kinds of grains, designing of various kinds of fire-pits inside the pavilion, designing of sthanḍila with paddy and other grains, designing of a couch with five kinds of materials such as the hide of deer and others, ideation of a seat constituted of adhara-sakti, ananta, dharma, jñana, vairagya and aisvarya – all these should be done as done before. He should ideate a pedestal known as ‘manusa-piṭha’ with pranava mantra. Then he should place the image made of stone or other material over the altar designed for ablution (snana). Having firmly placed the image over the pedestal, the Guru should cover the image with fresh clothes, worship it with sandal, flowers and other substances and beautify it with garlands and others according to the directions given earlier. Then having tied up the protective thread around the wrist of the image, he should place the image over the couch so as to be in recumbent posture.
76.43-47 The Guru should place a pillow on the east side of the couch and place the image in such a way that its head is resting on that pillow. He should place the main kumbha on the north side of the head. Eight vessels (ghaṭas) should be arranged around the main kumbha to be in eight directions. These kumbhas should have been wound around with thread and deposited with gold coin, filled up with water mixed with sandal and furnished with tender leaves of mango and coconut. The Guru should invoke the presence of mantras into the water consecrated in the kumbha. The details of the concerned mantras are now told here. The seed letter of the mantra is formed of the letter ‘ha’ associated with the first vowel and bindu. This is called ‘atma mantra’; also considered as the hamsa mantra. With the same seed letter, the brahma mantras and aṅga mantras should be formed. The mantras pertaining to vidya deha and other aṅgas should be formed with the name of the devotee for whom the image has been made. For the images of female devotees, the seed letter ‘hrim’ should be used to formulate the brahma mantras and aṅga mantras.
76.48-49 If the image of the devotee is to be associated with that of his spouse, the process of installation is now explained. The Guru should place a kalasa on the north side of the main kumbha for the sake of his spouse. If there are the images of his two spouses, then the Guru should place another kalasa on the south side of the main kumbha. In case the number of spouses is more than two, then he should place the kalasas evenly on both sides of the main kumbha according to the number of the spouses. For the installation of all the images of female devotess, arranging of vardhani-kalasas is to be essentially done.
76.50-52The five gross elements- earth, water, fire, air and space, manas-tattva, ahaṅkara-tattva and buddhi tattava – all these eight should be invoked and worshipped in the eight kalasas arranged around the main kumbha. Or, the eight vasus may be invoked. For the female devotees, the saktis of these deities should be invoked and installed in the due order starting from the east. For the male devotees, the protecting Deities of the eight directions may be invoked in the eight kalasas starting from the east. Having worshipped the kumbha and the kalasas with sandal, flowers and other substances, the Guru should invoke the presence of tattvas and tattvesvaras.
76.53-55 Atma tattva, vidya tattva and siva tattva – these are the three tattvas; Atma, Antaratma and Paramatma – these are the presiding Deities of these three tattvas respectively. These Tattvas and Tattvesvaras should be invoked in the due order and identified with the image. Even for the female devotees, the Tattvas and Tattvesvaras are the same. If the fire-ritual is based on the system of nine fire-pits, the Earth and seven others are the eight Murtis; Indra and seven others are the eight Murtipas. If the fire-ritual is based in the five fire-pits, the Earth and four other Elements are the five Murtis; Nivruti and four others are the five Murtipas.
76.56-57 Having identified the concerned brahma-mantras of each Murti with the image, the Guru should fix that Murti in the heart of the image. All the fifty-one letters from ‘a’ to ‘ksa’ should be identified with the image from the head and other concerned parts of the image. Then, having done the ‘jiva-nyasa’ (fixing the soul) with the recital of the mantra formed of the name of that devotee, the Guru should identify the concerned aṅga-mantras with the image.
76.58-60 Then, having seated near the fire-pit, the Guru should commence the fire-ritual. As done before, he should perform the essential sacramental activities for the fire-pit, install and raise the siva-agni inside the fire-pit. Having invoked the presence of the Bhakta, he should worship him contemplating various parts of his form and make him delighted and contended (tarpana) by the offering of the faggots, clarified butter, consecrated food, parched paddy, sesame and other substances, being assited by the officiating priests. The faggots got from the palasa, udumbara, asvattha and vaṭa trees should be offered into the fire-pits in the east, south, west and north respectively. Those got from the sami, khadira, mayura and srivruksha should be offered into fire-pits in the corner directions starting from south-east. The faggots of palasa tree should to be offered into the main fire-pit. The offering may be done for 100, 50 or 25 times.
76.61-63 Having offered the consummate oblation (purnahuti), he should offer three oblations for each one of the Tattvas, Tattvesvaras, Murtis and Murtisvaras. Then, he should offer the oblations with the rectal of aghora-mantra for hundred times in order to ward off any defects or omissions which could have occurred in the course of fire-ritual. Having touched the image from the top of the head up to the feet, he should sprinkle the consecrated water contained in the santi-kumbha over the image. O, the twice-born sages!, then he should do the offering of the interior-bali and exterior bali.
76.64-66 Having spent that night inside the temple, the foremost Guru along with all the assisting priests should take bath as enjoined in the Agamas, complete the worship of sandhya and perform all the preliminary rituals. The Guru and the priests should have born in one of the five ‘gocaras’, should wear the head-dress and upper cloth and wear the recommended ornaments over the respective five parts of the body. Being with the mind pleased with the sacrificial fees offered by the sponsor, the Guru should proceed towards the sacrificial pavilion along with the assisting priests, assistants who were appointed to do the incantation of the prescribed mantras, those appointed for reciting the four Vedas, goldsmiths and silpis who have also become much pleased with the honor and gifts given to them by the sponsor.
76.67-69 Having worshipped the entrance and the guardian Deities of the entrance, the Guru should worship the kumbhas, worship the Deities invoked in the fire raised in the fire-pit, offer the ceremonial oblations and the consummate oblation (purnahuti) in the due order explained earlier. Having lifted the image from the couch, he should carefully place that over the vehicle designed for that purpose. Having taken the image around the temple, he should place that image on the altar specially made for bathing the image. Ratna-nyasa should have done for that image when it is to be installed properly, as prescribed before. Having ideated the pranava-seat over the altar, he should identify the murti-mantra with the image and perform the matruka-nyasa and jiva-nyasa without any omission.
76.70-72 Having performed the ceremonial bath to the newly installed Bhakta with the consecrated water contained in the kumbhas and kalasas arrayed in due order in front of the image, the Guru should worship the Bhakta and offer new clothes, varieties of fragrant substances, flowers, incense, lights, naivedya (cooked rice, sweets and others) and all other offerings. At the end, he should perform the festival appropriate to the fresh installation according to the available resources. From that day onwards, the Guru should duly worship the Bhakta daily according to the given directions.
76.73-74 The sponsor-devotee who is instrumental for the installation and consecration of Bhakta of Lord Siva and evolves into the foremost one among the human beings thereby is sure to be blessed with longevity, health, victory, wealth, celebrity and such other auspicious benefits. And at the end, he would attain the final liberation characterized as ‘sayujya mukti’. No need to think of other deed to be blessed with such auspicious benefits.
This is the end of the 76th chapter titled “Directions for the Installation of the Bhakta of Lord Siva ” in the Great Tantra called Uttara Kamika.
Chapter 77: Directions for the Performance of Daily Worship of Sivabhakta
77.1-3 The Acarya is the one who has born in the lineage of Adisaivas and as associated with one of the five gocaras. Having done the usual morning deeds such as cleaning the bowels, washing the teeth and so on, the Guru (Acarya) should purify himself and take bath with the accompaniment of mantras and mudras and perform the worship of sandhya and other deeds. Then, having entered the temple, he should prepare the samanya-arghya; holding the vessel containing the samanya-arghya water, he should worship ‘Purusa’ and ‘Prakruti’ who are the entrance-deities on the two sides of the main entrance of the shrine and enter into the sanctum sanctorum. Having worshipped the Vastu-brahma in the middle who is the Great Being and Eternal Existence, he should purify his physical body, subtle body and his soul.
77.4-6 Then, having rendered his body to be identical with the mula-mantra, he should do the ‘purification of the place’ (sthana suddhi) and prepare the ‘visesa-arghya’ with recommended flowers and unhusked and unbroken rice (akshata). According to the directions set forth earlier, he should sprinkle the arghya-water over the collected and well-arranged paraphernalia. For the purification of the mantras, he should recite the mantras which are essential for this worship beginning with Om and ending with ‘namah’. He should bathe the installed image with the water consecrated with astra-mantra for the purification of the image. Then, he should ideate a pedestal known as ‘saḍutthasana’ constituted of six-mantras starting from the ‘adhara sakti-mantra’, according to the directions told before.
77.7-9 The Guru should worship the Bhakta at the center of that saḍutthasana with the recital of the mula-mantra pertaining to the Bhakta. The learned Guru should contemplate the form of the concerned Bhakta associated with perfect lineaments while reciting the concerned mula-mantra. Then, having done the ‘jiva-nyasa’, he should identify the hrudaya-mantra and other aṅga-mantras with that form. He should offer padya, acamana and arghya with the recital of hrudaya-mantra. Then he should bathe the image with pure water. The ablution may be performed with ‘pañcamruta’ and other special materials. Having well wiped the image with pure cloth, he should beautify the image with cleaned cloth and offer the sandal and flowers along with the incense.
77.10-12 He should wave the lights and offer various kinds of food and fruits along with appetizing dishes and tambula (set of betel leaves, areca-nut,cardamom and other spices). Such kind of worship should be done in three sessions (sandhis); or this may be done in two sessions or in one session. The offering of bali and daily festival may or may nor be done. The daily worship should be performed up to the offering of lights or that of ‘naivadya’ according to the resources available. On the occurrence of solstice, visu, conjunction of months and eclipse, snapana-abhiseka should be performed according to the directions set forth earlier.
77.13-15 With regard to the arrangement of kalasas for snapana, the Bhakta should be invoked in the kumbha placed at the center. The Eight Murits starting from the Earth should be invoked in the kalasas arranged in the first enclosure. In the second enclosure which is outside the first one, sixteen vowels should be invoked and worshipped. In the third enclosure, all the consonants starting from ‘ka’ should be invoked and worshipped. This kind of arrangement is for the foremost type of snapana. Snapana with two enclosures is of medium type and the snapana with only one enclosure is of inferior type. In this way, the snapana should be performed in each month. If sufficient resources are available, the festival may be performed in a large scale on the birth-day of the Bhakta or that of the sponsor-devotee.
77.16-18 Every year, the yearly-festival (festival to be conducted on the day in which consecration took place) and marriage-festival should be conducted. Such festival may be conducted associated with bali and homa for 9, 7, 5, 3 days or one day. This may be conducted as preceded by the raising of the festival-flag or as desired by the sponsor-devotee. In all such festivals, the Bull should be drawn in the flag-cloth as associated with the drawings of eight auspicious forms appropriate to the caste of the Bhakta.
77.19-21 The beating of the great drum and the procession of the astra-raja pertaining to the Bhakta should be done in the night. The bali associated with flowers and other concerned substances should be offered to Indra and other dik-palakas. The Guru should do the ritual known as ‘adhivasana’ (staying inside the shrine during the night of the day in which the festival commences). The sacrificial pavilion should have been constructed as associated with the altar according to the prescribed directions. The pavilion may be with nine or five fire-pits in the east and other directions. The sacrificial pavilion should be beautified with all kinds of auspicious forms and designs and with auspicious fresh sprouts.
77.22-23 O, the twice-born sages!, two icons of the Bhakta, a big one and a small one, should be made. These should be properly made and consecrated according to the prescribed rules. Having tied up the protective thread in the wrist of the icons, the Guru who has known well the process of installation should design a sthanḍila with paddy and other recommended grains, place a ghaṭa (vessel) at the center of the sthanḍila and worship it according to the direction given in the chapter dealing with installation of the image.
77.24-26 The foremost Guru should worship daily the Bhakta and the Deities invoked in the kumbha with sandal, flowers and other substances and at the end he should perform the fire-ritual. O, the foremost among the twice-borns!, the materials for the fire ritual should be collected according to the directions set forth in the chapter dealing with the installation. He should offer the bali both in the evening and the morning, keeping the small icon near the fire-pit. At the end of the offering of bali, the festival should be conducted making use of all kinds of decorative garlands and such other materials.
77.27-29 The procession known as ‘parivesa-krama’ should be done accompanied by the groups of singers and dancers. At the end, the Guru should perform the ‘curnotsava’ and then he should perform ‘tirthavari’ festival. During the festival, worship should be done daily to the main image of the Bhakta in the sanctum sanctorum in a grand scale and special manner. At the end of the festival, snapana-ablution for the main image and other related images should be done with pure and consecrated water. O, the Lords of the Sages!, if sufficient materials and resources are not available, the festival may be performed simply without raising the flag, offering of bali and fire-ritual.
This is the end of the 77th chapter titled “Directions for the performance of daily worship of the Bhakta” in the Great Tantra called Uttara Kamika.
Chapter 78: Directions for the Installation of Trident
78.1-3 Now I speak about the process of installing the Trident preceded by full exposition on the lineaments of that weapon. The Trident may be designed with gold, silver, copper, iron or stone and such other materials. Having divided the breadth or length of the main shrine into nine equal parts, three parts may be taken to be the height of the trident. This is for the foremost type. To take two parts as the height is of medium type. Taking one part to be the height is of inferior type. If each one of these three is divided into eight equal parts, nine varieties of height could be obtained for each type. Thus, the sthapathi can get innumerable measures for the height. Or, the height of the Trident may be determined based on the height of the entrance-pillar.
78.4-5 Starting from two hasta-measure of the pillar and increasing by one hasta each time to reach four hasta-measure of the pillar, the height of the Trident may be taken in three ways. The foremost Guru should determine the number of ‘jatyamsa’ as explained before and add that value to the arrived height. The height of the Trident arrived in this way should be divided into 30 to 100 equal parts. One part may be added or reduced to determine the height of the Trident in order to ascertain that exact height of the Trident is compatible to aya, vyaya and other four factors.
78.6-8 Trident is of two kinds – laukika and yaugika. The Trident whose height is determined so as to be compatible and favorable to the chief sponsor, Ruler of the country or the village or city is known as laukika. The Trident whose height is set right according to jatyamsa, set right to be compatible to the height of the image of Siva’s form or determined based on ‘manaṅgula’ measure is known as yaugika. It is held that laukika type of Trident could be considered as common to the images of Siva installed in other temples also. Likewise, the yaugika type of Trident may be held to be common to the shrines or the sponsor in other cities. Such type of Trident may be given to other temples during the period of festival and other such occasions or offered to other images of Siva.
78.9-13 Having divided height of the Trident into ten equal parts, one, two or three parts may be taken to be the height of middle leaf (middle pike); or, the measure held as two parts may be divided into ten equal parts and eight parts may be taken to be the height of the middle leaf. Or, with each of these different measures, one out of four parts may be added. The height of the Trident should be divided into 30 equal parts and two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight or nine parts may be taken to be the breadth of the middle leaf. Having ascertained these measures (of height and breadth), the middle leaf should be designed so as to be with a square mould at its bottom. Having left out the measurement of the middle leaf, the sthapathi should design a circular form on both sides of the middle leaf so that the two circular designs are at equidistance from the central thread of the shaft and they are with the same measurement of the middle leaf. The thickness of the leaves on both sides should be equal to that of the middle leaf.
78.14-17 The length of the shaft may be increased by four, five or six parts. The central reference line should be conceived from the middle leaf, in front and back of the shaft.The bottom and tip of the leaves on both sides of middle leaf should be designed so as to very thin. The length at the bottom of the shaft should be increased by half of the base of the middle leaf. The bottom of the leaf should be provided with ornamental designs and the tip of the leaf should be designed to be thin, corresponding to its bottom. O, the Lords of Sages!, the length and the tip of the side-leaves may be increased by half or one-fourth of the thickness of the tip of the middle leaf. In the same way, the tip and the middle part of the leaf should be provided with special designs and engravings.
78.18-20 In the same way, the back side of the bottom should be decorated with designs and engravings and even the leaves on both sides of middle leaf should be designed uniformly. The length of the leaf may be 4,5,6,7, 8 or 9 parts. Thickness of the leaves may be from half-yava to one aṅgula, increasing the measure from half-yava each time by one-fourth of a yava-grain. Thickness at the middle of the central leaf should be gradually decreasing up to both sides of that leaf.
78.21-23 At the bottom, middle and tip of the middle leaf and in the same way in the side-leaves also, a bud-like design should be designed so as to be in projected state. This bud-like design may be with a measure of 1, 2 or 3 yava-grains. The length of the middle leaf should be divided into fifteen parts. The height of the base at the middle leaf may be held to be equal to 1 part, or 2 or 3 parts out of the 15 parts. Half of this height should be given to the base of the side-leaves. Half of this measure should be the breadth of the base of the middle leaf. The breadth of the base of the side-leaves should be twice the breadth of the base of the middle leaf.
78.24-26 Different kinds of decorative engravings should be made at the bottom of the base of the leaves. Below that base, a moulding known as ‘palika’ should be designed, its length being equal to half of the length of the middle leaf. Or, the height may be equal to one part out of eleven parts of that length. Or, the measure obtained in this way may be increased to be double or triple. Having divided the breadth of palika into nine equal parts, each part may be increased by half, one fourth or three-fourth. The measure obtained in this way should be given to the thickness of the palika. O, the twice-born sages!, below the palika, two lotus-like mouldings, the diameter of each lotus being one part of the nine parts or the diameter may be taken as desired by the sthapati.
78.27-30 Below the palika, a moulding in the form of ‘ghaṭa’, its height being three-fourth of the height of palika, should be made. O, the Lords pf Sages!, the neck of the ghaṭa should be with the circumference equal to the half of its height. The mouth of the ghaṭa should be equal to three-fourth of half of its height. Below the ghaṭa, two naḍis should be made, their height being equal to that of the ghaṭa, leaving a space of one part between them. With the same height, a moulding known as ‘hirika’ should be made. O, the twice-born sages!, below the hirika, danḍa should be designed in orderly way. The thickness of danḍa should be equal to one-fourth or three-fourth of its height. If the Trident is to be made with metal, thickness of the danḍa should be half of its height. Or, the thickness may be given in such a way that it presents a beautiful and elegant appearance.
78.31-33 At the bottom of danḍa, a lotus-like moulding should be made, its measure being equal to that of the middle leaf, or equal to half of the height of the middle leaf; or its measure may be ascertained in nine different ways by dividing the height of the middle leaf into eight equal parts. Diameter of the lotus should be equal to the breadth of the middle leaf and its height should be equal to three-fourth, half or one-fourth of that breadth; or, its height may be ascertained by dividing the height of the middle leaf into ten equal parts and considering the intermediary measures available through these parts. Below the lotus, three mouldings known as paṭṭika should be made, their height being equal to two parts obtained earlier. Based on the same parts, mouldings in the form of lotus, circle,square and in the combined form of circle and square should be made.
78.34-36 Or, paṭṭika may be designed above the hirika, its measurements being equal to those of hirika. A lotus-like design should be engraved at the center of the middle leaf so as to appear as its face. Or, the Bull-vehicle may be engraved at the base of the middle leaf. The length of the middle leaf should be divided into nine equal parts and taking 1,2,3 or 4 parts as the height, the form of Devi may be designed at the base as associated or not associated with Bull-vehicle. Or, the forms of other Deities or those of Lokapalas and their weapons may be designed around the base according to the desired and compatible measurements.
78.37-38 Or, a design in the form of asvattha-leaf may be made in the four corner-directions above the palika. Designs of four garlands may be made around the palika or such designs may be left out. The top portion of the danḍa should be made so as to appear like the face of taṅka-weapon. In the four corner-directions above the palika, the form of Vrusabhesvara may be designed.
78.39-41 In the making of Trident with stone or clay-mixture, there are some specific directions to be observed and they are told now. Thickness of danḍa should be equal to that of the middle leaf or equal to three-fourth, half, one-fourth or one-eighth of the thickness of the middle leaf. Or, both thickness and height may be taken to be equal to the breadth at the center of the middle leaf. With the thickness mentioned for the danḍa or for the leaf, decorative engravings and other such designs should be made at the base and below the middle leaf.
78.42-44 The form of Trident may be depicted over the surface of a stone whose form is rendered to be in perfect square. On left side of the Trident, the form of Bull may be depicted. Or, the form of Rudra adorned with matted hair may be drawn in the front side. On the right side of Rudra, a danḍa should be drawn and the Trident should be depicted above the danḍa. The Trident designed in this way may be installed in front of the Bull, on the rear side of the Bull or in front of the Bali-piṭha. The installation should be done in such a way that the Trident stands there firmly and immovable. The process of ceremonial installation of the Trident is now told.
78.45-47 In order to make the wooden Trident, the Guru should select proper timber from the sacrificial trees recommended for making the vehicles and weapons and the Trident should be perfectly designed. For the proper installation, the Guru should fix an auspicious time defined by the lunar mansion, day and such other factors and commence the process with the ritual known as ‘aṅkurarpana’ (offering of fresh sprouts). The learned Guru should prepare the specific bond known as asṭa-bandhana ( mixture of eight ingredients) by pounding with the pestle, mixing of the pieces in the way prescribed for the mixing of different dhatus and such other deeds. Ratna-nyasa and ‘nayanonmilana’ need not be done for the Trident. If the Trident is to be installed so as to be immovable, then ‘nayanonmilana’ should be done for the Deities designed in and around the danḍa of the Trident.
78.48-50 If various forms of Deities are designed in the Trident, then nayanonmilana should be done for each Deity. Having purified the Trident with clay and other substances, the Guru should take it in procession around the village and then keep it immersed in the river or tank-water. Then he should bring it back to the sacrificial pavilion constructed according to the measurements detailed before and provided with nine or five fire-pits or with only one fire-pit. Having sent off the sthapati with due honors, the Guru should arrange for the feeding of the learned brahmins and perform the vastu-homa for the sake of purity of the pavilion associated with altars, sthanḍilas and couch made with five kinds of soft materials such as feathers of birds and other things.
78.51-53 Then, having brought the image of the Trident inside the shrine, the Guru should bathe it according to the directions given earlier. He should tie up the protective thread over the lotus-design or over three leaves and also over the Bull. Then he should place the image over the couch to be in recumbent posture in such a way that its head is on the east and facing above. Reciting the astra-mantra, he should cover the image with white cloth and red cloth.
78.54-56 On the head side of the Trident, he should place sivastra-kumbha covered with cloth and deposited with lotus-flower made of gold. He should worship Sivastra meditating on the form of Sivastra. The form of Sivastra appears with four arms; head adorned with crescent; appears with four faces beautified with three eyes; with matted hair blazing like the flames of fire, with mouth associated with protruding teeth; with the hands holding sakti-weapon, trident, abhaya-mudra and varada-mudra; appears with excessive brightness of thick bunches of lightning; appears dreadful, roaring like the thunder. He is ever at the age of sixteen. Being with great effulgence, He is placing His feet to be in svastika-posture.
78.57-59 If the Trident is provided with the form Siva and Sakti, then he should place siva-kumbha and vardhani-kalasa. If it is with Bull, then he should place a kumbha for the Bull also. Having arranged kumbhas, he should worship them in the due order. In the eight kalasas arranged around the siva-kumbha and vardhani, he should invoke eight weapons – vajra and others – and worship them. By means of nyasa, he should unify the Tattvas, Tattvesvaras, Murtis and Murtisvaras with the forms of Siva, Sakti and Vrusabha. O, the foremost and celebrated Gurus!, the Guru should do the nyasa of Tattvas and Tattvesvaras on the middle of the danḍa and on the leaf at the top.
78.60-64 The Murtis pertaining to the Trident are as told before. Vajra and other weapons are the Murtisvaras of the Trident. Having identified the Murtis and Mutisvaras with the Trident in this way, the Guru should identify all the Deities with various parts of the Trident, reciting the mantra pertaining to each Deity and meditating on the pervasiveness of these Deities. He should invoke Rudra and unify Him with the middle leaf; Brahma with the leaf on the right side; Visnu with the leaf on the left side; Parvati with the palika; Sanmukha with the body of the kumbha; Vinayaka with the mouth of the kumbha; Sastru with the top of the danḍa; Adityas with the middle portion of the danḍa; Canḍesvara with the base of the danḍa; Laksmi with the east petal of the lotus; Seven Matrus with the south petal; Jyesṭa with the west petal; Durga with the north petal; 8 Vasus, 11 Rudras, 12 Adityas, Asvini Devas and 18 Ganas – all of these Lords with the base of the danḍa.
78.65-68 At the end, having performed all the sacramental rituals to the fire-pits, the Guru should perform the fire-ritual. He should offer the oblations with faggots, clarified –butter,cooked and consecrated rice, parched paddy-grains, sesame and white mustard. The faggots got from the palasa, udumbara, asvattha and vaṭa trees should be offered in the fire-pits designed in the main directions starting from the east. The faggots of palasa should be offered into the fire-pits in other directions. The wise Guru should delight Siva and His retinue Lords with the oblations offered in the main fire-pit. He should offer oblations for Parvati, into the fire-pit designed in the east; for Brahma, into the south fire-pit; for Visnu, into the north fire-pit; for Sanmukha, into the fire-pit designed in the west; for the Adityas, into the south-east fire-pit.
78.69-71 He should offer oblations for Vighnesa into the fire-pit in the south-west; for Madana into the fire-pit in the north-west; for Canḍarudra, into the fire-pit in the north-east; for Laksmi, into the fire-pit in the east; for the Matrus, into the fire-pit in the south; for Jyesṭa, into the fire-pit in the west; for Durga, into the fire-pit in the north. Oblations should be offered to these Deities and Saktis along with the Lokapala of each direction. The number of oblations to be offered is as told before. Rudras, Adityas, Vasus, Asvini-devas and eighteen Ganas should be delighted by means of one oblation for each into the main fire-pit.
78.72-73 The Guru should offer oblations for Vrusaruḍha and other forms of Siva as done before. He should identify Vajra and others and all the Devas with lotus design of the Trident as told before. The Guru should perform the ablution for the Trident with the consecrated water of the kalasas pertaining to each Deity. For the movable Trident, the Guru should perform snapana-abhiseka and offer naivedya abundantly and perform the festival related to the installation.
78.74-75 All those details which have not been explicitly told here should be known from the chapter dealing with common installation. The foremost devotee who is instrumental for the installation of the Trident in this way would experience all the worldly enjoyments here in this world and attain the final liberation at the cessation of his worldly life.
This is the end of the the 78th chapter titled “ Directions for the Installation of Trident” in the Great Tantra called Uttara Kamika
Chapter 79: Directions for the Installation of Royal Throne
79.1-2 O, the celebrated twice-born Sages !, now I will instruct the dirctions related to the installation of royal throne (simhāsana, ). Listen to these instructions. The royal throne is recommended for the Deities and other Devas, Kings and others who are on par with them and the human beings who are with greatness and celebrity. Śiva and other Gods belog to the group of Devas. Kings are categorized in many ways. The first one is known as Cakravartī; the second one is known as Atirāja; the third one is known as Narendra. Their significant and characteristic position is now explained.
79.3-5 The one who rules over and protects well the entire stretch of land surrounded by all the four great oceans is specifically called Cakravartī; the one who rules over seven states is specifically called Atirāja; the one who rules over and protects three states is specifically called Narendra. In this way there are many other kinds of rulers such as Pārṣṇeya and other specific and important rulers. Their thrones are also of many varieties.
79.6-7 The height of the throne is of foremost type if it is equal to one-third of the height of entrance of the royal assembly hall. Its height equal to half the height of the entrance is considered to be the lowest. If the difference between the foremost and the lowest height is divided into eight equal parts, nine different heights may be obtained. Or, the nine different heights may be obtained by dividing the height of the entrance into eight equal parts, if this height is held to be the height of the throne. For the Narendras, the height of the throne may be held to be equal to the height between his foot and shoulders, thighs, navel or the mid-point between his breasts. For all other kings, the height of the throne is to be held as equal to the height between the foot and the hip.
79.8-10 Starting from 15 aṅgulas and increasing by 2 aṅgulas gradually so as to reach the maximum measure of 55 aṅgulas, the width of the throne should be decided. Taking one of these measures obtained in this way, the width of the throne may be held to be equal to that selected measure. Or, either one-third of this measure or half of that may be held as the width of the throne. Then, the difference between the full width and its one-third should be divided into four equal parts and that between the full width and its half should be divided into four equal parts. Thus, nine different measures for the width could be obtained. For the Rulers who are in lower rank, the lower measures should be applied and for those who are in the superior rank, the greater measures should be applied.
79.11-13 The seat of the lion-throne may be in the shape of square or rectangular. For the Devasand the Chakravartis, the seat may be in the shape of perfect square or circle. Increasing the witdth by one part out of eight parts of the side each time so as to reach the measure equal to twice the width, the length of the seat may be decided. Or the increase may be in terms of aṅgulas. Starting from two aṅgulas and increasing by two aṅgulas each time so as to reach the maximum of twice the measure of the width, the length of the seat may be decided.Thus the process of ascertaining the length has been told.
79.14-16 For the thrones meant for the Devas, the length between the two legs should be measured from the exterior of the two legs;for the Cakravartins, it should be measured from the middle of the legs; for all others, it should be measured from the interior side of the legs. Or, all these three measurements could be applied for all. Now the breadth of the legs is explained. Starting from one and a half aṅgula and increasing by half aṅgula each time, the breadth may be up to five aṅgulas.The projection of bhitti at the base of the leg should be one-fourth of the thickness of the leg. The bhitti should be designed so as to be with beauty and elegance. (bhitti-projected surface of the bottom part of the leg)
79.17-20 With the divisions mentioned before, one, three, five, seven or nine units of the basic aṅgula may be added to increase the width. The legs of upapīṭha should be formed so as to be within the limits of the legs of the throne. The corner legs and the legs in between them should be designed so as to be like the legs of lion. They should be beautified with various kinds of carvings such as makaras and nakrakas (crocodiles), leaves and others. The upapīṭha should be designed below in such a way that its height is in excess of one, two, three or four matras of one-third or one-fourth of the width. The features of the form of upapīṭha are now told.
79.21-22 The materials suitable for the making of thrones are of two kinds – those got from the non-moving existents and those got from the moving existents. The thrones may be made of earth, stone, trees, ivory,metals or stucco. Those made of stones are not recommended for the humans. For the Devas, those made of all these materials mentioned here are suitable.The thrones made of ivory and wood should be beautified with carvings and depictions designed with gold and gems.
79.23-26 The lion-throne is stated to be the excellent one for the king. Its features and lineaments are told here. Out of 27 divisions of the height of the throne, the following parts should be designed: projection (kshepaṇa), cyma (paṅkaja)), neck (kaṇṭha), cane-like band (vetra), neck (gala), cyma (padma), torus (kumuda), flat-fillet (paṭṭa-paṭṭikā), cane-like band (vetra), cornice (karṇa), cane-like band (vetra), fillet (kampa), leaf (patra), pigeon (kapota), cane-like band (vetra), cornice (karṇa), drift (nidrā), fillet (masūra) and base-band (ādhāra paṭṭikā). The proportionate measurements in terms of aṅgulas for these are: seven, one, half, one, half, one, four, half, half, one and a half, half, one-fourth, half, half, half, one and a half, half. Such type of throne is called Bhadraka.
79.27-30 When the height is conceived to be with thirty divisions, it should be portioned in the following way: four, half, one and a half, one and a half, one and a half, half, half, one, half, eight, one and a half, half, half, half, half, half, one and half. According to these proportionate measurements, the following parts (of the legs of the throne) should be designed: padma, kampa, karṇa, kampa, padma, vājana, padma, kampa, karṇa, kaṇṭha, nidrā, paṭṭikā, aṅghri, uttara paṭṭikā, nidrā, padma, kapota, āliṅga, antarita and prati-vājana. This type of throne is called Saumya associated with 21 parts.
79.31-33 If this type of throne is associated with projection (bhadraka) in its front and back, it is called Saubhadram. If it is associated with projection in its left side and right side, it is called Śrīvaham. For all these five kinds of thrones, a specific part known as vīji should be designed at its back side. O, the foremost twice-born sages!, both along the width and height masūra, ādhāra-paṭṭikā and veśinī should be designed , their width and height to be with the desired measurements. In the middle of the width, makara-toraṇa should be designed according to the proportionate divisions made along the width.
79.34-36 A design depicting a shower of lotus flowers should be made in the middle of the arch (toraṇa). The two ends of the toraṇa should be shown with projection beautified with the band associated with the carving of a crocodile. They should be shown as resting on the head of serpent placed above the muṣṭi-bandha design. O, the twice-born sages!, this should be furnished with various ornamental designs such as kampa, kshepaṇa, kapota and other parts; should be beautified with the depictions of makaras,nakrakas and such other forms. The rods, linch-pins and bands made of iron should be used for joining the parts firmly.
79.37-39 The thrones should be decorated with bands and such other items made of gold and with gems. The tree of the celestial world, kalpa vṛuksha, made of gold should be formed behind the arch. This kalpa-tree should be associated with the hood of ādisesha-serpent designed with different kinds of gems. Or, the kalpa-tree alone may be designed, leaving out the viji (serpent-design). Or, the throne alone may be designed without viji and toraṇa. Lotus and other parts should be furnished below the upapīṭha associated with five major parts.
79.40-41 In the sub-pedestal associated with 12 parts, four mouldings from padma should be designed. In the upapīṭha associated with ten parts, the kaṇṭha should be with the proportionate measurement of four parts; two kshudra kampas , each one with one part; two maha kampas, each one with two parts.
79.42-43 In the upapīṭha with a height of fourteen units, twelve mouldings should be designed: pāduka, paṅkaja, vetra, kampa, kaṇṭha, vetra, vetra, padma, vājana, padma, kampa and vetra. These should be with the following measurements respectively: one, one, half, half, half, half, half, one, one, half, half and half. In this way, the upapīṭha should be elegantly designed.
79.44-46 In the upapīṭha with a height of 28 units, the following parts should be designed: jagati, paṅkaja, kaṇṭha, vetra, kaṇṭha, padma, kumuda, padma, kampa, vetra, kaṇṭha, vetra, kampa, nidrā, kapota, āliṅga, antarita, prativājana, masūraka and ādhāra-paṭṭika. The proportionate measurements of these are respectively: one and a half, one, half, half, half, half, half, half, half, half, half, seven, half, three parts each one with half, half, one-third, half,and half. This type of upapīṭha is called Śrīkāntam.
79.48-52 If the same kind of upapīṭha is furnished with karṇa, vājana, nidrā, vedikā, padma and kampaka below the neck part with the proportionate measurements of two, half, half, half, one and half respectively, it is called Vṛuttakānta. Such upapīṭha should be designed when the height is divided into 12 equal parts. When the height is divided into 19 equal parts, the following proportionate measurements should be marked: half, one and a half, four, half, one, half, three-fourth, half, half, four, half, half, half, half, half and one. With these measurements, the following parts should be designed: pāduka, padma, netra, padma, kumuda, padma, vājana, padma, vetra, padma, vājana, padma, vetra and vājana, starting from the base. Then, upapīṭha with eight limbs (designs) is explained.
79.53-54 Two, one, half, four, half, half, three , half – with these proportionate measurements the following parts should be designed: pāduka, padma, vetra, padma, vetra, vājana, paṭṭika and vājana. If these eight designs are made when the height is divided into eleven equal parts, that is called ‘aṣṭāṅga-upapīṭha’. Such upapīṭḥa may be designed in all kinds of throne.
79.55-56 Many details with regard to adhiṣṭhāna , upapīṭha and all other parts explained earlier in the chapter dealing with the lineaments of temples and palaces should be considered and applied by the Guru who is meticulous about the well settled rules for the making of thrones. For the thrones meant for the Gods and Devas, the legs should specifically be in slightly curved form. The base of the legs should firmly be joined with the recommended parts of the throne.
79.57-60 Along the breadth and along the height, above and below the kaṇṭha-part, kampa, padma, and kampa should be designed so as to be associated with ornamental carvings,applying the proportionate measurement of four. All the seven ornamental parts should be designed in such a way as to present a beautiful and elegant appearance and to be like a perfectly finished circle. Starting from one yava-grain, increase or decrease in the proportionate measurements may be done in order to bring out elegant appearance. All seats which are considered to be auspicious for the thrones should be made. The projection of particular parts specifically mentioned may be in the measurement of one-fourth, half, three-fourth of the ascertained measure or may be equal to that measure. Likewise, the drift of particular parts should be made according to the need for effecting the beautiful and elegant appearance.
79.61-62 The process of calculating the āyā and other factors for all kinds of thrones is now told. Circumference, breadth, length, height and all such features of the thrones should be governed by the āyā and other factors. The measurement taken for the breadth and others should be multiplied by 3, 4, 4, 5 and 9 and divided by 7, 5, 27, 8 and 4 respectively. The remainder gives the value of āyā, vyaya, nakshatra, yoni and vāra.
79.63-66 Śāka, sāla, panasa, śimśapa, candana, tinduka, arjuna, tāla, nimba, devatāru, likuca, sahakāra, kuṭaja, kaṭphala, śrīparṇī. jātivṛuksha, four kinds of kshīra-vṛuksha, jambhū, madhūka, vaikaṅkata – these are the trees to be selected for the making of thrones. These should be procured according to the directions set forth for such activity. Having designed the lion-throne in this way, the Guru should perform the sacramental rites.
79.67-69 The auspicious time for the installation should be ascertained according to the process explained earlier so as to be beneficial for the yajamāna (for whom the throne is made). Having sent off the śilpi with due honors, the Guru should perform the sprinkling of consecrated water and declaration of the auspicious time and purpose. Reciting the hṛudaya-mantra, he should sprinkle pañcagavya over the throne; he should purify it with the water mixed with eight kinds of earth, sprinkle the kuśa-water and bathe it with pure water, reciting the pañca-brahma-mantras. Then he should bathe it with the water mixed with sandal paste.
79.70-71 Having placed the throne over the staṇḍila, he should cover it with new cloth and kuśa-grass. Then he should worship it with sandal, flowers, incense and others reciting the mantra pertaining to the throne. Om sim simhāsanāya hum phaṇṇanah – this is the mantra pertaining to the throne. The foremost Guru should worship it, reciting the mantra in this way.
79.72-74 Having designed a staṇḍila in front of the throne, he should perform the fire-ritual with the recommended faggots and other substances. Faggots, clarified-butter, cooked and consecrated rice, sesame and parched paddy-grains should be offered as oblations. Reciting the mūla-mantra of the throne, the Guru should offer the oblations for one hundred and eight times. Then, having offered the consummate and final oblation (pūrṇāhuti), he should sprinkle the consecrated water contained in the śānti-kumbha and worship the throne with sandal, flowers and other substances as done before.
79.75-76 At the end, the Guru should lead the King who has taken the ceremonial bath well, who is attired with white cloth, adorned with crown and all kinds of royal ornaments and insignia and who is accompanied by parasol and cāmaras towards the throne and enable him occupy the seat, in the auspicious muhūrta and lagna. The consecration of the throne pertaining to the king should be done in this way. With regard to the consecration of the throne meant for the Gods and Devas, there are some specific directions.
79.77-79 Mūrtis, Mūrtiśvaras, Tattvas and Tattveśvaras should be invoked and identified with the throne and the fire-pit. The oblations should be offered with the accompaniment of all the mantras related to āsana- from the ādhāraśakti to śivāsana. Eight kalasas should be placed in all the eight directions and the main kumbha should be placed between the east and the north-east. These kalasas should be furnished with gems, new cloth and such other essential materials. The āsana should be worshipped in the middle with āsana-mantra; the eight directional deities should be worshipped around with the mantra pertaining to each deity.
79.80-84 Having worshipped well in this way in the beginning of the event, the Guru should perform the fire-ritual. Having pleased the āsana-mantras, he should perform pūrṇāhuti at the end. Having identified the mantras related to the āsana with the lion-throne, the Guru should install the śivāsana-mantra invoked in the main-kumbha in the middle of the seat. Having bathed well the directional deities around the seat with the consecrated water contained in each kalasa, the foremost Guru should worship them with sandal, flowers and other substances reciting the mantra pertaining to each deity. Having bathed well Lord Śiva at the center of the seat, he should perform the worship in a special way. Exactly at the arrival of auspicious muhūrta and lagna, the Guru should mount the Lord of all Devas over the lion-throne. Then, the yajamāna should worship and honor the Guru with new clothes, gold-ring and other valuables. He should offer the sacrificial fees to the Guru according to his resources, position and capacity.
This is the end of the the 78th chapter titled “Directions for the Installation of Royal Throne” in the Great Tantra called Uttara Kāmika
Chapter 80: Directions for the Consecration of Temple Chariot and Others
80.1-2 Now I explain the details concerned with the making and consecration of temple-chariot and other vehicles preceded by their characteristic features and lineaments. Based on the number of wheels , the chariot is said to be of many different kinds. Three-wheeled, four-wheeled, five-wheeled, six-wheeled, seven-wheeled, eight-wheeled and nine-wheeled- these are different kinds of chariot. The vehicle provided with two wheels is called śakaṭa.
80.3-5 The width of the exterior of the main support (bhāra) should be three, four, five, six, seven, eight or nine spans (vitasti). The measurement of its length is to be held as detailed here. O, the foremost twice-born sages!, the additional support (upadhanam) is called akshottara. It should be designed to be in the form of potikā. It should be with the thickness of bhāratāra. The length should be in excess of half, three-fourth or one-fourth of the breadth of the support (bhāra). Its interior measurement may be decided in six ways.
80.6-8 O, the twice-born sages!, the part known as akshottara should be designed in this way below the support. Wherever the joining of the bhāra and akshottara is to be made, it should be done with flat-pins, nails in small size, nails in large size , all of them made of iron to be with sharpness according to their size, should be driven firmly. For the sake of protective strength of the axel, these nails should be driven in the middle and two sides of akshottara, in such a way that the whole length of them has gone into the holes. The head of the linch- pins should be in many different sizes, beginning from half of their length.
80.9-12 The akshottras strengthened by the iron flat-nails and round nails should reach down up to the rim of axel. Whether the wheels are in odd number or in even number, each wheel should be made strongly in this way. Or, having left out the head-part, a small portion of the nails may be cut out and they may be driven below the axel. In order to provide a drift above the axel, upadhāna (additional base) should be made. In order to provide upadhāna and drift, the axel should be cut out along its rim. The exterior width of the support should be divided into sixty equal parts. With the measurement being equal to sixty or to be in excess of one and three-fourth of sixty arrived by increasing by one aṅgula each time, the length of the base should be held.
80.13-15 Both in front and back of the base, half of the width should be increased by one part out of eight parts. In its length side, it should be increased by half or three-fourth of one part. Equal to this increase, the upabhadra should be increased in front or in the both sides. The measurements of the base and upabhadra should be maintained according to the rules given for the legs. O, the first-born śaiva-sages!, the front and the back of the bhadra may suitably be increased. The bhadra alone may be designed in this way or the front of the bhadra may be designed in a special way according to the desired measures.
80.16-20 The seat for Brahma may be designed above the bhāra or it may be left out. Both the bhadra and upabhadra should be with equal measurements or one of them may be with increased measurement. If the measurements given to bhadra and upabhadra of the chariot are added together, the sum of them should be equal to the length of the bhāra. Joinings should never be made in the bhāra.The bhāra and akshottara may with 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 divisions along the length and 2,3,4 or 5 divisions along the breadth. Above the bhāra and akshottara, the height may be with two to nine divisions. Half of the nīvraka part may be increased by 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 digits or by the desired units to maintain the strength of the nīvraka. The increased measure should be given in between the bhāra and akshottara. Or it may be given to the front, back or middle of the bhāra as desired by the sthapati.
80.21-24 The upper part of each axel should be provided with five bands which should be without any breakage along its length. The width of the axels which are meant for bearing the weight of all upper parts may be held in different ways, beginning with four parts and ending with eight or ten parts. The diameter of the interior (inner hole) of the cakra-nemi may begin with one part and end with ten parts, increasing the measure by one part each time. The same should be maintained for the thickness of cakra-nemi. The measurement of the spire in its outside should be equal to the measurement of the nemi of the support (bhāra). O, the foremost Gurus!, the length of the axels should be held according to all the measures mentioned above. The axels may be designed so as to be in circular or angular form.
80.25-29 The wheels should be constructed so as to be firmly fixed with the part known as ‘pañca-grāhi’ (a protective part made with the mixture of five metals) at their middle. The essential five parts of the wheels may be made with suitable wood or iron. The thickness of the wheels should be according to their diameter. The measurements of the wheels should be decided based on the exterior measurement of bhāra. Such measurements may be less than or greater than 1, 2,3, 4, 5 or 6 aṅgulas. The thickness of the wheels may be from two parts to eight parts of the bhāra. The navel part of the wheel may be with a measure greater than the hub by 1, 2 or 3 aṅgulas. O, the twice-born sages!, the outer navels also should be made in this way. In between the inner and outer nemis (navel) spokes should be fixed. The base and front part of the spokes should be thin and sharp, provided with 1, 2 or 3 projections. The number of spokes may be from 24 to 64, the increment being eight each time.
80.30-32 O, the foremost sages!, the charioteer may be designed to be in the form of Lord Ṣaṇmukha, Nandīśvara, Brahma, Viṣṇu or Indra. The upapīṭha should be designed above the bhāra and its proportionate measurements are told here. Increasing the measure by one part each time, the measurement of upapīṭha may be from one part to sixteen parts. The projection of upapīṭha should be adjusted to be equal to one part out of ten parts of the exterior measure of the bhāra. The outer measure may be increased from one part to six parts.
80.33-36 The Guru should divide its height into 29 equal parts. Three, one, five, one, nine, one, three, three-fourth, one, one – with these measures, the following parts should be designed starting from the base: upāna, padma, kampa, kampa, karṇa, kampa, padma, vājana, kampa and netra. These may be increased or decreased by one-fourth, half, three-fourth of 2, 3 or 4 divisions of the height. Those parts which are to be as projections or drifts should be designed so as to bring out beauty and elegance by adjusting the measures.
80.37-39 The upapīṭha and all other constructions mentioned for the temple should also be applied to the making of chariot. All the four corners, the middle, bhadra,upabhadra and the neck should be beautified with ornamental designs such as guḷikā, small pillars, images depicting various episodes mentioned in the purāṇas and others. The upabhadraka should be made so as to be equal to the height of upapīṭha. The portion above the upabhadraka should be thickly and firmly covered with wooden planks. The wooden planks and the middle of the bhāra should be furnished with pillars and such other ornamental designs.
80.40-42 The portion between the wooden planks and the middle of the bhāra should be furnished with designs of lotus-buds associated with stem. The length of the stem may be 2, 3 or 7 aṅgulas or above this measurement. This could exceed by one-hundredth part. The root (bulb) of the stem may with a height of four parts. It should be with a thickness of one part out of eight parts and it may be in circular form or octagonal form. Its front part (tip) should be provided with vaktra, kumbha, maṇḍi and two gaṇḍikas so as to occupy 6 parts to 12 parts.
80.43-45 The padma should be associated with wooden plank and a lotus-bud should be designed above this. The diameter of the bud should begin with four parts and end with eight parts, the increment being one part each time. Its interior should be according to the diameter. Its breadth may be three-fourth of that measure or may be equal to that. The tip of the bud should be thin and it may be set within a circular maḍala or octagonal maṇḍala. Or, it may be shown as associated with well-blossomed petal in its outside. O, the twice-born sages!, the ornamental workings in the exterior and the interior should be done in this way.
80.46-49 The vājana (fillet) should be made above the bhāra so as to be associated with a small projection. An upapīṭha should be designed above the vājana so as to reach the level of gala-part; it should be provided with many kinds of ornamental designs and a projection according to the desired measurements. Or, instead of making two vājanas, one vājana may be provided. O, the twice-born sages!, all these should be made with timber got from the recommended trees. In the portion above the gala, a unitive band (sambhanda) and a viṣṭaka should be designed. Two pañcagrāhis which are meant to join the parts firmly should be made by the experts. Both the ‘sambhanda’ and viṣṭaka may be with the desired thickness and breadth. These may be applied to the bottom of the bhadra, to the top of the bhadra or to the whole form of bhadra.
80.50-52 An upapīṭha should be made above the antar-vājana ( small fillet gone inside between two parts above and below) up to the level of gala. Small pillars should be provided above the upapīṭha. Two wooden planks should be fixed above such pillars. Two viṣṭakas associated with pañcagrāhi should fittingly be joined there. Same designs should be given above the top of bhadras. Thus, the designs which are to be provided in the interior of the chariot are told. An adhiṣṭḥāna should be made above the upapīṭha and its dimensions are told here.
80.53-56 The height of adhiṣṭhāna may be equal to that of upapīṭha; or, it may be half or one and a half of the height of upapīṭha. As explained earlier, in between the maximum and minimum heights, six kinds of measurements of the height should be ascertained. One of these six measures should be taken as the height. Total height, thus arrived, should be divided into 28 equal parts. With the proportionate measurements 10, 3, 1, 7, 1, 2, 1 and 3, the following parts should be designed: padma, karṇa, padma, kumuda, padma, vājana, danta-gala and kampa. Thus, mahāvājana should be designed constituted of all the eight parts mentioned above. This should be designed according to the directions given for the making of upapīṭha with a slight decrease or increase in the measurements. The drift and projection should be made in the same way.
80.57-59 Either upabhadra or bhadra may be designed in between the adhiṣṭhāna and upapīṭha. O, the twice-born sages!, the frieze of pillars should be made above the adhiṣṭhāna. The height of pillars may be equal to that of adhiṣṭhāna or twice that measurement. Or, nine kinds of measurement may be obtained by dividing the difference between the two. Or, one out of eight parts of the height of adiṣṭhāna may be added to this. All parts of this section should be beautified with ornamental designs such as gulikā, small pillars, images depicting various episodes mentioned in the purāṇas, frieze of serpents, lions, groups of dwarf-demigods and pillars. The interior of this part should be strengthened well by the small pillars and linch-pins.
80.60-63 An entablature should be designed above the frieze of pillars and their proportionate measurements are told now. The ornamental designs should be provided covering a height which starts from three parts and ends with nine parts, the increment being one part each time. If the height of the entablature is divided into sixteen equal parts, the following parts of it should be made: uttara, vājana, nidrā, kapotam, āliṅgam, vājanam and prati-vājanam. These should be respectively with the following proportionate measurements: 3,1,2,7,1, 1 and 1. The drift and projection should be designed at relevant parts as explained in the section dealing with the construction of temple.
80.64-67 These are the directions given for the chariot known as Bhadra associated with single storey. The height from the base may be reduced up to the top of pillar or that of bhadra- part. Reduction may be done on the two sides, starting from one part and ending with six parts. The upa-bhadraka may be designed so as to be without the drift. The process of constructing a single-storyed chariot has been told. The chariot associated with two storeys and more than two may or may not be constructed. The height of entablature for the two storeyed chariot may be equal to the height of the basement pillar or its height may be from six to thirty parts of that height. The entablature should be provided with aṅghri and kapota. The chariot having three storeys and more than that should be constructed in the same way.
80.68-70 The upper storey should be covered strongly and compactly with the wooden planks made of timber got from the recommended sap-filled trees. The planks may be with a thickness of one aṅgula or with desired thickness and they should be with much strength. Both the bhadra and upabhadra should be covered in this way. Both the drift and projection should be provided to these according to the directions told earlier. The pillars should be provided to the pāda-type of chariot and entablature should be provided to the mañca-type of chariot. Instead of drift and projection, the sthapati may carve a straight channel along the plumbline.
80.71-73 If the chariot is multi-storeyed, there are some specific parts to be made. In order to mount the image of the God, steps should be provided to be in the likeness of the flight of steps given to the storeyed buildings. O, the celebrated sages!, in the front or in the back or both in front and back, the flight of steps should be constructed compatible to the length and breadth of the bhadra. Entrance should be provided to the bhadra designed in each storey. The flight of steps should be made according to the directions given earlier for such construction. Having left out upa-bhadra, the flight of steps may be provided to the bhadra or bhadrānta (interior of the bhadra).
80.74-77 Having left out all these mentioned above, the upapīṭha alone may be made above the bhāra. Above the upapīṭha, there should be shrine for the God. Or, having left out the upapīṭha, masūraka alone may be designed. These are the workings to be done in the exterior side. Now, the essential workings to be done in the interior are told. In the interior side of the frieze of pillars, kampa should be designed and over that kampa, row of small pillars should be provided. Above this, an upper-kampa and strong band should be made by the experts (sthapatis). An entablature should be made above this and upon the top of entablature, pañcagrāhi may be provided or it may be left out. In each storey, many viṣṭaras should be provided.
80.78-80 Many wooden rods made to be in the likeness of the beam of a balance as desired by the sthapati, their number being odd or even, should be fixed. Above this, posts called jayanti should be fixed and they should be covered compactly with planks. Fillet known as viji should be made above this to be with desired thickness and height. All these parts and designs should be joined firmly with various kinds of linch-pins, flat-nails, pañcagrāhis, rods, small linch-pins, removable and adjustable nails, headless nails, curved nails, curved flat-pins and such others.
80.81-83 The chariot, the construction of which has been detailed so far, may be provided with toraṇa (arch) or such toṟaṇa may be left out. If the chariot is to be provided with pādakūṭa in its lower part, the measurements of such part are now told. It should begin with four yavas and end with eight yavas, the increment being half-yava each time. The length of the pedestal may be more than three aṅgulas. The maximum length should be three aṅgulas and four to eight yavas. The breadth of the leg should begin with four aṅgulas and end with thirty-six aṅgulas, the increment being four each time. The pāda should be designed according to the directions told for the construction of temple.
80.84-86 The pillars should be designed so as to be associated with spires, kumbhas and such other designs at their base and the top. They should be provided with multiple nīvras; multiple planks should be inserted in between the pillars. The base of the pillars and viṣṭaras which are under the tālā-part should be joined well. In the same way, the seat should be joined firmly with nālas and dhārakas. An entablature should be designed above the pedestal in such a way that it becomes fit enough for the arrangement of lūpas. The arrangement of lūpas should be done in the same way as explained for the making of śikhā (spire).
80.87-90 The roof should be covered compactly with tiles made of gold, silver, earth, copper or strong woods and other parts of the chariot also should be covered well. It should be with odd number of stūpis (finials). The chariot, the making of which has been told now, should be governed by the rules related to auspicious āyā and other factors. The calculation of āya and others related to the chariot is now briefly told. The breadth, length, or addition of both the breadth and the length should be considered for the chariots based on skala-pada (vāstu maṇḍala). For other chariots, either the circumference or the height may be taken to ascertain āyā and others. The taken measurement should be multiplied by 3, 3, 4 and 4 and divided by 7, 5, 27 and 7 respectively. The remainder denotes āyā, vyaya, nakshatra and vāra. To find out the value of tithi, the measurement taken should be multiplied by 3 and divided by 30. This is the process of calculating āyā and other factors for the chariots. It is declared here that other kinds of chariots known as śakaṭa, śibika and others would be auspicious if they have been designed to comply with the rules related to auspicious āyā and other factors.
80.91-93 O, the foremost twice-born sages!, now the process of installation of the chariot is explained. Having sent off the sthapati with due honors, the Guru should sprinkle the consecrated water over all parts of both exterior and interior. Then he should sprinkle cow-urine and cow-dung and pure water over the chariot; then he should sprinkle water-drops with kuśa-grass and mixture of five substances got from the cow. Then he should sprinkle the consecrated water contained in the kalaśa kept for puṇyāha-vācana and sprinkle the astra-water. Then, he should worship the chariot with sandal, flowers and other substances. After this, he should tie up the protective thread (kautuka) around the lotus-bud designed in the chariot, reciting the hṛudaya-mantra.
80.94-98 Contemplating the presence of Tattvas, Tattveśvaras, Mūrtis and Mūrtiśvaras over the full form of the chariot, the Guru should cover it completely with a new cloth. Then he should conceive the presence of various Gods in the concerened parts of the chariot: Sun and Moon in the wheels in the right side and left side respectively; Viṣṇu in the axles; Ādhāraśakti in the bhāras (supports); Vṛuṣa in the upapīṭha; Ananta (serpent Adiśeṣa) in the ādhāra; Dharma and others in the lower row of pillars; Adharma and others , in the upper row of pillars. The lower-knot and upper knot of the lotus stem should be conceived below and above the planks and entablature. The presence of well-blossomed eight-petalled lotus should be conceived above the prastara itself. Having invoked the presence of nine Śaktis in the pericarp of the lotus, he should ideate the śiva-seat there, reciting the mantra pertaining to śivāsana.
80.99-103 The presiding Lord of the temple chariot are: Brahma, Viṣṇu, Rudra and Īśvara. Lord Sadāśiva is the presiding Lord of śikhara and Lord Śiva is the presiding Lord of stūpi. Anateśvara is the presiding Lord of the lotus-bud. All details about such Lords who preside over all other parts of the chariot are to be known according to the details given in the section dealing with the temple and the presiding Deities. Having designed a sthaṇḍila in front of the chariot, the Guru should arrange nine kumbhas, all of them wound around with thread and adorned with cloth, gold coin, bunch of darbha-grass (kūrca) and such others. Śiva should be worshipped in the middle kumbha; Sun, in the east kumbha; Moon, in the south-east; Viṣṇu in the south; Ādhāraśakti in the kumbha placed in the south-west; Vṛuṣabha in the west; Ananteśvara in the north-west; Dharma and others in the north; and all other Gods, in the kumbha placed in the north-east. Having worshipped all these kumbhas with sandal, flowers and other substances, the Guru should perform the fire-ritual.
80.104-106 Nine or five fire-pits should be constructed around the nine kumbhas or around the chariot. If the fire-pit is to be one only, it should be constructed in the east. Having invoked the concerned Deities to be present over the sthaṇḍila and having done all the essential sacramental rituals for the fire-pit and the fire raised in that, the Guru should delight Lord Śiva associated with His retinue Lords , offering the oblations into the main fire-pit for one hundred times. Sun, Moon and other Deities should be pleased by offering the oblations into their respective fire-pits. If only five fire-pits are constructed, the officiating priest should offer the oblations for two Deities in each fire-pit. If there is only one fire-pit, then the Guru should offer the oblations into that fire-pit meant for him to make all the Deities pleased and delighted.
80.107-109 The oblations should be made with faggots, clarified-butter, cooked and consecrated rice, parched paddy-grains and sesame. The Guru should offer the oblations for the Tattvas and Tattveśvaras. Palāśa, udumbara, aśvattha and vaṭa – these are the faggots to be offered into the fire-pits in the main directions starting from the east. Śami, apāmārga, śrīvṛuksha and pippala – these are the faggots to be offered into the fire-pits in the corner directions starting from the south-east. The faggots of palāśa tree should be offered into the principal fire-pit. In the second day, the Guru should worship al the kumbhas and the fire raised in the fire-pits and offer the consummate oblation (pūrṇāhuti) at the end.
80.110-112 The chief-priest, assisting priests (called mūrtipas or mūrtidhāras), daivajña and sthapati should be honored duly with sacrificial fees and valuable gifts. Upon the arrival of ascertained auspicious muhūrta, the Guru should perform mantra-nyāsa and pour the consecrated water contained in the kumbha over the relevant part of the chariot to which each kumbha is meant. All other common details not mentioned here should be known from the chapter dealing with sthāpana (installation and consecration). The devotee who, having constructed the chariot in this perfect way, performs the consecration would evolve into a possessor of wealth and a great rich person and he would attain all the fruits desired by him. Having consecrated the chariot in this way, the Guru should arrange for the first procession of the chariot.
This is the end of the 80th chapter titled “Directions for the Installation of Temple Chariot and Others” in the Great Tantra called Uttara Kāmika
Chapter 81: Lineaments of Karaṇas (karaṇa- materials, tools, instruments, forms and such others)
81.1-4 I will instruct the lineaments of various materials and tools briefly in the due order. The faggots got from the sacrifial trees are considered to be the best and they should be with a length of twelve aṅgulas. They should be with bark, equally cut and devoid of bendings and knot-like protrusions. The viṣṭaras should be made of thirty darbha-petals so as to be thick , strong and compact and they should be up to the length of a hand. They should appear as a plaited hairs and be like lengthy, thin and cylindrical bars. The paridhis pertaining to a fire-pit should be made of twigs got from the trees from which the faggots belonging to that particular fire-pit have been collected. Their length should be equal to the length of viṣṭaras; should be straight and with sharp tips. They should be free from the crooks and bendings and should be cut uniformly. There should be four viṣṭaras and four paridhis for each fire-pit.
81.5-8 With three darbhas and increasing the number of darbhas by one each time up to the maximum of thirty-six darbhas, the kūrca may be made. The length of the kūrca should be thirty-six aṅgulas. The length of the knot should be eleven digits and its width should be from half aṅgula to two aṅgulas, increasing the measure by one-fourth of an aṅgula each time. The knot should be in such a way that it is formed in clockwise direction. The measurement of the śikha (the ending part of the knot) should be two digits. This measurement may be increased up to nine digits, the increment being one digit each time. There are other types of kūrcas which may be designed to be without the knot and the front tip. Brahma, Viṣṇu and Rudra are the presiding Lords of kūrca at its bottom, middle and front part.
81.9-13 Utkūrca, adhaḥkūrca and antaḥkūrca – these are other types of kūrcas. Utkūrca should be used to perform ‘nyāsa’. Adhaḥkūrca should always be used downwards. Utkūrca is capable of effecting peaceful and settled state (śānti). Adhaḥkūrca is capable of effecting plenteous state and strength. The antaḥkūrca should never be done by the Ācāryas since they are used in malevolent rituals and black magic. With two, three, four or five darbhas, the pavitra may be made so as to be with base and front. The knot of the pavitra should be formed to be in clockwise direction. Or, the pavitra may be made so as to be without the knot. It should be with a ring at the knot and the ring should be formed in such a way that the pavitra is conveniently worn in the ring finger. Being associated with a perfect knot mentioned above, the pavitra should be very beautiful to look at. Īśvara is the presiding Lord of the pavitra, in its right side and at its bottom and front. The pavitra should necessarily be worn in the ring finger while performing the worship of Deities and other auspicious deeds. Instead of wearing the pavitra made of darbhas, the pavitra designed with gold may be worn.
81.14-15 Darbhamāla should be made with twenty-three darbhas; its length may be from 12 aṅgulas to 36 aṅgulas. The space between each darbha-rope may be with desired measurement. It should be with sufficient ‘lambamāna’ (darbhas in downward position). Thickness of the darbha-rope should be equal to that of the little finger. The ornamental rope may be made with the leaves of aśvattha tree so as to be charmful.
81.16-19 (Now, directions for the designing of toraṇa are told). The height of toraṇa (arch) may start from three hastas and end with fifteen hastas, the increment being three aṅgulas each time. Half of this measurement should be the width. Dividing the difference between the minimum and maximum measurement into eight equal parts, nine kinds of measurements may be obtained. Or the length, breadth and height of the toraṇa may be held to be equal to those of the entrance of the shrine. The measurement of the pillar and upper beam should begin with three aṅgulas and end with thirty aṅgulas, the increment being one-fourth of an aṅgula each time. For installation and such other activities, the toraṇa should be designed with the woods got from the sacred trees recommended for the sacrificial rituals.
81.20-23 In other places and other occasions, the toraṇa may be constructed with stone, bricks or wood. To erect the toraṇa, the ground may be dug up to the desired measurement and the spire may be with the desired height . Nine or five tridents should be fixed above the viṣṭara of the toraṇa. The length of the trident should start with seven aṅgula and end with fifteen aṅgulas, the increment being one aṅgula each time. Thickness of the trident should be decided according to the width and it should start from half-aṅgula and end with two aṅgulas, the increment being one-fourth of an aṅgula each time. Or, these tridents may be made with desired measurements. Now , directions for the making of aṣṭamaṅgala (eight auspicious forms) are told.
81.24-26 The length of the eight auspicious forms may be with a minimum of 9 aṅgulas and maximum of 36 aṅgulas, increasing the length by one aṅgula each time. One-fourth, half or three-fourth of the length may be the breadth. If the difference between the minimum and maximum length is divided into eight equal parts, nine kinds of measurement could be obtained. Thickness may start with one aṅgula and end with seven aṅgulas, the increment being one-fourth of an aṅgula each time. The maṅgalāṣṭaka (eight auspicious forms) may be designed with the woods got from the trees recommended for the sacrificial rituals or with the recommended metals.
81.27-29 Darpaṇa (mirror), pūrṇa-kumbha, bull, twin cāmaras, śrīvatsa, svastikā, śaṅkha (conch) and dīpa – these are the eight auspicious forms pertaining to Śiva. In the group of aṣṭamaṅgala pertaining to other Gods and Goddesses, the bull should be left out and the vehicle pertaining to each God or Goddess should be designed. The aṣṭamaṅgala pertaining to Śiva may be designed for the Devas or for those who have entered into monastic order. In the village and such other settlements or in one’s own house, the aśṭamaṅgala may be done. With the measurement ascertained according to the nakshatra of the yajamāna or to the aṅgula obtained from the finger-digits of the yajamāna (deha-labdha aṅgula), the eight auspicious forms should be made.
81.30-33 Mirror and other forms should be depicted according to the system of proportionate measurement. The details about such measurements are told now. The height of the forms may start from 5 aṅgulas and end with 25 aṅgulas, increasing the height by one aṅgula each time. The breadth should be decided according to the height. The mirror may be provided with supporting pedestal. It should be depicted so as to be with a height equal to three-fourth or half of the breadth of the mirror. The measurement of the pedestal of pūrṇa-kumbha should be held in the same way. The mirror should be shown as associated with flower-creeper whose length extends up to the outside of the mirror. In the same way, the bull-form should be associated with supporting pedestal. The bull may be shown to be in standing posture or in recumbent posture .
81.34-39 The śrīvatsa should be shown as associated with lotus-like pedestal below and with a parasol depicted above. The svastika should be depicted in the same way as it is depicted when the ruler or a monk enters into a village or city. The face of śaṅkha should be turned upwards when it is depicted for the creative order (sṛuṣṭi mārga) and it should be turned downwards when it is meant for the order of liberation (samhāra mārga). All these may be shown as being held by the ladies upon their head. O, the twice-born sages!, then listen to the presiding Devatas of these eight auspicious forms. The Sun should be worshipped in the mirror; Varuṇa, in the pūrṇa-kumbha; Vāyu, in the cāmaras; Sarasvatī, in the svastikā; Vimala, in the śaṅkha; Agni, in the dīpa; Lakshmī, in the lakshmi; Vṛuṣabha, in the bull. In this way, the Guru should invoke the concerned Devatas with the recital of mūlamantra pertaining to each of them. With regard to the twin cāmaras, one cāmara should be placed in the east and another one in the west. In the right and left side of the altar (vedikā), all other forms should be placed one by one in due order. Or, without making these eight forms, the Guru may worship the concerned Devatas in the place identified for each form.
81.40-24 Vajra, śakti, daṇḍa, khaḍga, pāśa, dhvaja or gadā, śūla, padma and cakra – these are the ten weapons (being held by the digpālakas). O, the foremost twice-born sages!, having left out the daṇḍa, the Guru may worship either dhvaja or aṅkuśa instead of daṇḍa. These weapons may be made with metal or woods got from the sacrificial trees. If these are to be made with metals, the bera-māna system of measurement should be followed. The Devas who are holding these weapons should be shown as keeping their hands in ‘añjali- mudra’ (two palms joined together and kept in front of the chest to express obeisance). Śakti and gada should be shown in female form. All other weapons should be shown in male form.
81.43-56 These forms should be made according to the proportionate system of ‘navatāla’. Vajra and other weapons should be shown as being held in the two hands kept above the head or the crown of the Devas. Their proportionate measurements should be based on ‘deha labdha-aṅgula’ The length should be 36 aṅgulas and the breadth should be 8 aṅgulas. Or, the measurement of the length may be with a minimum of 15 aṅgulas and maximum of 49 aṅgulas, increasing the measurement by two aṅgulas each time. If the forms are to be made with metals, these rules should be applied. If they are to be made with wood, the system of‘mātrāṅgula’ should be applied. The breadth of such forms may be in desired measurements.
81.47-49 If the materials, tools, instruments and others which have been used for many years in the temple and which are old are not available now, such tools should be newly made and they are considered to be supreme. O, the twice-born sages!, old materials may be got from other temples by paying sufficient amount. Such activity should be undertaken only upon the Guru’s order and direction. While taking possession of such materials, the Guru should perform the incantation of aghora-mantra for thousand times. O, the learned sages!, with regard to the usage of karaṇas (materials, instruments and such others), there is a specific rule. The directions for the making and usage of karaṇas to be used in a particular temple should be known from the same Āgama whose directions related to the location, time and rituals are followed in that particular temple.
81.50-52 In the performance of grand festivals and other specific rituals, those details which are not told in that Āgama should be taken from the other related Āgama. The weapons, images, instruments, tools and such others are considered to be supreme in a temple if they have been perfectly made specifically for that temple. Such karaṇas which have been made in another temple should not be taken and used in that temple mentioned before. Since the āyā and other factors of those karaṇas are not compatible to the Liṅga and other images of that temple, they are considered to be inauspicious as far as that temple is concerned. O, the foremost sages!, if those images and instruments which have been duly made and consecrated in another temple are compatible to the Liṅga and other images of that temple which is in need of such materials, they could be accepted for the performance of grand festivals and other important rituals.
81.53-54 In order to ward off the inauspicious effects which result from the displacement of the karaṇas from one temple to another temple, the Guru should perform śāntihoma by offering oblations of faggots, clarified butter and cooked and consecrated rice for one thousand times. Such fire-ritual should be associated with special ritual known as ‘prabhūta bali’ which should be performed with the recital of ‘hrasva-prāsāda mantra’ (prāsāda mantra associated with 10 or 12 kalas).
This is the end of the 81st chapter titled “Lineaments of Karaṇas” in the Great Tantra called Uttara Kāmika
Chapter 82: Directions for the Performance of Suddha Nrtta (suddha nrtta – adorable and pure dance)
82.1 The performance known as ‘saukhya karma’ (dance meant for happiness) should be done in the beginning and ending of installation, grand festival and daily festival. O, the twice-born sages!, now listen to the performance of such saukhya-karma according to the age-old tradition. This saukhya-karma should be performed by the Rudra-kanyas and it is of two kinds.
82.2-3 In order to bring out a pleased-state for Kausika, Rudra created the ‘apsara-kanyas’. In the lineage of apsaras which was continuing for a long time, the clan known as Rudra-ganika emerged . Being meritorious, they remain untouched by those born in mixed-castes. O, the foremost among the twice-born sages !, the same Rudra-ganikas are called Rudra- kanyas by some other wise people.
82.4-7 In the days of yore, I assumed a beautiful and auspicious form in order to perform a playful deed in the forest of ‘devataru’ and entered into the hermitage of sages. O, the twice-born sages !, having seen my beautiful form, the spouses of those sages living there got afflicted with love and uncontrollable mind. Being under the heavy spell of the god of love (Madana), they appeared with their hair, dresses and others loosened much. Even they were looked at by me with love, when they appeared with this love-stricken mind. At the very moment when I looked at them, they became pregnant. Those who were born of their pregnancy became known as Rudra-ganikas.
82.8-10 As soon as they were born, all of them assembled before me and asked me “ What could we do for the sustenance of our life?”. You listen to what I had said to them. “My worship is to be considered as the most supreme if it is associated with ‘saukhya’. The saukhya is nothing but suddha nrttam, the rules for the performance of which have been told in the scripture composed by Bharata. That suddha nrttam should be performed daily in my worship for the sake of my satisfaction and delighted state by those ladies born of such Rudra-ganikas associated with five kinds of Acaryas.
82.11-13 When they were instructed in this way the order of their life, they all prostrated before me. Having been initiated into this suddha nrtta system through diksha pertaining to this, they felt happy. I invited Nandi to be present there and asked him to bless them with diksha. He touched all of them on their head with the rattan-staff held in the middle of his right palm. Since they were initiated in this way, they came to be known as ‘Nandas’ in this world. Since they were touched by the danḍa (staff) of Nandi on their head, they became to be known as‘danḍinyas’ also. Siddha Nrtta should be performed only by those who were born of the lineage of these danḍinyas.
82.14-1 As related to them, there are five Acaryas, namely nartaka, mardaka, gayaka, vamsika and mauravika. They are all born in the lineage of anulomas related to all the four castes; they have taken sincere efforts in learning the naṭya-veda; they have known well about bhavanas, characteristics and grammar of songs, dance-performance; they are with good proficiency in playing the musical instruments; they are the knowers of the essence of various kinds of dance-performance; all of them are my devotees and all of them are bereft of all vices and shortcomings. Among them, Nartaka is considered as the foremost. He is well versed in naṭya-sastra.
82.17-20 The nartaka, by himself, is capable of performing the dance; and he is very meticulous in calculating and maintaining the unit of beat (taḷa) . Mardaka is the one who has taken assiduous efforts to be proficient in playing the malla instrument; who has been trained in and practising the suddha nrtta; and he is well trained in analyzing various aṅgas (sections) pertaining to the suddha nrtta. Gayaka is the one who has mastered the art of music and has achieved proficiency in the knowledge of seven musical notes (svaras); who is capable of singing various songs set in different ranges of svaras. Vamsika is the one who has same skill as mentioned above but he has mastered in playing the flute. During the performance of suddha nrtta, he plays the flute according to the differences in svaras such as udatta and others. The one who plays the maurava-instrument in the performance of suddha nrtta is known as mauravika.
82.21-23 Nartaka, Mardaka and others related to their function should be seated in the right side of the theater. Gayaka and Vamsika should be seated in the left side. The Mauravika should sit in the front side and play the murava-instrument during the performance of suddha nrtta. Even though all of them including the Rudra-ganikas are already initiated, it has been enjoined that initiation should be performed once again for them because of the present birth in this world. The process of such initiation is now told briefly.
82.24-26 The chief-priest should fix an auspicious date so as to be compatible to his own nakshatra to perform the initiation to them. The age of Rudra-ganikas should be from five to fifty. Those who are not born of the lineage of ganikas and those ganikas whose age is below five and above fifty are never fit for such initiation. A manṭapa should be constructed for the performance of suddha nrtta so as to be associated with all fine characteristics. The breadth of the manṭapa should be 33 hastas at maximum level. Reducing by 2 hastas each time, the minimum measurement for the breadth should be ascertained. Between the measures 33 and 17, three types of measurement namely the foremost, medium and inferior are available, being 3 measures for each type. Among these measures, each measure is of three kinds. Among the measures arrived in this way, the Acarya may select one according to his way of analysis.
82.27-28 Suitable measurements for the two manṭapas should be selected according to the order pertaining to three kinds, foremost and others. Or, the two manṭapas may be selected which are already built in a general way. Such manṭapas should be made use of according to various measurements starting from 10 hastas, for the sake of dance-performance. All manṭapas should be considered as of the nature of five kalas – nivrtti and others. At the center of the selected manṭapa, suddha nrtta should be performed according to the directions given in the sastras.
82.29-32 Having worshipped Lord Naṭaraja placed inside the manṭapa with essential paraphernalia such as sandal, flowers and so forth, the Guru should invite the Rudra-ganikas and sprinkle the water consecrated with pañcakshara and contained in the conch. Then, having written the pranava letter in front of the Lord, he should ideate a seat which is of the nature of the OM syllable. Then he should take the rattan-staff sprinkled with the recital of kavaca-mantra and place that staff in the middle of the seat in such a way that its front-end is facing the east or north. Then he should worship Nandi there with sandal, flowers and such other substances.
82.33-37 The Acarya, born in the lineage of Adisaivas, should adorn himself with new clothes, garland, head-dress, upper garment and beads of rudraksha; having besmeared his chest and shoulders with white sandal, he should wear a pavitra-ring in his right hand. Having received enough fees, from five niskas onwards, he should proceed to perform the rituals. Or, the competent disciple of this Acarya may do the work. Having taken the rattan-staff and holding it in his right hand, he should touch with it various parts of the ganika starting from the top of the head, with the recital of the mantra “sivaya namah”. All the ganikas should be touched in this way. Having worshipped the staff with sandal, flowers and other substances, he should touch them again with that staff. Putting the name ‘Nandi’ first, he should pronounce a specific name so as to be in the first case (such as Kamala, Gauri and so on) and add the name ‘Danḍini’ with that so as to be the last term. (The name would be, for example, Nandini Kamala Danḍini). The name given in this way is with such a greatness. “Let there be your dance according to the situations such as my great festival and others” – having pronounced my order in this way, he should strew a bunch of flowers on their hands.
82.38-39 Having taken all of them with him, he should approach the Guru; having asked them to be with folded hands depicting ‘anjali mudra’, he should offer them to his Guru. Then, having taken a bunch of flowers in his hands, he should offer them to Lord Siva. Consequently, they should perform various dances such as pañcapadi and others, the details of which have been explained by Sage Bharata and finally they should perform the saukhya nrtta in front of the main shrine for the delighted state of Lord Siva. In this way, the initiation for the ganikas should be done. Now, the initiation for the five Acaryas is told.
82.40-43 Having designed an auspicious and charming place either in the house of his Guru or in his own house, the chief-priest should worship Lord Siva along with His five avaranas in an elaborate way at the center of that beautifully designed place. He should place a kumbha adorned with new cloth and furnished with gold coin, coconut and others in front of the Lord and consecrate the water contained in the kumbha with the recital of pañcakshara. Then, he should sprinkle that consecrated water over the five Acaryas who were already taken the ceremonial bath and who are attired with white clothes with the accompaniment of pañcaksara mantra and touch the head of each Acarya with the bunch of darbha-grass. By this kind of initiation, they become empowered to do all the deeds related to the dance performance of the Rudra-kanyas.
82.44-46 First, I will tell briefly the process related to the entering of Rudra-kanyas into the temple. In the day before the date ascertained for the initiation, the Guru should perform the ritual known as ‘aṅkurarpana’ (offering of new sprouts). In any one of the four directions around the temple, two pavilions should be erected in such a way that they are facing the east direction. A pedestal (piṭha) should be designed according to the directions told for the construction of ‘bali-piṭha’. In both the pavilions, a fire-pit or a raised platform (sthanḍila) should be designed in front of the piṭha. In the night before the ascertained date, the Guru should invoke the presence of the concerned retinue Deities and Lord Siva and worship them.
82.47-48 Having offered flowers and other substances meant for honoring, the Guru should bring in four Rudra-kanyas. Such Rudra-kanyas should have done all the morning-activities such as washing the teeth, bath and so forth. They should have adorned themselves so that all parts of their body, such as face, neck, hands, waist and others appear beautiful. They should be associated with all kinds of features which enhance their auspiciousness. All the five acaryas should also appear with the concerned adornments and auspicious features. All of them should bow before Lord Siva and should be with settled and pure mind. The Guru should tie up the protective thread in their hands. All of them should perform ‘adhivasana’ (staying in the pavilion during the previous night). In the next morning, the following activities should be done.
82.49-50 Having stabilized the presence of the retinue Deities and Lord Siva in thousand vessels (kalasas) and others kumbhas, the Guru should worship them with sandal, flowers and other substances and complete the ritual with the offering of ‘prabhuta bali’. Having sent off the silpi with due honors from the manṭapa, he should besmear the sacrificial ground with cow-dung and sprinkle the consecrated water contained in the special kalasa meant for effecting auspiciousness. Then he should arrange for the feeding of the brahmins.
82.51-54 At the center of the central piṭha, the Guru should worship Lord Sadasiva or Lord Naṭaraja associated with Devi. He should worship the mantric-seat and the mantric body and limbs of the Lord formed of brahma mantras and aṅga mantras. He should be worshipped as associated with retinue Lords who are present in three enclosures. The Deities to be worshipped in the enclosures are told now. In the first enclosure, Nandi should be worshipped in the east; Brahma, in the south; Skanda in the west; Visnu in the north. In the second enclosure the eight dik-palakas, Indra and others, should be worshipped. In the third enclosure, the weapons of the dik-palakas should be worshipped. Rudra associated with Gauri should be worshipped in the east.
82.55-56 As detailed before, the Guru should worship Brahma along with his retinue Deities in the south direction. He should be worshipped as associated with Sarasvati and the dik-palakas. In the west-manṭapa, he should worship Skanda as associated with His Saktis and the dik-palakas. In the north, the learned Guru should worship Visnu as associated with lōka-palas in the outside enclosure.
82.57-59 Having purified the fire-pits with all the sacramental rituals and having invoked the presence of the Deity related to each fire-pit, he should worship each Deity with sandal, flowers and other substances, preceded by the ritual known as ‘naḍi-sandhana’ (uniting the fire-pit with its Deity invoked in the kumbha with the thread made of darbha or silk). He should offer hundred oblations for the main Deity and ten oblations for the retinue-deities. Having offered oblations with the faggots, clarified-butter, cooked rice and parched paddy grains, he should offer the consummate oblation (purnahuti). Having worshipped Naṭaraja, the Lord of the dance-hall, he should arrange for the performance of suddha-nrtta. O, the foremost twice-born sages!, this is the process, if the Rudra-kanyas have already been initiated. If they are not initiated earlier, the Guru should perform all the sacramental rituals related to the initiation and arrange for the suddha-nrtta.
82.60-63 At the beginning of the dance-concert, the Guru should be worshipped in a specific way. O, the twice-born sages!, the five acaryas and the Rudra-kanyas should be honored with new clothes, ornaments and such other valuable things in such a way that they become highly delighted, contended and love-filled. At the end of the daily festival, the specific dance known as ‘saukhya-nrtta’ should be performed by the Rudra-kanyas. Those Rudra-kanyas who have purified themselves with bath, adorned with precious ornaments and garlands designed with white flowers and such other things, being associated with the five acaryas should first worship the Lord of the dance-hall . The Lord should be worshipped as associated with three sets of retinue Deities, as explained earlier. Then, in front of such Lord, they should perform well the dance known as ‘suddha nrtta’, expressing nine kinds of sentiments (rasas) according to the exact content of the verses set to music.
82.64-65 Such dances should be performed in the morning, noon and evening for which Brahma, Visnu and Rudra are the presiding Deities respectively. In all the three sessions, the following three verses should be recited in due order.
82.66 “Let this handful of flowers – with abundance of mandara-flowers, associated with different kinds of pleasant aroma, with sweet sounds of much excited honey-bees, with the accompaniment of musical songs and whose divinity is much augmented by various kinds of rhythmic movements of our hands and legs – offered by me be for the delighted state of Brahma, seated on lotus-flower.”
82.67 “Let this handful of flowers – embellished with various kinds of sentimental expressions, supreme quintessence of both the musical song and sentiments, dances performed according to the Agama dealing with the systematic performance of dance and associated with the sweet warblings of much delighted and excited honey-bees – offered by me be for the delighted state of Purusottama (Visnu).”
82.68 “Let this handful of flowers – the divinity of which is much increased by various kinds of hand-gestures (abhinaya) displayed by Santanika and other groups of Rudra-kanyas who have been well initiated with relevant auspicious sacraments and by the heaps of various kinds of flowers – offered by me be for the sustained growth of this country and for the delighted state of Siva, the Supreme Lord.”
82.69 The dance-performance, being one of the offerings to be made at the concluding stage of worship done in a temple, should be performed by the initiated Rudra-kanyas in important occasions such as installation, sprinkling of consecrated water, expiatory rituals, averting the worst effects due to the appearance of bad omens and inauspicious natural events, festivals, snapana-abhiseka, monthly festival, fire-ritual, raising of the temple-flag, optional and specific kind of worship and such others. Such performance is specifically insisted.
This is the end of the the 82nd chapter titled “ Directions for the Performance of Suddha Nrtta ” in the Great Tantra called Uttara Kamika
Chapter 83: Directions for the Performance of graha-yajña (worship of nine Deities of the Planets and the fire-ritual)
83.1-2 Next, I will explain the details related to the worship and fire-ritual pertaining to the nine grahas (the Presiding Deities of the planets). For all people, all kinds of miseries and difficulties occur due to the movement of the planets, their positions and such other states. In order to alleviate the bad effects caused by the movements and positions of the grahas, such worship and fire-ritual should be done.
83.3-5 Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Rahu (ascending node) and Ketu (descending node) – these are the nine planets. The Deities of these planets should be worshipped with the mantras formed of their relevant names. The Guru should recite the mantras beginning with Om and ending with ‘namah’ and worship the Deities in the concerned manḍalas. The manḍalas should be circular, square, triangle, in the likeness of arrow, rectangle, pentagon, in the likeness of bow, in the likeness of winnowing-basket and in the likeness of flag. Then, the respective colors of the planets are told.
83.6-7 Both the Sun and the Mars are in red color; the Venus and the Moon, in white color; the Mercury and the Jupiter in whitish yellow; the Saturn, Rahu and Ketu are in the color of blue-black. Having contemplated the form and the color of each planet, the learned Guru should worship them with sandal, flowers and other substances in the prescribed order.
83.8-9 For all the Grahas, incense should be offered making use of guggulu ( a kind of fragrant resin) and light should be offered with sesame oil or ghee. The food prepared with sali-rice should be offered as naivedya. The sali-rice should be used even for the offering of ‘caru’ (oblation). The ghee got from the cow-milk should be used for the homa-ritual. The exact location for the worship of Grahas may be contemplated either in the fire-pit or in the sthanḍila.
83.10-11 The oblations should be made with the recommended faggots, sarpi (clarified-butter in liquid form) and sesame. Arka, palasa, khadira, apamarga, asvattha, udumbara, sami, durva and kusa – these are the faggots recommended for the oblations. Or, palasa and khadira may be used as the faggots for all the planets; even if these are not available, the samit prepared from the kusa-grass may be used for all the planets.
83.12 Or, the faggots got from the juicy trees highly recommended for the fire-ritual may be used. The main ladles, sruk and sruva, should have been made so as to be associated with the prescribed lineaments. Or, these may be designed with the leaves of palasa tree. At the end of the fire-ritual, the person for whom the graha-yajña is done should offer the sacrificial fees to the priest and his assistants.
This is the end of 83rd chapter titled “Directions for the Performance of Graha-yajña in the Great Tantra called Uttara Kamika
Chapter 84: Directions for the Offering of Protective-band
84.1-4 Now, I will explain the process of offering the protective band (rakshabandhana) to the Ruler which makes him fit to perform all the auspicious deeds needed for the benefit of the country. In the night before the auspicious day ascertained for the performance of the essential deeds by the king, the Guru should offer the protective band to him. The Guru, having purified himself with bath and others, should render his body to be in oneness with the form of Siva through the nyasa called ‘sakalikarana’. Having designed a raised platform (sthanḍila), he should place a vessel on it.Having sprinkled the consecrated water contained in the kalasa filled with white rice-grains over the sacrificial thread, bangle and ring, he should place them on the sthanḍila. Having designed the protective band and a flower with gold, he should sprinkle the arghya-water over them, reciting the astra-mantra and place them on the rice spread over the sthanḍila.
84.5-7 The foremost Guru should consecrate and energize them with sandal, flowers and other things and with the recital of relevant mantras, in due order. The flower to be placed on the head should be energized with isana-mantra; the sacred thread, with kavaca-mantra; the bangle, with hrdaya-mantra; the ring, with hrdaya-mantra; or, all of them may be energized with aghora-mantra; the protective band with hrdaya-mantra; the sacred vibhuti, with hrdaya-mantra. Having mixed the vibhuti with sandal, he should place it in the north-east.
84.8-9 From the center to the north side of the sthanḍila He should place the flowers and other things. He should place the tambula with the recital of tatpurusa-mantra. The bangle may be designed with gold or silver or simply with the front part of the darbha-grass. Having placed this either in the south-east or south-west, he should energize it with hrdaya-mantra.
84.10-11 Having covered all these with new cloth, the Guru should mount the plate in which the bangle and other things are placed over the elephant beautified with all sorts of adornments and arrange for its procession around the city. Upon the arrival of ascertained auspicious time, the Guru associated with the goldsmith, purohita and such other important officials, the brahmins and with all kinds of auspicious materials should approach the Ruler. The Ruler should have purified himself with bath and other deeds, besmeared his body with vibhuti, sandal paste and others, worn silken cloth around his waist and silken upper garment over his shoulders and adorned himself with all kinds of royal ornaments and all sorts of adornments. The Guru should lead the Ruler and make him sit on the lion-throne or on some other royal seat so as to face the east direction.
84.13-15 Having sprinkled the consecrated water contained in the vessel meant for the ‘punyaha’ (the specific ritual for effecting auspiciousness) over him, the Guru should place the flower on his head with the recital of the mantra mentioned before. Having offered all things to him, the Guru, facing the north direction, should tie up the protective band on his right hand, reciting the mrtyuñjaya-mantra. The foremost Guru should offer the sacred vibhuti to him reciting the sarvatma-mantra. Or he may do all these with the recital of isana-mantra and others according to the rules given in the Agamas.
84.16-17 Having recited first the Vedic mantra known as the brhatsama-mantra, the Guru should arrange various things such as the coconut fruits associated with parched paddy-grains and others around the sthanḍila and commence the rituals related to the pratisara-bandhana. At the end of this event, the King should honor the Guru, Goldsmith and Purohita.
84.18 Then, all the learned brahmins should be honored by him with the recital of auspicious statements and benedictions. Offering of pratisara should be performed according to the same directions for Siva, the holder of trident, for other Gods and for the people of all the four castes.
This is the end of 84th chapter titled “Directions for the Offering of Protective-band” in the Great Tantra called Uttara Kamika